Mahan confederacy


Mahan confederacy
Mahan confederacy
Hangul 마한
Hanja 馬韓
Revised Romanization Mahan
McCune–Reischauer Mahan
History of Korea
Bulguksa temple, Gyeongju
This article is part of a series
Prehistory
Jeulmun period
Mumun period
Gojoseon ?–108 BCE
Wiman Joseon 194 BCE–108 BCE
Proto–Three Kingdoms 300–57 BCE
Buyeo, Goguryeo, Okjeo, Dongye
Jin state, Samhan (Ma, Byeon, Jin)
Four Commanderies of Han
Three Kingdoms 57 BCE–668
Goguryeo 37 BCE–668
Baekje 18 BCE–660
Silla 57 BCE–935
Gaya 42–562
North and South States 698–926
Unified Silla 668–935
Balhae 698–926
Later Three Kingdoms 892–936
Taebong, Hubaekje, Silla
Goryeo Dynasty 918–1392
Joseon Dynasty 1392–1897
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Colonial Korea 1910–1945
Provisional Gov't 1919–1948
Division of Korea 1945–present
North, South Korea 1948–present
By topic
Timeline
List of monarchs
Linguistic history
Science and technology history
Art history
Military history
Naval history

Korea Portal
v · d · e

Mahan was a loose confederacy of statelets that existed from around the 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces. Arising out of the confluence of Gojoseon migration and the Jin state federation, Mahan was one of the Samhan ("Three Hans"), along with Byeonhan and Jinhan. Baekje began as a member statelet, but later overtook all of Mahan and became one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Contents

History

Mahan probably developed from the existing bronze society of 3rd to 2nd centuries BCE, continuing to absorb migration from the north in subsequent centuries. King Jun of the kingdom of Gojoseon in northern Korea, having lost the throne to Wiman, fled to the state of Jin state in southern Korea around 194 BCE-180 BCE. He and his followers are thought to have established a base within Jin territory. It is not certain whether Mahan conquered or arose out of this entity, but Mahan was certainly influenced by this influx of northern culture.

Further migration followed the fall of Gojoseon and establishment of the Chinese commanderies in the Liaoning region in 108 BC. It is described in the Chinese chronicle San Guo Zhi and the much later Korean chronicles Samguk Yusa and Samguk Sagi.

In 1st century CE, the Wolji/Mokji (月支/目支) state, that formed and led Mahan confederacy, was defeated in struggles with Baekje, another member of Mahan, and consequently losing whole region of present-day Han River basin. But the San Guo Zhi recorded the Han state fallen in struggles with the Lelang Commandery and Daifang Commandery in the 246 CE.[1][2] Under continuous pressure from Baekje, only 20 statelets of Mahan confederacy survived until the late 3rd century. Baekje eventually absorbed or conquered all of Mahan by the 5th century,[3] growing into one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Silla and Goguryeo.

Politics

Kings of Mahan occasionally called themselves "King of Jin," referring to the earlier Jin state and asserting nominal sovereignty over all of Samhan. A wealth of bronze artifacts and production facilities indicate that Mahan was probably the earliest developed of the three Hans. At its height, Mahan covered much of the Han River Basin and the modern-day provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, although political unity was strongest led by Mokji state (목지국, 目支國) in Cheonan, Chungcheong.

Legacy

Goryeo historians identified Mahan with Goguryeo, which was supported by their works like Samguk Sagi, Samguk Yusa and Jewang Ungi. That historical view was previously given by Choe Chiwon, a noted Confucian scholar and Historian in the late of the Silla. Apart from the geographical location of Mahan, the Chinese historical record History of Song defines the ethnical origin of the Jeong-an kingdom, a successor state of Balhae, as Mahan.

In the late Joseon period, that historical notion came under criticism by an early Silhak scholar, Han Baek-gyeom who emphasized the linkage between Mahan and Baekje in terms of the geographical location.

Statelets

According to the San Guo Zhi , Mahan consisted of 54 statelets of up to ten thousand families each:

  • Gamhae (감해국, 感奚國), present-day Iksan.
  • Gamhaebiri (감해비리국, 監奚卑離國), present-day Hongseong.
  • Geonma (건마국, 乾馬國), present-day Iksan.
  • Gorap (고랍국, 古臘國), present-day Namwon.
  • Gori (고리국, 古離國), present-day Iksan.
  • Gobiri (고비리국, 古卑離國), present-day Yangpyeong or Yeoju.
  • Gowon (고원국, 古爰國)
  • Gotanja (고탄자국, 古誕者國)
  • Gopo (고포국, 古蒲國), present-day Buyeo County.
  • Guro (구로국, 狗盧國), present-day Cheongyang.
  • Gusaodan (구사오단국, 臼斯烏旦國), present-day Jangseong.
  • Guso (구소국, 狗素國), present-day Jeongeup.
  • Guhae (구해국, 狗奚國), present-day Gangjin.
  • Naebiri (내비리국, 內卑離國)
  • Noram (노람국, 怒藍國)
  • Daeseoksak (대석삭국, 大石索國), present-day Yangju or Ganghwa Island.
  • Makro (막로국, 莫盧國)
  • Manro (만로국, 萬盧國), present-day Boryeong or Gunsan.
  • Morobiri (모로비리국, 牟盧卑離國), present-day Gochang.
  • Mosu (모수국, 牟水國), present-day Suwon.
  • Mokji (목지국, 目支國), present-day Cheonan.
  • Baekje (백제국, 伯濟國), present-day Seoul.
  • Byeokbiri (벽비리국, 辟卑離國), present-day Gimje.
  • Bulmi (불미국, 不彌國), present-day Naju.
  • Bulsabunsa (불사분사국, 不斯濆邪國), present-day Jeonju.
  • Bulun (불운국, 不雲國), present-day Gongju or Boseong.
  • Biri (비리국, 卑離國), present-day Gunsan.
  • Bimi (비미국, 卑彌國), present-day Seocheon.
  • Saro (사로국, 駟盧國), present-day Hongseong.[4]
  • Sangoe (상외국, 桑外國), present-day Hwaseong.
  • Soseoksak (소석삭국, 小石索國), present-day Gyodong Island.
  • Sowigeon (소위건국, 素謂乾國), present-day Boryeong.
  • Sokrobulsa (속로불사국, 速盧不斯國), present-day Gimpo.
  • Sinbulhwal (신분활국, 臣濆活國), present-day Anseong or Gapyeong.
  • Sinsodo (신소도국, 臣蘇塗國), present-day Taean.
  • Sinwunsin (신운신국, 臣雲新國), present-day Cheonan.
  • Sinheun (신흔국, 臣釁國), present-day Daejeon or Asan.
  • Arim (아림국, 兒林國), present-day Seocheon or Yesan.
  • Yeoraebiri (여래비리국, 如來卑離國), present-day Iksan.
  • Yeomro (염로국, 冉路國), present-day Asan.
  • Wuhyumotak (우휴모탁국, 優休牟涿國), present-day Bucheon.
  • Wonyang (원양국, 爰襄國), present-day Hwaseong or Paju.
  • Wonji (원지국, 爰池國), present-day Yeosu.
  • Ilnan (일난국, 一難國)
  • Ilri (일리국, 一離國)
  • Ilhwa (일화국, 日華國)
  • Imsoban (임소반국, 臨素半國), present-day Gunsan.
  • Jarimoro (자리모로국, 咨離牟盧國), present-day Icheon.
  • Jiban (지반국, 支半國), present-day Buan.
  • Jichim (지침국, 支侵國), present-day Eumseong.
  • Cheopro (첩로국, 捷盧國), present-day Jeongeup.
  • Chori (초리국, 楚離國), present-day Goheung.
  • Chosandobiri (초산도비리국, 楚山塗卑離國), present-day Jindo County.
  • Chiriguk (치리국국, 致利鞠國), present-day Seocheon.

See also

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mahan — may refer to: Mahan confederacy, chiefdoms in ancient Korea Mahan, Iran, a city in Kerman province Mahan District, an administrative subdivision of Kerman Province Iranian male first name Mahan Air, an airline based in Kerman province Mahan… …   Wikipedia

  • Jinhan confederacy — Hangul 진한 Hanja 辰韓 Revised Romanization …   Wikipedia

  • Byeonhan confederacy — Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin, was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century in the southern Korean peninsula. Byeonhan was one of the Samhan (or Three Hans ), along with Mahan …   Wikipedia

  • Samhan — Infobox Korean name hangul=삼한 hanja=三韓 rr=Samhan mr=Samhan Samhan refers to the ancient confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan in central and southern Korean peninsula, which were eventually absorbed into two of the Three Kingdoms of Korea …   Wikipedia

  • History of Korea — This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in 1945. See History of North Korea and History of South Korea for the post World War II period. History of Korea …   Wikipedia

  • Baekje — 백제(百濟) …   Wikipedia

  • Hyeokgeose of Silla — Infobox Korean name hangul=박혁거세 거서간 hanja=linktext|朴|赫|居|世|居|西|干 rr=Bak Hyeokgeose Geoseogan mr=Pak Hyŏkkŏse KŏsŏganHyeokgeose of Silla (69 BCE 4 CE, r. 57 BCE ndash;4 CE), commonly called Park Hyeokgeose, was the founding monarch of Silla, one… …   Wikipedia

  • Timeline of Korean history — This is a timeline of the history of Korea. Some dates prior to the 6th century CE are speculative or approximate.Prehistory*700th millennium BCE: First presence of hominids on the Korean peninsula, beginning of the Paleolithic period.*8th… …   Wikipedia

  • Onjo of Baekje — Hangul 온조왕 Hanja 溫祚王 Revised Romanization …   Wikipedia

  • Three Kingdoms of Korea — Infobox Korean name caption=Map of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century. hangul=삼국시대 hanja=三國時代 rr=Samguk Sidae mr=Samguk SidaeThe Three Kingdoms of Korea (Ko hhrm|hangul=삼국시대) refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.