- Burgundian Wars
Infobox Military Conflict
place=Lorraine and northwest
Duchy of Burgundy
notes=The Burgundian Wars were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Kings of France, later involving the
Old Swiss Confederacy, which would play a decisive role. Open war broke out in 1474, and in the following years, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was defeated thrice on the battlefield and killed in the Battle of Nancy. The Duchy of Burgundyand several other Burgundian lands then became part of France, while the Burgundian Netherlandsand the Franche Comtéwere inherited by Charles's daughter, and eventually passed to the House of Habsburg.
The general situation
The dukes of Burgundy had succeeded, over a period of about 100 years, in establishing their rule as a strong force between the
Holy Roman Empireand France. Their possessions included, besides their homelands of the Franche-Comtéand the Duchy of Burgundy, the economically strong regions of Flandersand Brabant, and also Luxembourg.
The dukes of Burgundy generally pursued an aggressive expansionist politics, especially in
Alsaceand Lorraine, seeking to geographically unite their northern and southern possessions. Having already been in conflict with the French king (Burgundy had sided with the English in the Hundred Years' War), Charles' advances along the Rhine brought him in conflict with the Habsburgs and especially emperor Frederick III.
Initially in 1469, Duke Sigismund of Habsburg of Austria assigned his possessions in the
Alsaceas a fiefdom to the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, to have them protected better against the expansion of the "Eidgenossen". Charles' involvement west of the Rhine gave him no reason to attack the confederates as Sigismund had wanted, but his embargo politics against the cities of Basel, Strasbourg, and Mulhouse, directed by his reeve Peter von Hagenbach, prompted these to turn to Bernefor help. Charles' expansionist strategy suffered a first setback in his politics when his attack on the Archbishopric of Colognefailed after the unsuccessful Siege of Neuss(1473–1474).
In a second phase, Sigismund sought to achieve a peace agreement with the Swiss confederates, which eventually was concluded in
Konstanzin 1474 (later called the "Ewige Richtung"). He wanted to buy back his Alsace possessions from Charles, which the latter refused. Shortly afterwards, von Hagenbach was captured and executed by decapitation in Alsace, and the Swiss, united with the Alsace cities and Sigismund of Habsburg in an "anti-Burgundian league", conquered part of the Burgundian Jura ( Franche-Comté) when they won the Battle of Héricourtin November 1474. The next year, Bernese forces conquered and ravaged Vaud, which belonged to the Duchy of Savoy, which was allied with Charles the Bold. In the Valais, the independent republics of the "Sieben Zenden", with the help of Bernese and other confederate forces, drove the Savoyards out of the lower Valais after a victory in the Battle on the Plantain November 1475. In 1476, Charles retaliated and marched to Grandson, which belonged to Pierre de Romont of Savoy, but which had recently been taken by the Swiss, where he had the garrison hanged or drowned in the lake despite their capitulation. When the Swiss confederate forces arrived a few days later, his army suffered a devastating defeat in the Battle of Grandson, and he was forced to flee the battlefield, leaving behind his artillery and many provisions and valuables. Having rallied a new army, he was again defeated by the confederates in the Battle of Morat. Charles the Bold fell in the Battle of Nancyin 1477, where the Swiss fought alongside an army of René II, Duke of Lorraine.
With the death of Charles the Bold, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. The Flemish territories of the Dukes of Burgundy subsequently became a possession of the Habsburgs, when Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who would later become
Holy Roman Emperor, married Charles' only daughter Mary of Burgundy. The duchy of Burgundyreverted to the crown of Franceunder king Louis XI. The Franche-Comté initially also became French, but was ceded to Maximilian's son Philip in 1493 by the French king Charles VIII in the treaty of Senlis, in an attempt to bribe the Emperor to remain neutral during Charles's planned invasion of Italy. The victories of the "Eidgenossen" (Swiss Confederation) over one of the most powerful military forces in Europe at the time gained them a reputation of near invincibility, and the Burgundian Wars marked the beginning of the rise of Swiss mercenarieson the battlefields of Europe.
* Richard Vaughan, "Charles the Bold: The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy." London, Longman Group Ltd., 1973. ISBN
*Florens Deuchler, "Die Burgunderbeute: Inventar der Beutestücke aus den Schlachten von Grandson, Murten und Nancy 1476/1477", Verlag Stämpfli & Cie, Bern 1963.
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