- Arts and culture of Los Angeles
The arts and culture of Los Angeles are varied.
The greater Los Angeles area is the most important site in the United States for movie and
televisionproduction. This has drawn not only actors, but also writers, composers, artists, and other creative individuals to the area.
The area is home to many institutes that study and appreciate film production, such as the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciencesand American Film Institute. Various awards are given annually for movie and television production, some of which garner huge worldwide audiences. There are many small Film festivals, like the Los Angeles Film Festivalsponsored by IFP/Los Angelesand the Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Film Festivalconducted by the Outfest. Specialty theaters like Grauman's Egyptian Theatreand art houses like the Nuart Theatrescreen eclectic mixes of new and historic movies.
Although film production in Los Angeles remains the most important center for the medium, Hollywood has become more international, thus it faces increasing competition, however, from other parts of the United States and from the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Toronto as well as numerous other countries around the world such as
Romaniaand Australasiathat provide Hollywood with lower production costs. The phenomenon of entertainment companies running away to other locales in search of lower labor and production costs is known as "runaway production" although the trend shows signs of reversing due to the current slumping American economy.
The motion picture and TV industries have helped create the image that defines Los Angeles across the world. Many tourists flock to see Hollywood-related landmarks such as the Walk of Fame and the
Grauman's Chinese Theater.
Los Angeles's literary side includes
Raymond Chandler, whose hard-boiled detective stories were set in pre-war and immediate post-war L.A. Ross Macdonaldcarried on the Chandler tradition into the 1950s, and in the 1960s and 1970s blended it with themes of classical tragedy. Walter Mosley, James Ellroyand Joseph Hansen are among the local successors to Chandler. Nathaniel West's book, " The Day of the Locust", depicted a raw side to the Hollywood dream. Ray Bradburywrote science fiction after moving to the city in 1934. Actress Carrie Fisherhas found success as a novelist. The best known local poet was Charles Bukowski, who mostly lived in Hollywood but in the later part of his life lived in San Pedro. Tens of thousands of screenplays have been written by L.A. city residents, and the movie business has attracted many authors, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, Aldous Huxley, Tennessee Williams, Evelyn Waugh, and William Faulkner.
Los Angeles has provided fertile territory for writers of fiction with crime fiction being a common genre for stories about the city. During the twentieth century, fiction portraying the city has highlighted the complexity of the city and the discontinuities between its public image and the reality of living there. The size and scale of the city have also provided crime writers with a suitably complex city against which to set their stories. Works that explore life in the city include:
James Robert Baker, "Fuel-Injected Dreams", 1986; "Boy Wonder", 1988
Raymond Chandler,"The Big Sleep", 1939
Raymond Chandler,"Farewell My Lovely", 1940
Raymond Chandler,"The Long Goodbye", 1953
Bret Easton Ellis, "Less Than Zero", 1985
James Ellroy, "Black Dahlia", 1987
James Ellroy, "LA Confidential", 1990
James Ellroy, "White Jazz", 1992
John Fante, "Ask the Dust", 1939
Roger L. Simon, The Moses Wineseries, starting with The Big Fix, 1973
Evelyn Waugh, "The Loved One", 1947.
Nathaniel West, "Day of the Locust", 1939.
Michael Connelly, " Harry Bosch" Series, starting with The Black Echo, 1992–present
Los Angeles is also one of the most important sites in the world for the recorded music industry. The landmark
Capitol Recordsbuilding, which resembles a stack of albums, is representative of this. A&M Recordslong occupied a studio off Sunset Boulevardbuilt by Charlie Chaplin(who wrote the music for his own films). The Warner Brothersbuilt a major recording business in addition to their film business. At the other end of the business, local Rhino Recordsbegan a reissue boom by digging through archives of old recordings and repackaging them for modern audiences.
Los Angeles had a vibrant African-American musical community even when it was relatively small: a number of musical artists congregated around Central Avenue, and the community produced a number of great talents, including
Charles Mingus, Buddy Collette, Gerald Wilson, and others in the 1930s and 1940s before disappearing in the 1950s.
In the 1960s the
Sunset Stripbecame a breeding ground for bands like The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, and The Doors. The Beach Boyswere founded in nearby Hawthorne. Much hard rock has come out of Los Angeles, including hard rockers Van Halenfrom nearby Pasadena, "hair bands" like Mötley Crüe& Guns N' Roses, thrash metalacts like Metallicaand Slayer, and also 90s rock bands such as KoЯnand especially Red Hot Chili Peppers. There was a sizeable punk rockmovement which spawned the hardcore punk movement featuring bands like X, Black Flag and Wasted Youth. In the 1980s, the Paisley Undergroundmovement was native to Los Angeles. In the 1990s, Los Angeles' contribution to rock music continued with acclaimed artists such as Beck, Sublime of Long Beach, Tool and Rage Against the Machine. In addition, the gangsta rapof N.W.A., and later the solo careers of Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, 2Pacand Snoop Dogg, among related acts, reestablished Los Angeles (particularly the communities of Long Beach and Compton) as a center of African-Americanmusical development and G-funkas one of hip-hop's major living styles.
At the end of the 1990s the
nu metalband Linkin Parkwas formed in Agoura, and was named after Lincoln Park in Santa Monica, near their recording studio. Although Los Angeles has produced few internationally successful or critically notable acts in the 2000s (The Game being a prominent exception within the field of hip-hop), the city retains its importance as a center of live rock music, rap, and of the music industry. In the heart of downtown Los Angeles is the Music Center of Los Angeles County. The Music Center consists of the new Walt Disney Concert Hall, the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, the Ahmanson Theatre, and the Mark Taper Forum. The courtyard, fountain, and public art make it a beautiful location. Adding to its cultural importance, on the same street are the Los Angeles Central Library, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Colburn School of Performing Arts, and the Cathedral of our Lady of the Angels. The Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestranow performs at Walt Disney Concert Hallafter having spent many years in residence at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, and performs summer concerts at the Hollywood Bowl. The Los Angeles Master Chorale also calls the Walt Disney Concert Hallhome. The Dorothy Chandler Pavilionis also the residence of the Los Angeles Opera and Dance at the Music Center. The Ahmanson Theatre, Mark Taper Forum, and the Kirk Douglas Theatre in Culver City, are home to the Center Theatre Group, directed by Michael Ritchie. Contemporary Opera Los Angelespresents performances that are sung in English and set in a contemporary style and their proceeds benefit local children's education charities and animal rescue charities.
The demands of scoring thousands of hours of soundtracks for TV and movies also provides work for composers and classically-trained musicians, bands, orchestras, and symphonies.:"See also:
List of songs about Los Angeles"
"See List of museums in Los Angeles
plein air" movement of impressionistic landscape painting found early adherents in the Los Angeles area, and became a signature style of California art. In the 1960s, Corita Kent, then known as Sister Mary Corita of Immaculate Heart College, created bright, bold serigraphs carrying the messages of love and peace.
The city also has a public art program which requires developers to contribute one percent of the cost of construction of new buildings to a public art fund.
Los Angeles is known for its
muralart, and its thousands of examples of wall art are believe to outnumber those in every other city in the world. Mexican muralists such as Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueirosand Jose Clemente Orozcoall created murals in the area.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the
Chicano artmovement took a strong hold in Los Angeles. Much of the work produced followed the Mexican muralist tradition of sending potent social messages. Works produced in this era by the East Los Streetscapersare still extantnt in East Los Angeles and at the Estrada Courts, and works by Judy Bacaand the Social and Public Art Resource Centerare found citywide. Chicano arts in Los Angeles also gave rise to the internationally renowned Self Help Graphics & Art, known for its Corita Kent-influenced serigraphs and its annual Día de los Muertosfestival.
Although the city had a long tradition of visual arts supported by private collectors and galleries, Los Angeles did not have a comprehensive museum of art until 1965, when
LACMAopened its doors. At about the same time, La Cienega Boulevard became home to many art galleries, most notably Ferus, featuring works by artists who lived in the area. Although Andy Warholwas New York based, the famous "soup cans" were first exhibited at Ferus. A local exponent of pop art was Ed Ruscha, some of whose work was representational, others consisted of simple slogans or mottoes which were usually humorous, being so far out of the context where such statements would normally appear. An example of this is "Nice Hot Vegetables" Larry Bell, for example, explored the interaction of an sculpture to its environment, demonstrating that the boundaries are usually not entirely clear. David Hockney, an English immigrant, produced figurative paintings set in idyllic Southern California locales, such as swimming pools in the bright sunlight, belonging to modernist houses. Although these paintings are representational, they seem to be composed of small color patches, somewhat like collages. It was during this period that the contemporary arts scene in Los Angeles began to command the attention of collectors and museum directors internationally.
Some of the most respected art museums in the world can be found in Los Angeles. They include the
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Norton Simon Museum, the Huntington Libraryart collection and botanical gardens, and the Hammer Museumat the University of California, Los Angeles. Los Angeles is known for its expansive collections of contemporary art- the Museum of Contemporary Art has three separate incarnations: the Geffen Contemporary, for larger installation pieces by more renown artists, the MOCA Downtown, its standard collection, and the Pacific Palisades, a large, multi-purpose building in moderniststyle that houses offices as well as stores and showrooms for contemporary graphic design, architecture, and interior design. Other smaller art museums in the city include the Craft and Folk Art Museum, the California African American Museum, and many sculpture gardens throughout the city, including those at the University of Judaism and the University of California, Los Angeles.
The trendy bohemian neighborhoods of Silver Lake and
Los Felizare home to numerous smaller galleries, showcasing local or underground art. Gallery Row downtown is known for its small DIYgalleries, such as The Smell, which doubles as a punk and noise music venue.
Los Angeles has many different types of architectural styles scattered throughout the city and nearby satellite cities. Los Angeles has a rich, diverse history of architectural works, having been known throughout professional architectural circles as a testbed for architecture. The
case study housesin particular revolutionized residential architecture. Architects such as Richard Neutra, Pierre Koenig, John Lautnerand Frank Lloyd Wrightall have important works in the city. Some of the different types of architectural styles throughout the city and metropolitan area are mission revival, Spanish colonial revival, craftsman, Norman French provincial, French chateau, English Tudor, beaux arts, art deco, and streamline moderne.
In downtown Los Angeles, there are several buildings constructed in the
Art Decostyle. In recognition of this heritage, the recently built Metropolitan Transit Authority building incorporates subtle Art Deco characteristics.
Modern architecture in the city ranges from the works of pioneering African-American architect Paul Williams, to the iconoclastic deconstructivist forms of
Frank Gehry, a long-time resident of the city. Charles Eamesand his wife Ray Eamesdesigned famous chairs and other domestic goods.
The greater Los Angeles metro area has several notable art museums including the
Los Angeles County Museum of Art(LACMA), the J. Paul Getty Museumon the Santa Monica mountainsoverlooking the Pacific, the Museum of Contemporary Art(MOCA), the Hammer Museumand the Norton Simon Museum. In the 1920s and 1930s Will Durantand Ariel Durant, Arnold Schoenbergand other intellectuals were the representatives of culture, in contrast to the movie writers and directors. But, until the early 1960s the region was something of a "cultural wasteland" compared to San Francisco and New York--if culture is defined as the "high arts" of ballet, opera, classical music and legitimate theater. However, as the city flourished financially in the middle of the 20th century, the culture followed. Boosters such as Dorothy Buffum Chandlerand other philanthropists raised funds for the establishment of art museums, music centers and theaters. Today, the Southland cultural scene is as complex, sophisticated and varied as any in the world.
While the cuisines of many cultures have taken root in Los Angeles, it is the home of the Cobb Salad, invented in the
Brown Derbyrestaurant in Hollywood, the French-Dip sandwich, originated by either Cole's Pacific Electric Buffetor Phillippe'srestaurant in downtown, the ice blended coffee drink by Coffee Bean & Tea Leafand Tommy's Hamburger.The strength of the city's scene is in "ethnic" dining and it is considered to be one of the most dynamic scenes in the world in terms of range and depth. Los Angeles has an enormous variety of restaurants. Given its close proximity to Asia and constant flow of Asian immigrants, Asian food has the largest foothold in Los Angeles after Mexican cuisine. Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Thai restaurants are extremely common place. Japanese food in particular is a staple of Los Angeles' haute cuisine scene with places like Urasawa in Beverly Hills, Nobu in Malibu and Koi in Hollywood. The city of Torrance, with its huge Asian-American population, seems to have the largest concentration of Asian restaurants while the city of Glendale, has the among highest concentration of Persian restaurant in the country. California-styled cuisine is considered to be highly influenced by Asian seafood, as well as by Mediterranean cooking. Even more prevalent than Asian food is Mexican and other Hispanic cuisines.
* [http://www.los-angeles-travel-services.com Los Angeles Guide]
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