- Fifth dynasty of Egypt
The Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title,
Known rulers, in the
History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty are as follows: Manethowrites that the Fifth Dynasty kings ruled from Elephantine, but archeologists have found evidence clearly showing that their palaces were still located at Ineb-hedj ("White Walls").
As before, expeditions were sent to
Wadi Magharaand Wadi Kharitin the Sinai to mine for turquoiseand copper, and to quarries northwest of Abu Simbelfor gneiss. Trade expeditions were sent south to Punt to obtain malachite, myrrh, and electrum, and archeological finds at Byblosattest to diplomatic expeditions sent to that Phoenician city. Finds bearing the names of a several Fifth Dynasty kings at the site of Dorak, near the Sea of Marmara, may be evidence of trade but remain a mystery.
Pharaoh Userkaffounded this dynasty is not known for certain. The " Papyrus Westcar", which was written during the Middle Kingdom, tells a story of how king Khufuof the Fourth Dynasty was given a prophecy that triplets born to the wife of the priest of Rain Sakhbuwould overthrow him and his heirs, and how he attempted to put these children -- named Userkaf, Sahura, and Neferirkara-- to death; however in recent years, scholars have recognized this story to be at best a legend, and admit their ignorance over how the transition from one dynasty to another transpired.
During this dynasty, Egyptian religion made several important changes. The earliest known copies of funerary prayers inscribed on royal tombs (known as the
Pyramid Texts) appear. The cult of the god Ragains added importance, and kings from Userkaf through Menkauhorbuilt temples dedicated to Ra at or near Abusir. Then late in this dynasty, the cult of Osirisassumes importance, most notably in the inscriptions found in the tomb of Unas.
Amongst non-royal Egyptians of this time,
Ptahhotep, vizierto Djedkare Isesi, won fame for his wisdom; "The Maxims of Ptahhotep" was ascribed to him by its later copyists. Non-royal tombs were also decorated with inscriptions, like the royal ones, but instead of prayers or incantations, biographies of the deceased were written on the walls.
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