- John Gurdon
name = John Bertrand Gurdon
birth_date = birth date and age |1933|10|2|df=y
nationality = British
University of Cambridge Gurdon Institute
known_for = Nuclear transfer, cloning
Wolf Prize in Medicine(1989)
Gurdon studied with
Michael Fischbergat Oxford, and then did postdoctural work at Caltech. [http://www.bioch.ox.ac.uk/glycob/rodney_porter_lectures/1999/gurdon.html Rodney Porter Lectures: Biography] ] His early posts were at the Department of Zoology of the University of Oxford(1962–71).
Gurdon has spent much of his research career in
Cambridge, UK, first at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology(1971–83) and then at the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge(1983–date). In 1989, he was a founding member of the Wellcome/CRC Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer (later Wellcome/CR UK) in Cambridge, and was its Chair until 2001. He was Master of Magdalene College, Cambridgefrom 1995 to 2002. He is Chairman of the Company of Biologists.
In 1962, Gurdon, then at
Oxford University, announced that he had used the nucleus of fully differentiated adult intestinal cells to clone South African clawed frogs ("Xenopus laevis"). [Gurdon, JB (1962) The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. "J Embryol Exp Morphol" 10: 622–40] This was the first demonstration in animals that the nucleus of a differentiated somatic cellretains the potential to develop into all cell types ("ie", is totipotent) and paved the way for future somatic cell nuclear transferexperiments, including the 1996 cloning of the sheep, Dolly.
Gurdon's results electrified the scientific community, but some scientists remained skeptical and began to find flaws in his work. Gurdon began cloning experiments using nonembryonic cells—specifically, cells from the intestinal lining of tadpoles. Gurdon believed that the tadpoles were old enough so that cells taken from them would be differentiated. Gurdon exposed a frog egg to ultraviolet light, which destroyed its nucleus. He then removed the nucleus from the tadpole intestinal cell and implanted it in the enucleated egg. The egg grew into a tadpole that was genetically identical to the DNA-donating tadpole. But the
tadpoles cloned in Gurdon’s early experiments never survived to adulthood and scientists now believe that many of the cells used in these experiments may not have been differentiated cells after all. In later work, however, Gurdon successfully produced sexually mature adult frogs from eggs into which genetically marked nuclei had been transplanted from differentiated tadpole cells. [reviewed in [http://www.nature.com/milestones/development/milestones/full/milestone5.html Campbell, N (2004) Turning back time: Milestones in Development. Nature Milestones] ]
Gurdon’s experiments captured the attention of the scientific community and the tools and techniques he developed for nuclear transfer are still used today. The term clone (from the Greek word klōn, meaning “twig”) had already been in use since the beginning of the 20th century in reference to plants. In 1963 the British biologist
J. B. S. Haldane, in describing Gurdon’s results, became one of the first to use the word clone in reference to animals.
Messenger RNA expression
Gurdon and colleagues also pioneered the use of "Xenopus" eggs and oocytes to translate microinjected
messenger RNAmolecules, [Gurdon, JB, Lane, CD, Woodland, HR, Marbaix, G (1971) Use of frog eggs and oocytes for the study of messenger RNA and its translation in living cells. "Nature" 233:177–82] a technique which has been widely used to identify the proteins encoded and to study their function.
Gurdon's recent research has focused on analysing intercellular signalling factors involved in
cell differentiation, and on elucidating the mechanisms involved in reprogramming the nucleus in transplantation experiments, including demethylation of the transplanted DNA. [Simonsson, S, Gurdon, JB (2004) DNA demethylation is necessary for the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei. "Nature Cell Biol" 6: 984–90]
Honours and awards
Gurdon was made a Fellow of the
Royal Societyin 1971, and was knighted in 1995. In 2004, Wellcome/CR UK Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer was renamed the Gurdon Institutein his honour. He has also received numerous awards, medals and honorary degrees.
* [http://www.gurdon.cam.ac.uk/ The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
John Gurdon — 2009 John Bertrand Gurdon (* 2. Oktober 1933) ist ein britischer Entwicklungsbiologe und ehemaliger Professor an der University of Cambridge. Gurdon erforschte die Bedeutung des Nukleolus der Zelle. Er legte außerdem mit seinen Arbeiten zur… … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Gurdon (disambiguation) — John Gurdon may refer to: * John Gurdon (1595 1679), Member of the English Council of State, MP for Ipswich 1640 1653, Suffolk 1654 and Sudbury 1660 1661 * John Gurdon (c. 1672 1758), English MP for Sudbury 1699 1701, grandson of the previous *… … Wikipedia
John Gurdon (1595-1679) — John Gurdon (3 July 1595 9 September 1679), of Assington in Suffolk, was an English politician.Gurdon was the son of a country gentleman, Brampton Gurdon, with estates in both Norfolk and Suffolk. He was elected to the Short Parliament and Long… … Wikipedia
Gurdon — ist der Name von Gurdon (Arkansas), einer US amerikanischen Gemeinde Gurdon ist der Familienname von John Gurdon (* 1933), britischer Evolutionsbiologe Mihaela Gurdon Basimamovic (* 1971), kroatische Fußballspielerein und Schiedsrichterin … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gurdon — can refer to: * John Gurdon, British developmental biologist * Gurdon, Arkansas, a town in the United States … Wikipedia
Gurdon Saltonstall — (* 27. März 1666 in Haverhill, Massachusetts; † 20. September 1724 in New London, Connecticut) war der Gouverneur der Colony of Connecticut zwischen 1707 und 1724. Werdegang Gurdon Saltonstall, Sohn von Nathaniel und Elizabeth (Ward) Saltonstall … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard — (August 22, 1802 in Windsor, Vermont, – September 14, 1886 in Chicago, Illinois) was an American fur trader, insurance underwriter and land speculator. Hubbard first arrived in Chicago on October 1, 1818 as a voyageur. He went on to build Chicago … Wikipedia
John D. Lodge — John Davis Lodge (* 20. Oktober 1903 in Washington; † 29. Oktober 1985 in New York City) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Gouverneur des US Bundesstaates Connecticut. Er war Mitglied der Republikanischen Partei. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Noel Dempsey — (* 3. Januar 1915 in Cahir, County Tipperary, Irland; † 16. Juli 1989 in Putnam, Connecticut) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Gouverneur des US Bundesstaates Connecticut. Er war Mitglied der Demokratischen Partei … Deutsch Wikipedia
John S. Peters — John Samuel Peters (* 21. September 1772 in Hebron, Connecticut; † 30. März 1858 ebenda) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und der neunte Gouverneur des US Bundesstaates Connecticut. Er war Mitglied der … Deutsch Wikipedia