- Timeline of Kansas history
:"For a detailed description of the events in the Kansas area, see
History of Kansas".
The timeline of Kansas is rich with the lore of the American West. Located on the eastern edge of the Great Plains, the U.S. state of
Kansaswas the home of nomadic Native American tribes who hunted the vast herds of bison. The region first appears in western history in the 16th century at the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Spanish conquistadores explored the unknown land now known as Kansas. It was later explored by French fur trappers who traded with the Native Americans. It became part of the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In the 19th century, the first American explorers designated the area as the "Great American Desert."
When the area was opened to Euro-American settlement in the 1850s, Kansas became the first battlefield in the conflict in the American Civil War. After the war, Kansas was home to Wild West towns servicing the cattle trade. With the railroads came heavy immigration from the East, from Europe, and from Freedmen called "Exodusters". For much of its history, Kansas has had a rural economy based on wheat and other crops, supplemented by oil and railroads. Since 1945 the farm population has sharply declined and manufacturing has become more important, typified by the aircraft industry of Wichita.
* 1541 :
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, the Spanish conquistador, visits Kansas.
* 1600s : Kansa (sometimes Kaw) and
Osage Nation(originally Ouasash) arrive in Kansas. (The Kansa claim that they occupied the territory since 1673.)
* 1719 : First Europeans visit the Northern
* 1724 : French commander at
Fort Orleans, Etienne de Bourgmont, visits the Kansas Riverand establishes a trading post here, near the main Kansa village at the mouth of the river. Around the same time, the Otoetribe of the Siouxalso inhabit various areas around the northeast corner of Kansas.
* End of the 18th century : Kansa and Osage Nation dominant in the eastern part of the state — the Kansa on the Kansas River to the north and the Osage on the
Arkansas Riverto the south. Pawnees were dominant on the plains to the west and north of the Kansa and Osage nations, in regions home to massive herds of buffalo.
* 1803 : Kansas, as part of the
Louisiana Purchase, annexed to the United States as unorganized territory.
* 1806 :
Zebulon Pikepasses through the region, and labels it "the Great American Desert" on his maps.
1820s to 1840s : Indian treaties and westward trails
* 1820s : Kansas area (by then popularly known as the Great American Desert) is set aside as Indian territory by the U.S. government and closed to settlement by whites.
* 1821 : After a brief period as part of
Missouri Territory, Kansas returned to unorganized status.
* 1821 :
Santa Fe Trailwas opened across Kansas as country's transportation route to the Southwest, connecting Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico.
* 1825, June 3 : 20 million acres (81000 km²) of land ceded by the
Kansa Nationto the United States, and the Kansa tribe are thereafter limited to a specific reservation in northeast Kansas.
* 1825, June : Osage Nation was limited to a reservation in southeast Kansas.
* 1825, November 7 : Missouri Shawanoes (or
Shawnees) are the first Native Americans removed to the territory by treaty.
* 1827, May 8 : Cantonment Leavenworth, or
Fort Leavenworth, (named in honor of Henry Leavenworth) built just inside Indian territory to guard travelers on the United States' Western frontier. This was the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state of Kansas.
* 1830 :
Indian Removal Actexpedites the process of Indian removal.
* 1831, August 30 : Ottawa cede land to the United States and move to a small reservation on the Kansas River and its branches.
* 1832, April 6 : Ottawa treaty ratified.
* 1832, October 24 : U.S. government moves the
Kickapoos to a reservation in Kansas.
* 1832, October 29 :
Piankeshaws and Weas agree to occupy 250 sections of land, bounded on the north by the Shawanoes; east by the western boundary line of Missouri; and west by the Kaskaskias and Peorias.
* 1833, September 21 : Treaty made with the United States and the
Otoetribe cedes their country south of the Little Nemaha River.
* 1836, September 17 : The confederacy of the Sacs and Foxes in a treaty with the United States moved north of Kickapoos.
* 1837, February 11 : United States agrees to convey to the
Pottawatomies an area on the Osage River, southwest of the Missouri River.
* 1840s : Section of the Santa Fe Trail through Kansas also used by emigrants on the
California Trailand Oregon Trail.
* 1842 : Treaty between the United States and the
Wyandots, the Wyandots moved to the junction of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers (on land that was shared with the Delaware until 1843).
* 1846 :
Kansareservation reduced by treaty.
* 1847 : Pottawatomies are moved again, to an area containing 576,000 acres (2,330 km²), being the eastern part of the lands ceded to the United States by the Kansa tribe in 1846.
1850 to 1854 : Native American territory ceded
* 1850 : Euro-Americans squatting on Native Americans land clamor for the entire area to be opened for settlement.
* 1851 : Momentum builds to take the land from the Native Americans that they had been promised "permanently."
* 1851, September 17 :
Cheyennes and Arapahoes tribes negotiate with the United States for land in western Kansas (the current state of Colorado).
* 1852 : Congress begins the process of creating the
* 1852, December 13 : Representative from Missouri submits a bill organizing the Territory of Platte to the House: all the tract lying west of
Iowaand Missouri, and extending west to the Rocky Mountains.
* 1852 :
Wyandots attempte to establish a Territorial government in their section of Indian territory.
* 1853 : Wyandots attempt to establish a Territorial government in their section of Indian territory.
* 1853 : Wyandots' convention, composed of thirteen delegates, at which a constitution for their territory is formed.
* 1853, February 10 : House bill referred to the United States House Committee on Territories, and passed by the full
U.S. House of Representatives.
* 1853, summer : Eastern Kansas soon be opened to white American settlersClarifyme|date=April 2008.
* 1854 :
MassachusettsEmigrant Aid Company arrange and send anti-slavery settlers (known as "Free-Staters") into Kansas.
* 1854 :
Chippewas (Swan Creek and Black River bands) inhabit 8,320 acres (34 km²) in Franklin County.
* 1854 : Nearly all the tribes in the eastern part of the Territory cede the greater part of their lands prior to the passage of the Kansas territorial act and are eventually moved south to the future state of
* 1854, March 15 :
Otoeand Missouri Indians cede to the United States all their lands west of the Mississippi, except a small strip on the Big Blue River.
* 1854, March 30 : Lands ceded by the
Kaskaskias, Peorias, Piankeshawand Weas.
* 1854, May 6 :
Delawarescede all their lands to the United States, except a reservation defined in the treaty.
* 1854, May 6 and May 10 : the
Shawnees cede 6,100,000 acres (25,000 km²), reserving only 200,000 acres (809 km²) for homes.
* 1854, May 17 :
Iowascede their lands, retaining only a small reservation.
* 1854, May 18 :
Kickapooscede their lands, except 150,000 acres (607 km²) in the western part of the Territory.
* 1854, May 18 : Lands ceded by the Sacs and Foxes.
* 1854, May 30 : The
Kansas-Nebraska Actbecomes law, establishing the Nebraska Territoryand Kansas Territory, which delineate the borders of Kansas Territory set from the Missouri border to the summit of the Rocky Mountain range; the southern boundary was the 37th parallel, the northern was the 40th parallel. North of the 40th parallel was Nebraska Territory.
* 1854, June 10 : Missourians hold a meeting at Salt Creek Valley, a trading post three miles (5 km) west of
Fort Leavenworth, at which a "Squatter's Claim Association" is organized.
1855 to 1859 : State formation
* 1855 : Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company arrange and send anti-slavery settlers into Kansas.
* 1855, March 30:
Missourians who had streamed across the border (known as "Border Ruffians") fill the ballot boxes in favor of pro-slavery candidates. As a result, pro-slavery candidates prevail at every polling district except one (the future Riley County), and the first official legislature is overwhelmingly composed of pro-slavery delegates.
* 1855 : Kansas Territory violence and some open battles rise.
* 1855, November 11 :
Topeka Constitutionadopted by a convention of Free-Staters.
* 1855, December 1 : Small army of Missourians, acting under the command of Douglas County, Kansas Sheriff Samuel J. Jones, laid siege to the Free-State stronghold of Lawrence in what would later become known as "The Wakarusa War."
* 1855, December 15 : Topeka Constitution was approved by the people of the Territory but was never accepted as a legal document.
* 1856, May 21 : Pro-slavery forces led by Sheriff Jones again attack Lawrence, killing two men, burning the Free-State Hotel to the ground, destroying two printing presses, and robbing homes.
* 1856, night of May 24 to the morning of May 25 :
Pottawatomie Massacre; in what appears to be a reaction to the Sacking of Lawrence, John Brownand a band of abolitionists (some of them members of the Pottawatomie Rifles) kill five settlers, thought to be pro-slavery, with broadswords north of Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County, Kansas.
* 1857, November 7 :
Lecompton Constitutionadopted by a Convention convened by the official pro-slavery government.
* 1858 : Kansas Territory violence and some open battles slow.
* 1858, April 3 :
Leavenworth Constitutionadopted by the convention at Leavenworthby a new Free-State legislature.
* 1858, May 18 : People's elections pass the Leavenworth Constitution (while the Lecompton Constitution is still under consideration), but the
U.S. Congressrefuses to ratify it.
* 1859 : Land tracts transferred to individual
* 1859, July 29 : Fourth constitution drafted; the
Wyandotte Constitutionadopted by the convention.
* 1859, October 4 : People's election held; adopts Wyandotte Constitution, which outlaws slavery but is far less progressive than the Leavenworth Constitution.
* 1859, end of the year: Bleeding Kansas violence virtually ceases.
1860s to the turn of the century
* 1861, January 29 : Kansas was admitted into the Union as a free state under the Wyandotte Constitution.
* 1861, May 25 :
Great Seal of the State of Kansaswas established by a joint resolution adopted by the Kansas Legislature.
* 1861, June 3 : First Kansas regiment called to duty in the
American Civil War.
* 1863 : The
Union Pacific Eastern Divisionestablished in Kansas.
* 1863, August 21 :
William Quantrillleads Quantrill's Raid into Lawrence destroying much of the city and killing over a hundred people.
* 1863, October 6 :
Battle of Baxter Springs, sometimes called the Baxter Springs Massacre, a minor battle in the War, occurs near the modern-day town of Baxter Springs, Kansas.
* 1864, April : War between the Indians upon frontier settlers in Kansas and
* 1864, July 28 : Seventeenth Kansas regiment is the last to be raised during the Civil War.
* 1864, October 25 :
Battle of Marais des Cygnesin Linn County, Kansas.
* 1867 :
Joseph G. McCoybuilds stockyards in Abilene, Kansasand helps develop the Chisholm Trail, encouraging Texascattlemen to undertake cattle drives to his stockyards.
* 1869 : Union Pacific Eastern Division renamed the
* 1871 :
Wild Bill Hickokbecomes marshal of Abilene, Kansas.
* 1885 :
Coronado, Kansas, established.
* 1887, February 27 : shoot-out with boosters — some would say hired gunmen — from nearby
Leotileaves several people dead and wounded.
* 1877 :
Nicodemus, the first all-black town in Kansas, is founded by African-Americanmigrants from Kentucky.
* 1879 : large number of former
slaves move from Southern states to Kansas.
* 1881, February 19 : Kansas becomes the first U.S. state to adopt a Constitutional amendment prohibiting all
* 1916 : Kansas troops serve on the U.S.-Mexico border during the
* 1922 and 1927 : legal battles Kansas against the
Ku Klux Klan, resulting in their expulsion from the state.
* 1925 :
flag of Kansasdesigned.
* 1927 : flag officially adopted by the Kansas State Legislature.
* 1954, May 17 :
US Supreme Courtin Brown v. Board of Educationunanimously declared that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and, as such, violate the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees all citizens "equal protection of the laws."
* 1950s and 1960s :
Intercontinental ballistic missiles (designed to carry a single nuclear warhead) stationed throughout Kansas facilities, ready to launch from hardened underground silos.
* 1961 : State flag modified with the word "Kansas" added below the seal in gold block lettering.
* 1966, June 8th :
Topeka, Kansas was struck by an F5 rated tornado, according to the Fujita scale. The " 1966 Topeka tornado" started on the southwest side of town, moving northeast, hitting various landmarks (including Washburn University). Total cost was put at $100 million.
* 1980s : Kansas intercontinental ballistic missile facilities are deactivated.
* 1993 : The
Great Flood of 1993affects several states, including Kansas.
* [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33445961 Castel, Albert. "A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861-1865" (1958)]
* Cutler, William G. (1883) [http://www.kancoll.org/books/cutler/ History of the State of Kansas]
* [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3824394 Dick, Everett. "Vanguards of the Frontier: A Social History of the Northern Plains and Rocky Mountains from the Earliest White Contacts to the Coming of the Homemaker" (1941)]
* [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102349184 Goodrich, Thomas. "Bloody Dawn: The Story of the Lawrence Massacre" (1991)]
* McQuillan, D. Aidan. (1990) "Prevailing over Time: Ethnic Adjustment on the Kansas Prairies, 1875-1925"
*Miner, Craig. (2002) "Kansas: The History of the Sunflower State, 1854-2000" (ISBN 0-7006-1215-7)
*Reynolds, David. (2005) "John Brown, Abolitionist" (ISBN 0-375-41188-7)
* [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14949413 Rich, Everett, ed. "The Heritage of Kansas: Selected Commentaries on Past Times" (1960)]
* Socolofsky, Homer E. (1990) "Kansas Governors"
* Socolofsky, Homer E. and Huber Self. (1992) "Historical Atlas of Kansas"
* Wishart, David J. ed. (2004) "Encyclopedia of the Great Plains"
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