Adenosine diphosphate


Adenosine diphosphate

Chembox new
ImageFile=ADP structure.svg
ImageSize=
IUPACName=
OtherNames=
Section1= Chembox Identifiers
CASNo=58-64-0
PubChem=197
SMILES=Nc1ncnc2 [n] (cnc12) [C@@H] 3O [C@H]
(COP( [O-] )(=O)OP(O)( [O-] )=O)C(O)C3O

Section2= Chembox Properties
Formula=C10H15N5O10P2
MolarMass=427.201
Appearance=
Density=
MeltingPt=
BoilingPt=
Solubility=

Section3= Chembox Hazards
MainHazards=
FlashPt=
Autoignition=

Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ADP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine.

ADP is the product of ATP dephosphorylation by ATPases. ADP is converted back to ATP by ATP synthases. ATP is an important energy transfer molecule in cells.

ADP is stored in dense bodies inside blood platelets and is released upon platelet activation. ADP interacts with a family of ADP receptors found on platelets (P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1), leading to further platelet activation. [Murugappa S, Kunapuli SP, "The role of ADP receptors in platelet function", "Front Biosci.", 2006, 11:1977-86] ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine receptors. The anti-platelet drug Plavix (clopidogrel) inhibits the P2Y12 receptor.

ADP is the end-product that results when ATP loses one of its phosphate groups located at the end of the molecule. [Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet] . 2005 [cited 2007 December 7] . Available from:http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html] The conversion of these two molecules plays a critical role in supplying energy for many processes of life. [Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet] . 2005 [cited 2007 December 7] . Available from:http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html] The deletion of one of ATP’s phosphorous bonds generates about the same amount of energy derived from human digestion of a single peanut, approximately 7.3 kilocalories per Mole of ATP. [Farabee, M.J. The Nature of ATP. ATP and Biological Energy [serial on the Internet] . 2002 [cited 2007 December 7] . Available from:http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookATP.html] ADP can be converted, or powered back to ATP through the process of releasing the chemical energy available in food; in humans this is constantly performed via aerobic respiration in the mitochondria. [Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet] . 2005 [cited 2007 December 7] . Available from:http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html] Plants use photosynthetic pathways to convert and store the energy from sunlight, via conversion of ADP to ATP. [Farabee, M.J. The Nature of ATP. ATP and Biological Energy [serial on the Internet] . 2002 [cited 2007 December 7] . Available from:http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookATP.html] Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used to fuel necessary growth and cell maintenance. [Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet] . 2005 [cited 2007 December 7] . Available from:http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html]

See also

* Nucleoside
* Nucleotide
* DNA
* RNA
* Oligonucleotide
* Adenosine triphosphate
* Apyrase

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • adenosine diphosphate — n ADP * * * see ADP * * * (ADP) a nucleotide, the 5′ pyrophosphate of adenosine, involved in energy metabolism; it is produced by hydrolysis of ATP and converted back to ATP by the processes of oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level… …   Medical dictionary

  • adenosine diphosphate — adenosine diphosphate. См. АДФ. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • adenosine diphosphate — [dī fäs′fāt΄] n. ADP1 …   English World dictionary

  • Adénosine diphosphate — Pour les articles homonymes, voir ADP. Adénosine diphosphate …   Wikipédia en Français

  • adenosine diphosphate — adenosine 5 diphosphate Abbreviation: ADP See: adenosine triphosphate …   Glossary of Biotechnology

  • adenosine diphosphate — (ADP; ah den o sĭn) The nucleoside diphosphate usually formed upon the breakdown of ATP when it provides energy for work …   Dictionary of microbiology

  • adenosine diphosphate — noun A nucleotide, the result of adenosine triphosphate losing a phosphate group in metabolism …   Wiktionary

  • adenosine diphosphate — /əˌdɛnəsɪn daɪˈfɒsfeɪt/ (say uh.denuhsin duy fosfayt) noun a compound formed when adenosine triphosphate stored in blood platelets releases a phosphate group triggering the release of metabolic energy; when damaged platelets release it, however,… …   Australian English dictionary

  • adenosine diphosphate — noun an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage • Syn: ↑ADP • Hypernyms: ↑nucleotide, ↑base * * * Biochem. See ADP (def. 1). [1945 50] …   Useful english dictionary

  • adenosine diphosphate — noun Date: 1938 ADP …   New Collegiate Dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.