- Vietnamese art
Vietnamese art is art created in
Vietnamor by Vietnamese artists, from ancient times to the present.
Vietnamese art has a long and rich history, the earliest examples of which date back as far as the
Stone Agearound 8,000 BCE.
With the millennium of Chinese domination starting in the 2nd century BC, Vietnamese art undoubtedly absorbed many Chinese influences, which would continue even following independence from China in the 10th century AD. However, Vietnamese art has always retained many distinctively Vietnamese characteristics.
By the 19th century, the influence of
French arttook hold in Vietnam, having a large hand in the birth of modern Vietnamese art.
Vietnamese art throughout the ages
Pottery dating to the
Stone Age(approximately 8,000 BCE) has been found in Bac Son, Vietnam. This pottery was made from clay, and in its beginnings was largely basic and lacking any artistic flare. Moving into the neolithic era, however, Vietnamese potteryand ceramics started to develop rapidly, showing signs of decor.
Bronze Age art
The highly developed
Dong Son culturethat flourished in North Vietnam(from about 1,000 BC to the 4th century BC) was the civilization responsible for the world-famous Dong Son drums, a product of their advanced bronze-casting skills.
These drums give us an important peak into early Vietnamese life. They were elaborately decorated with
geometric patterns, and most importantly depicted scenes of everyday life such as farming, warriors donning feather headdresses, construction of ships, musicians, etc.
Archaeological evidence from this period also shows that people in the area had long been weaving cloth. Many of the people depicted on the drums are shown as wearing elaborate clothing.
Chinese domination from 111 BC to 939 AD
During the ten centuries of rule by the Chinese, Vietnamese began to apply newly learned Chinese techniques to art and specifically ceramics, however this was in conjunction with the continued production of art based on native methods; this is proven by excavation of Chinese tombs in the area. [http://www.vietnamartbooks.com/articles/article.html?id=67 Pottery and ceramics during Chinese rule]
From the Ngo to Tran Dynasty
Vietnamese art and ceramics during this period of independence (approximately 10th to 15th centuries) flourished. The ceramics from this period were thought to have been largely influenced by both ancient native styles and the Tang and later
Song dynasty's art, including applying the "three colors" concept to its ceramics. Chinese-influenced philosophies adopted by the Vietnamese such as Confucianism, Mahayana Buddhismand Taoismall had a lasting impression on Vietnamese art. Some also claim there are small traces of Cham influences to be found as well.
Ly dynasty, beginning in the 11th century is viewed specifically as the golden age of Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across East and Southeast Asia. The Ly dynasty also saw the construction of many of Vietnam's landmark structures, including the Temple of Literature, One-pillar pagoda, and Quynh Lam pagoda. The Tran Dynastythat immediately followed in the 13th century saw a more subdued approach to art. [ [http://english.vietnamnet.vn/lifestyle/2005/10/501151/ VietNamNet Bridge ] ]
Fourth Chinese domination and Le Dynasty
The fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam was quite short-lived, lasting only about 2 decades, yet it was also seen as the harshest domination. Many if not most classical Vietnamese books were burnt, and thus much documentation of the era of independence lost. It is said that a more extreme than-ever process of
sinicizationwas enforced, and countless Vietnamese resources and goods were removed and taken to China.
Consequently, much of the art in this period and even after liberation by the
Le Dynastywas heavily influenced by the Ming dynasty's art.
Nguyen dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, saw a renewed interest in ceramics and porcelain art. Imperial courts across Asia imported Vietnamese ceramics.
Despite how highly developed the performing arts (such as imperial court music and dance) became during the Nguyen dynasty, some view other fields of arts as beginning to decline during the latter part of the Nguyen dynasty.
Beginning in the 19th century,
French artistic influences spread into Vietnam. By the early 20th century, many French art institutions such as the Fine Arts College of Indochine (FACI) were erected in Vietnam which taught European methods, and French-influenced modern art most thrived in the big cities such as Hanoiand Ho Chi Minh City. [ [http://www.vietnamartist.com/ArtHistory/Arthistory5.aspx Art History - A Brief History Of Vietnam Fine Art ] ]
Modern Vietnamese artists began to utilize French techniques with many traditional mediums such as silk, lacquer, etc., thus creating a unique blend of eastern and western elements.
It is believed that in prehistoric times, Vietnamese people lived in stilt-houses, as depicted on the bronze Dong Son drums. Similar kinds of houses can still be found in Vietnam today.
When Chinese influence permeated Vietnam,
Chinese architecturehad a large influence on the basic structure of many types of Vietnamese buildings, mostly pagodas and temples, communal houses, houses of scholar-bureaucrats, aristocracy, and imperial palaces and quarters. Nevertheless, these structures combined both Chinese influences and native style; Vietnamese architecture is generally much more sombre and muted than Chinese architecture, using different colors and materials.
With French colonization of Vietnam in the 19th century, many French-styled buildings were constructed, including villas, government buildings, opera houses, etc. Many of these buildings still stand in Vietnam and are one of the clearest remnants of the French colonial legacy.
Some of Vietnam's most notable architectural structures include:
Temple of Literatureor (Văn Miếu): Located in Hanoi, North Vietnam. It was constructed during the Ly Dynastyand dedicated to Confuciusand his disciples. It is a fine example of the elegance of Ly Dynasty architecture, although much if it is in need of repair. The Temple of Literature is a series of courtyards, buildings and pavilions, the center of which houses the famed stone steeles. These steeles are placed on top of stone turtles, and are inscribed with the names of doctorate candidates successful at the Imperial examination. Also within the temple lies the "Quốc Tử Giám" or National University, which functioned for approximately 700 years, from 1076 to 1779.
Imperial City, Huế: During the reign of the Nguyen dynasty, a new imperial citadel in Huếwas built, largely based on the Chinese Forbidden cityin Beijing, and also called the Purple forbidden city. However, it still employed many obviously Vietnamese characteristics in its design. The portions of the complex that were built much later, such as the tomb of Khai Dinh, used French architectural elements as well. The tomb of Minh Mangis often considered one of the most beautiful structures in the entire citadel, situated near a vast lotus pond, its construction was not completed until after Minh Mang's death.
The citadel formerly sprawled a vast estate, but during subsequent wars and conflicts, much of it has been destroyed and later turned into rice paddies. The remaining areas are currently being restored by
One Pillar Pagoda: The one pillar pagoda is one of the most ancient structures of Hanoi, its design credited to Emperor Ly Thai To. The story goes that the emperor had longed for a son, and one day dreamed that the Goddess of Mercy was sitting on a lotus flower offering him a son. In grattitude and reverence of his dream he ordered construction of a small pagoda in the form of a lotus, overlooking a pond. The pagoda has been rebuilt countlessly due to it being destroyed and burnt in wars by opponents.
Perfume Pagodaand the surrounding area: The Perfume pagoda is an ancient structure in Ha Tay province, located specifically in Perfume mountain, and is the site for a yearly festival attended by hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese. Most people reach the pagoda by taking an hour boat ride across the scenic river (passing the countryside scattered with smaller pagodas) before reaching the Perfume Pagoda itself. Inside are a series of temples and structures, and a grotto with stairs leading to two paths: "Heaven's gate" and "Hell's gate". Descending deep into the grotto one finds the Inner temple.
The beauty of the Perfume Pagoda and surrounding area have served as the subject in many Vietnamese poems.
Calligraphy has had a long history in Vietnam, previously using
Chinese characters along with Chu Nom. However, most modern Vietnamese calligraphy instead uses the Roman-character based Quoc Ngu, which has proven to be very popular.
In the past, with literacy in the old character-based writing systems of Vietnam being restricted to scholars and elites, calligraphy nevertheless still played an important part in Vietnamese life. On special occasions such as the Lunar New Year, people would go to the village teacher or scholar to make them a calligraphy hanging (often poetry, folk sayings or even single words). People who could not read or write also often commissioned scholars to write prayers which they would burn at
Vietnamese silk painting is one of the most popular forms of art in Vietnam, favored for the mystical atmosphere that can be achieved with the medium. During the 19th and 20th centuries, French influence was absorbed into Vietnamese art and the liberal and modern use of color especially began to differentiate Vietnamese silk paintings from their Chinese or Japanese counterparts. [ [http://www.asia-art.net/vietnam_silk.html Art of Vietnam ] ]
Vietnamese silk paintings typically showcase the countryside, landscapes, pagodas, historical events or scenes of daily life.
A folk art with a long history in Vietnam,
Vietnamese woodblock printshave reached a level of popularity outside of Vietnam. Organic materials are used to make the paint, which is applied to wood and pressed on paper. The process is repeated with different colors.
Traditional Vietnamese music is extremely diverse, consisting of many different styles varying from region to region. Some of the most widely known genres include:
Quan họ: A type of improvisational music, it is sung acappella and has a longstanding tradition in Vietnam, used in courtship rituals.
*Imperial Court music: Music performed in the Vietnamese court during feudalistic times. When referring specifically to the "
Nhã nhạc" form it includes court music from the Tran Dynastyon to the Nguyen dynasty. It features an array of instruments, featuring musicians and dancers adorned in elaborate garb.
Ca trù: An ancient form of chamber musicwhich originated in the imperial court. It gradually came to be associated with a geisha-type of entertainment where talented female musicians entertained rich and powerful men, often scholars and bureaucrats who most enjoyed the genre. It was condemned in the 20th century by the government, being tied falsely with prostitution, but recently it has seen a revival as appreciation for its cultural significance has grown. Vietnam has completed documents to have Ca tru recognized by UNESCOas a potential Intangible Cultural Heritage.
Cải lương: A kind of modern folk opera originating in South Vietnam, which utilizes extensive vibratotechniques. It remains very popular in modern Vietnam when compared to other folk styles.
Hát chèo: The most mainstream of theatre/music forms in the past, enjoyed widely by the public rather than the more obscure Ca trù which was favored more by scholars and elites.
*Hát tuồng (also known as Hát bội): A theatre form strongly influenced by
Chinese opera, it transitioned from being entertainment for the royal court to travelling troupes who performed for commoners and peasants, featuring many well-known stock characters.
Vietnam has 54 different ethnics, each with their own traditional dance. Among the ethnic Vietnamese majority, there are several traditional dances performed widely at festivals and other special occasions, such as the
In the imperial court there also developed throughout the centuries a series of complex court dances which require great skill. Some of the more widely known are the imperial lantern dance, fan dance, and platter dance, among others.
Water puppetry is a distinct Vietnamese art which had its origins in the 12th century. In water puppetry, a split-bamboo screen obscures puppets which stand in water and are manipulated using long poles hidden beneath the water. Epic storylines are played out with many different characters, often depicting traditional scenes of Vietnamese life. Despite nearly dying out in the 20th century, it has been saved by efforts of preservation and is now largely seen by tourists to Vietnam.
Vietnamese literature is
literature, both oral and written, created largely by Vietnamese-speaking people, although Francophone Vietnamese and English-speaking Vietnamese authors in Australia and the United States are counted by many critics as part of the national tradition. For much of its history, Vietnamwas dominated by Chinaand as a result much of the written work during this period was in Classical Chinese. Chữ nôm, created around the 10th century, allowed writers to compose in Vietnamese using modified Chinese characters. Although regarded as inferior to Chinese, it gradually grew in prestige. It flourished in the 18th century when many notable Vietnamese writers and poets composed their works in "chữ nôm" and when it briefly became the official written script. While the quốc ngữ script was created in the 17th century, it did not become popular outside of missionary groups until the early 20th century, when the French colonial administration mandated its use in French Indochina. By the mid-20th century, virtually all Vietnamese works of literature were composed in "quốc ngữ".
Some defining works of literature include
The Tale of Kieuby Nguyen Du, and Luc Van Tienby Nguyen Dinh Chieu.
Legendary female poetess
Ho Xuan Huong(born during the end of the 18th century) composed much of her poetry in Chu nom, and most of it has been translated into Quoc ngufor modern Vietnamese. Her poetry continues to be widely popular. Other poets such as the famous Mandarin official Duong Khuehad some of his poetry adapted into songs that are still famous today, such as the Ca trù-genre song "Hồng hồng, tuyết tuyết".
Many Vietnamese poems, along with folk "literature" in general, tends to be much more of an oral tradition - as literacy (as it is defined today) in the past was restricted mostly to scholars and the elite.
Culture of Vietnam
History of Vietnam
* [http://picasaweb.google.com/Doremon360/BronzeDrum Dong Son bronze drums (Photo collection)]
* [http://www.ipcny.org/exhib/exhib_ex/exhib_ex_vietnam.htm Vietnamese blockwood prints]
* [http://www.hawaii.edu/cseas/pubs/vietnam/vietnam.html History of Vietnam including Dong Son civilization]
* [http://www.vietnamartbooks.com/articles/article.html?id=67 Brief history of Vietnamese ceramics and pottery]
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