Victorio (Bidu-ya, Beduiat; c. 1825 –
october 14 1880) was a warrior and chief of the Chihenne band of the Chiricahua Apaches in what is now the U.S. state of New Mexico.
He grew up in the Chihenne band (sometimes called Eastern
Chiricahua). There have been persistent rumors by non-Apaches that Victorio was part Mexican, but there is no actual evidence or reputable oral history to support this claim. There was also some speculation by non-Apaches that he or his band had Navajo kinship ties and was known by them as "he who checks his horse". Victorio's sister was the famous woman warrior Lozen("Dextrous Horse Thief").
In 1853 he was considered a chief or sub chief by the
U.S. Armyand signed a document. In his twenties, he began to ride with Geronimoand other Apache leaders. As was the custom, he became the leader of a band of Chiricahuas (sometimes also called Warm Springs or Mimbres) and Mescaleros and fought against the Army. From 1870 to 1886, Victorio and/or his band were moved to and/or left at least three different reservations, some more than once. His main request was to live on his traditional land. The Ojo Calientereservation was located in their traditional territory. Victorio and his band were moved to San Carlos Reservation in Arizona Territoryin 1877. He and his followers immediately bolted along with other Apache bands. Victorio was fairly successful at raiding and evading capture by the military.
Victorio was credited with leading the "
Alma massacre" involving a raid on United States settlers' homes around Alma, New Mexico, in April 1880. During the event several settlers were killed, and Victorio's warriors were fended off by the arrival of U.S. Army soldiers from Fort Bayard. [(nd) [http://www.huntel.com/~artpike/almamass.htm Alma Massacre] . Retrieved 6/11/07.]
In October 1880 while moving along the
Rio Grandein northern Mexico, Victorio and his band were surrounded and wiped out by soldiers of the Mexican Armyat Tres Castillos, in the municipality of Coyame del Sotolin the Mexican state of Chihuahua. Only some women and children escaped with their lives and ended up being sent with Geronimo to Florida, Alabama and Oklahoma.
Victorio in current culture
In the 1953 film "Hondo" starring John Wayne, an Apache chief named Vittoro, possibly based on the real-life Victorio, is a major character. The character of Sierra Charriba in
Sam Peckinpah's film " Major Dundee" (1965), played by Michael Pate, was based on Victorio. Turner Network Televisionmade the movie "Buffalo Soldiers" (1997) which featured Victorio, played by Harrison Lowe. It starred Danny Glover, Lamont Bentleyand was directed by Charles Haid.
In April 1980,
Earth First!, led by activist David Foreman, erected a monument near Alma, New Mexico, in the Gila Wildernessto honor Victorio's April 28, 1860 raid on the Cooney mining camp near Mogollon, New Mexico. There is a monument erected in 2003 in the city of Chihuahua, Chih., at the main Plaza commemorating him since he is considered a Chihuahuan.
Victorio appeared in some episodes of "Tex".
*cite book |last=Kaywaykla|first=James| editor=Eva Ball |title=In the Days of Victorio: Recollections of a Warm Springs Apache |year= 1972|publisher=University of Arizona Press |location=Tucson, Arizona |id=LCCN 73-101103
* page 127
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Victorio — (1825 – 14 octobre 1880) était un guerrier et chef des Apaches Chiricahua dans la région appelée aujourd’hui le Nouveau Mexique. Biographie Il fut élevé dans le groupe des Chihenne (parfois appelé les Chiricahua de l’est). Des rumeurs… … Wikipédia en Français
Victorio — (* um 1825 in Ojo Caliente im heutigen New Mexico; † 14. Oktober 1880 in Tres Castillos Hills in Mexiko) war ein Anführer der Chihenne Apachen, die die östliche Chiricahua Gruppe bildete. Von den Weißen wurde er Victorio genannt, er selber nannte … Deutsch Wikipedia
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