- Cahiers de doléances
The Cahiers de doléances (or simply Cahiers as they were often known) were the lists of grievances drawn up by each of the three Estates in France, between March and April 1789, the year in which the
French Revolutionbegan. Their compilation was ordered by King Louis XVI, to give each of the Estates – the First Estate (the clergy), the Second Estate (the nobility) and the Third Estate, which consisted of the bourgeoisie, the urban workers, and the peasants – the chance to express their hopes and grievances directly to the King. They were explicitly discussed at a special meeting of the Estates-Generalheld on 5 May 1789. Many of these lists have survived and provide considerable information about the state of the country on the eve of the revolution. The documents recorded criticisms of government waste, indirect taxes, church taxes and corruption, and the hunting rights of the aristocracy. [ Kagan, Donald "The Western Heritage-Seventh Edition" (Pg 631), 2001]
Cahiers of the First Estate
The cahiers of the First Estate reflected the interests of the parish clergy. They called for an end to
bishopsholding more than one diocese, and demanded those who were not noble be able to become bishops. In return they were prepared to give up the financial privileges of the Church. They were not, however, prepared to give up the dominant position that the Church held over the other two Estates. They did not intend to allow Protestantsto practice religion, and were still strictly only accepting of the Catholic religion.
Cahiers of the Second Estate
Among the three Estates, the Second Estates cahiers were possibly the most surprising. Many of them proved to be quite liberal in their opinions, 89% voting that they were willing to give up their financial privileges. Where up until now, they had been against the idea of the commoners entering their ranks (as shown by the Segur Ordinance) they were finally accepting of the fact that Academic Merit, rather than the position held by a man because of his birth, should be the requirements to hold certain offices (the offices included
Military, Administrative and Venal Offices). They also attacked the government for being out of date, and the injustice of the Ancien Regime.
Cahiers of the Third Estate
The cahiers of the Third Estate spoke out mainly against the financial privileges held by the two other Estates. They were both exempt from most taxes such as the church
titheand the taille(the main direct tax). They also wanted to have a fair voting system in the Estates-General. At the moment, they would be outvoted by the other two orders, who would combine their votes on any issue that suited them. They wanted double representation (so that they had 600, rather than 300 members representing them) so that they could have a chance in the voting. This would only be effective if they were voting by head, and not by order (otherwise their double representation would count for nothing)
ignificance to the Revolution
The writing of the Cahiers forced the people of France to think about the problems that France faced, and how they wanted them fixed. The political discussions that raged throughout France were a direct challenge to the current system, as they gave the people a voice, and subsequently the cahiers were used to guide the elected representatives in what to discuss at the Estates General. In essence, they added greatly to a revolutionary air of expectation of the Estates General.However its significance in terms of practicality was not massive, not many changes were implemented through this.
*Rees, Dylan "France in Revolution - Third Edition" Hodder Murray. (Pages 28-29), 2005.
*Kagan, Donald "The Western Heritage-Seventh Edition" (Pg 631), 2001.
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Cahiers de doléances — [ka je də dɔle ãs; französisch »Beschwerdehefte«], in Frankreich während des Ancien Régime die Hefte, in denen bei Wahlen zu den Generalständen Beschwerden und Wünsche der Wähler, nach Ständen getrennt, zur Vorlage beim König niedergelegt waren … Universal-Lexikon
Cahiers De Doléances — Cahier de doléances Article de la série Révolution française Causes Préludes L Assemblée constituante et ses suites (1789 1791) … Wikipédia en Français
Cahiers de Doléances — Cahier de doléances Article de la série Révolution française Causes Préludes L Assemblée constituante et ses suites (1789 1791) … Wikipédia en Français
Cahiers de doleances — Cahier de doléances Article de la série Révolution française Causes Préludes L Assemblée constituante et ses suites (1789 1791) … Wikipédia en Français
Cahiers de doléances — Cahier de doléances Article de la série Révolution française Causes Préludes L Assemblée constituante et ses suites (1789 1791) … Wikipédia en Français
Cahiers de Doléances — Die Cahiers de Doléances (Beschwerdehefte) sind die Anweisungen der Wähler an die Abgeordneten des Dritten Standes der Generalstände. Als der französische König 24 Januar 1789 seine Untertanen zur Wahl ihrer Abgeordneten für die Generalstände… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Doleances — Doléances Les Doléances sont des requêtes adressées par un tiers à une autorité politique ou religieuse essentiellement pour faire des remarques, ou pour exprimer un souhait. Cahiers de doléances en France Cahier de doléances de Saint Louis du… … Wikipédia en Français
doléances — ● doléances nom féminin pluriel (ancien français douloir, du latin dolere, souffrir, peut être avec l influence de créance) Plaintes ou réclamations, en général adressées par des subordonnés à un supérieur : Présenter des doléances. Plaintes et… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Cahiers — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Cahiers es una palabra francesa que significa cuadernos. Este término puede referirse a: Los cuadernos de quejas (Cahiers de doléances) que contenían las peticiones y quejas para los Estados Generales de 1789 y,… … Wikipedia Español
cahiers — ● cahiers nom masculin pluriel Mémoires, notes, journal : Les « Cahiers » de Montesquieu. Titre donné à certaines revues. Mémoires contenant les demandes, propositions ou remontrances qui étaient adressées au roi par un corps de l État. Cahiers… … Encyclopédie Universelle