- 180 degree rule
The 180° rule is a basic
film editingguideline that states that two characters (or other elements) in the same scene should always have the same left/right relationship to each other. If the camera passes over the imaginary axis connecting the two subjects, it is called crossing the line. The new shot, from the opposite side, is known as a reverse angle.
=Examples= In the example of a dialogue, if Ted is on the left and Bob is on the right, then Ted should be facing right at all times, even when Bob is off the edge of the frame, and Bob should always be facing left. Shifting to the other side of the characters on a cut, so that Bob is now on the left side and Ted is on the right, will disorient the viewer, and break the flow of the scene.
In the example of an action scene, such as a
car chase, if a vehicle leaves the right side of the frame in one shot, it should enter from the left side of the frame in the next shot. Leaving from the right and entering from the right will create a similar sense of disorientation as in the dialogue example.
An excellent example of sustained use of the 180 degree rule occurs throughout much of "
The Big Parade", a drama about World War One directed by King Vidor. In the sequences leading up to the battle scenes, the American forces (arriving from the west) are always shown marching from left to right across the screen, while the German troops (arriving from the east) are always shown marching from right to left. After the battle scenes, when the weary troops are staggering homeward, the Americans are always shown crossing the screen from right to left (moving west) and the Germans from left to right (moving east). The audience's viewpoint is therefore always from a consistent position, in this case southward of the action. Some directors do cross the line for dramatic effect.
Problems caused and solutions
Avoiding crossing the line is a problem that those learning filmcraft can struggle with. In the above example with the car chase, a possible solution is to begin the second cut with the car driving into frame from the "wrong" side. Although this may be wrong in the geographic sense on set, it looks more natural to the viewer. Another possibility is to insert a "buffer shot" of the subject head-on (or from behind) to help the viewer understand the camera movement [http://www.mediacollege.com/video/editing/transition/reverse-cut.html] .
In professional productions, the 180° rule is an essential element of a style of film editing called
continuity editing. The rule is not always obeyed. Sometimes a filmmaker will purposely break the line of action in order to create disorientation. Stanley Kubrickwas known to do this. The Wachowski Brothers and directors Tinto Brass, Yasujiro Ozu, Wong Kar-Waiand Jacques Tatisometimes ignored this rule also. [http://www.solutioneers.net/cinema/axis.htm#] The British TV presenters Ant & Decextend this continuity to almost all their appearances, with Ant almost always on the left and Dec on the right. Some filmmakers state that the fictional axis created by this rule can be used to plan the emotional strength of a scene. The closer you place the camera to the axis, the more emotionally involved the audience will be.
30 degree rule
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdyyuqmCW14 VIDEO on 180 degree rule]
* [http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v01/i07/Miles/comments/noticing/180degre.html Animated examples of the 180 Degree rule]
* [http://www.film.queensu.ca/250/250Continuity.html Some excerpts on the 30 Degree rule as well.]
* [http://www.cinencuentro.com/2007/09/21/tia-no-te-saltes-el-eje-un-corto-bastante-didactico/ Spanish shortfilm mocking the 180 degree rule.]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
180 degree rule — a screen direction rule that camera operators must follow an imaginary line on one side of the axis of action is made (e.g., between two principal actors in a scene), and the camera must not cross over that line otherwise, there is a… … Glossary of cinematic terms
180 Degree Rule — VP Keeping camera angles on one side of an imaginary line running through the set. Crossing the line can cause confusing discontinuity … Audio and video glossary
30 degree rule — The 30° rule is a basic film editing guideline that states the camera should move at least 30° between shots of the same subject. This change of perspective makes the shots different enough to avoid a jump cut. Too much movement around the… … Wikipedia
Net capital rule — The uniform net capital rule is a rule created by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) in 1975 to regulate directly the ability of broker dealers to meet their financial obligations to customers and other creditors. Broker… … Wikipedia
The Golden Rule — Not to be confused with the Golden Law or the Golden ratio. This term refers to the maxim do as you would be done by . For other uses, see Golden Rule (disambiguation). The maxim of the golden rule is exemplified in many Christian stories … Wikipedia
Simpson's rule — can be derived by approximating the integrand f (x) (in blue) by the quadratic interpolant P (x) (in red). In numerical analysis, Simpson s rule is a method for numerical integration, the numerical approximation of definite integrals.… … Wikipedia
Master's degree in Europe — This page refers to types of Master s degrees in Europe. Please see Master s degree for more information. In order to facilitate the movement of students between European countries, a standardized schedule of higher education diplomas, also known … Wikipedia
Film editing — is part of the creative post production process of filmmaking. It involves the selection and combining of shots into sequences, and ultimately creating a finished motion picture. It is an art of storytelling. Film editing is the only art that is… … Wikipedia
Continuity editing — Main article: Film editing Continuity editing is the predominant style of film editing and video editing in the post production process of filmmaking of narrative films and television programs. The purpose of continuity editing is to smooth over… … Wikipedia
Cutting on action — or matching on action refers to film editing and video editing techniques where the editor cuts from one shot to another view that matches the first shot s action. Although the two shots may have actually been shot hours apart from each other … Wikipedia