- Hogback (sculpture)
Hogbacks take the form of recumbent monuments, generally with a curved ('hogbacked') ridge, often also with outwardly curved sides. This shape, and the fact that they are frequently decorated with 'shingles' on either side of the central ridge, show that they are stylised 'houses' for the dead. The 'house' is a Scandinavian type, and hogbacks are agreed to have originated among the Danish settlers who occupied
northern Englandin the 870s after the fall of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. It has been suggested that the monument-type was invented about 920. There are particular concentrations of hogbacks in Yorkshireand Cumbria, the former being their likely area of origin. Individual examples are found over a much wider area, however, from Derbyshireto Central Scotland. There are stray examples as far afield as the Northern Isles, Orkneyand Cornwall. Irelandhas a single example at Castledermot, Co. Kildare. The most numerous collections are the ones preserved in St Thomas's church of Brompton, Yorkshire. Discovered in 1867 following the restoration of the church, six were taken to Durham CathedralLibrary leaving four whole ones and fragments of others at Brompton. They are characterized by carvings of bears hugging the slabs with strapwork in their mouths. Elsewhere five are in the parish kirk of Govan, once a rural parish, but now part of Glasgow.
* Bailey, R N 1980 "Viking Age Sculpture in Northern England", Collins Archaeology, London.
* Graham-Campbell, J & Batey, C E 1998 "Vikings in Scotland: An Archaeological Survey", Edinburgh UP.
* Lang, J T 1976 'Hogback Monuments in Scotland', "Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland" 105, 206-35.
* Lang, J T 1984 'The Hogback: A Viking Colonial Monument', "Anglo-Saxon Studies" 3, Oxford.
* Richards, J R 2000 "Viking Age England", Tempus, Stroud.
* Ritchie, A (ed.) 1994 "Govan and its Early Medieval Sculpture", Alan Sutton, Stroud.
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