- State Council of Imperial Russia
State Council("Государственный Совет") was the supreme state advisory body to the Tsarin Imperial Russia.
Early Tsar's Councils were small and dealt primarily with the
external politics. Peter I of Russiaintroduced the Secret Council. Catherine I of Russiaintroduced the Supreme Secret Council. Its role varied during different reigns. Peter III of Russiacreated the Imperial Council on May 20, 1762("Императорский Совет"), or, formally "The Council at the Highest Court" ("Совет при высочайшем дворе"). It was dismissed shortly after the succession of Catherine II of Russia. The State Council ceased to exist after the February Revolutionof 1917.
The State Council was established by
Alexander I of Russiain 1810 as part of Speransky's reforms. Although envisaged by Speransky as the upper chamber of the Russian parliament, it was actually an advisory legislative organ composed of people whom the tsar could trust.
During 1906-1917, the status of the State Council was defined by the
Russian Constitution of 1906. Its chairman was appointed by the Tsar. Half of its members were appointed by the Tsar from persons distinguished at civil and military service, and half by elections from various categories of society, separately: 1 seat from each guberniya-level zemstvo(local self-government), 18 seats from Assemblies of Nobility, 6 seats from the Russian Orthodox Church, 12 seats from stock exchange committees and business associations, 6 seats from the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 seats from the Parliament of Finland.
State Council was the
upper houseof the parliament, while the State Duma of the Russian Empirewas the lower house. Compared to contemporary British House of Lordsand Prussian Herrenhaus Russian upper chamber was more democratically constituted, as half of its members were democratically elected from different sections of society, while House of Lords and Herrenhaus consisted of hereditary peers.
State Council of the Russian Federation
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