- Persian-Sassanid art patterns
Characteristic patterns of the Persian-
Sassanideart exhibits similarity to the art of the Bulgars[Bulgarian's Treasures from the Past by Ivan Venedikov, Sava Boyadjiev and Dimiter Kartalev, Foreign Languages Press, Sofia 1965, pp. 345-55] , Khazars, Sak- Scythian, and have recurred at different locations in Central Asia. Hundred and eight years after the excavation of the Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós' (1799) with a toreuticsexpo of ' griffinfighting an elk' (see figure on the left) - another griffin-&- elkmotif has been discovered in the tombs of Hsiung-nu[The Empire of the Steppes, a History of Central Asia by Rene Grousset (transl. by Naomi Walford), Rutgers University Press, 2005, p.25] (early Huns, also Xiongnu) during Colonel Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov[Buddha: Radiant Awakening by Jackie Menzies, Sydney, Art Gallery of New South Wales, 2001] [Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe by George B. Schaller, University Of Chicago Press, 2000, p.11] expedition (1907-09) near Urga(Outer Mongolia) [Discoveries of the Kozlov Expedition by W. Perceval Yetts, he Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 48, No. 277 (Apr., 1926), pp. 168-185] [The Pazirik Burial of Altai by Eugene A. Golomshtok, M. P. Griaznov in American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1933), pp. 30-45] [Recent Russian Archaeological Exploration by W. E. D. Allen in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 69, No. 3 (Mar., 1927), pp. 262-264] .
goldsymbolization of 'animals-in-fight' has been also found in the vicinity of the city of Turpan[The Old Silk Road - from Xi'an to Pamir, Chapter XIII: A Tour of Turpan by Bi Yading, Chinese Intercontinental Press (CIP) 2003, p.121 (ISBN 7-5032-2125-9)] - the principle crossroad of the northern Silk Road(see the Turpangold on your right). Golden 'animals-in-fight' has also been identified as 3rd – 2nd century B.C. Mongolia(or southern Siberia), being charactteristic for Hsiung-nuor Xiongnu(see the scene of paired felines attacking ibexes as a cast of golden belt buckle on your left).
The Art of the Nomads
The early history of the
Nomadsis shrouded with enigma, which lifts somewhat only after their contact with cultures possessing written histories. All nomadicpeople of the vast steppes of Asiawere a major force in history [The Perilous Frontier by Thomas J. Barfield, lackwell Publishers, 1989] . Their power was not in the empires they built, but rather, it was the turmoil they have created on ancient civilizationssuch as Chinaor Persia, affecting substantially their historical development [Worriors of the Steppe by Erik Hildinger, De Capo Press, 1997, pp. 57-92] . It is believed that the nomadsranged relentlessly and widely, forever moving on for sake of richer grazing for their horses and sheMigrations were often seasonal. In the course of such migrations nomadswove for them selves an imperishable and precious intimacy with their land and its natural resources. They could extract goldwith unprecedented ease. In summer, during the tribe's seasonal migration, a fleecewould be weighted on a riverbed to collect particles of alluvial gold. Upon the tribes' return, the fleecewould be sheared, burned, and goldingot the size of a horse's hoof would result. The 'tay tayak' (the horse's hoof) was a unit of gold for a long period: a measure of golden metal rather than money, since gold was not fabricated as currency. Usage of gold was essentially spiritual - as emblems of priestly office, of prizes for physical prowess in ritual sport, or as adornment of the sacral ceremony of marriage [Kazakhstan, Coming of Age by Michael Fergus and Janar Jandosova, Stacey International 2003, p.106 (ISBN 1-900988-615)] .
Barthes had discussed the art patterns as narratives of cultural coexistence (for details see: Introduction to structural analysis of narratives [A Barthes Reader by Roland Barthes, Hill & Wang, 1983, p.251] ). However, Spivey summirizes that cultural coexistence is not the single reason to explain the
phenomenonof art being recursive [How Art Made the World, A Journey to the Origins of Human Creativity by Nigel Spivey, Bbasic Books 2005, p.89] . Chomsky "at al." argued that the core property of human communication (in a 'narrow' sense, including language) is recursion[The Faculty of Language: What Is It, Who Has It, and How Did It Evolve? by Marc D. Hauser, Noam Chomsky,W. Tecumseh Fitch in Science (2002), 298, pp.1569-79] . According to Chomsky "at al." recursionis attributed to limited syntaxin the conception - with a finite set of elements to yield a potentially infinite array of discrete expressions. Thomas explaines the art recursion (in a 'broad' sense) with imposion of archetypalstructures [Depth Psychology of Art by Shaun McNiff, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1989, p.33] existing beyond the faculty of human communication. Studying Persian-Sassanide art patterns and possibly their early Nomadic conceptions is uncovering their symbols (symbolism) [Philosophy of Analogy and Symbolism by S. T. Cargill, Kessinger Publishing, 1997, p.13] and creative imagination [New Essays on the Psychology of Art by Rudolf Arnheim, University of California Press, 1986, p.31] [The Afghan Amulet: Travels from the Hindu Kush by Sheila Paine, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006, p.249] .
History of decorative arts
Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós
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