Bonifacius


Bonifacius
See also: Saint Boniface (Bonifacius in Latin).

Comes Bonifacius (anglicized in Count Boniface) (died 432) was a Roman general and governor of the Diocese of Africa. Along with his rival, Flavius Aëtius, he is sometimes termed "the last of the Romans."

After the death of Emperor Honorius in 423, primicerius notariorum Joannes was elevated to the throne. Bonifacius refused to acknowledge him, and prevented the plentiful shipments of African grain from reaching Italia. After a revolt in Gaul, and an uprising by general Aëtius, Joannes was overthrown, Valentinian III, nephew of Honorius, was made Western emperor by the Eastern Roman Emperor, Theodosius II. Bonifacius supported him, and resumed grain shipments.

Under the influence of Aëtius, the emperor's mother Galla Placidia convicted Bonifacius of treason against the emperor. Rather than surrender to probable execution, however, Bonifacius called in the support of Vandal mercenaries from their grazing grounds in Hispania. The entire tribe migrated en masse into Africa. However, by the time they arrived, Bonifacius had returned to Placidia's favor, and she had granted him the title of Patricius. He informed the Vandals that their services were no longer needed, but instead of returning to Hispania, they revolted and drove the Roman Empire out of Africa. The Vandals would rule the diocese until the Eastern Romans under Flavius Belisarius recaptured it in 534.

Bonifacius had been recalled to Italy before the Vandals had seized the province, elevated to the rank of magister militum praesentalis and to the dignity of Patricius. Fearing an imminent dismissal, Aëtius and his army of Germanic mercenaries marched against Bonifacius, descending upon Italy; the result was the Battle of Ravenna (432), which Bonifacius won, despite being mortally wounded. He died several months later, being succeeded by his son-in-law Sebastianus. However, the following year Aëtius would depose Sebastianus and become the de facto ruler of the Western Roman Empire.

Books

  • John M. O'Flynn, Generalissimos of the Western Roman Empire
  • Stewart I. Oost, ' 'Galla Placidia Augusta' '

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  • Bonifacius — (lat., der Wohlthäter). I. Heilige: [71] 1) St. B. aus Tarsos, im 4. Jahrh. (nach Andern unter Diocletian); um seinen sträflichen Umgang mit der Römerin Agla abzubüßen, pflegte er auf einer Reise nach Tarsos die Märtyrer in den Kerkern u. begrub… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bonifacius — Bonifacius, s. Bonifatius …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bonifacius — Bonifacĭus (Bonifatius), röm. Feldherr zur Zeit des Kaisers Honorius und der Regentin Placidia, focht siegreich in Afrika. Infolge der Intrigen des Aëtius rief er 428 die Vandalen aus Spanien nach Afrika zu Hilfe, an die er einen großen Teil des… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bonifacius [2] — Bonifacĭus, Apostel der Deutschen s. Bonifatius …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bonifacius [3] — Bonifacĭus, 9 Päpste [s. Beilage: ⇒ Päpste]. – B. VIII., 1294 1303, suchte in der Bulle »Unam sanctam« (1302) die Grundsätze Gregors VII. von der päpstl. Universalmonarchie zu erneuern, weswegen er bes. mit Philipp IV. von Frankreich in Streit… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bonifacius II. — Bonifacĭus II., Markgraf von Montferrat, Führer des 4. Kreuzzugs, wirkte mit bei der Eroberung Konstantinopels (13. April 1204), erhielt Mazedonien und Griechenland als Königr. Thessalonich, fiel im Sommer 1207 gegen die Bulgaren bei Mosynopolis …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bonifacius [1] — Bonifacius. Apostel der Deutschen, wurde zwischen 680–83 zu Crediodunum (Kirton in Devonshire) geb. und Winfried getauft. Seiner Neigung ungern nachgebend, ließen ihn die wohlhabenden Eltern im Kloster Adelstancastre (Stadt Exeter) erziehen. in… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Bonifacius [2] — Bonifacius, Name von 9 Päpsten. B. I., St., Römer, wurde 418 Papst und regierte nach Vertreibung des gewaltthätigen Gegenpapstes Eulalius ungestört und förderte das Ansehen des hl. Stuhles durch Entschiedenheit in kirchlichen Streitigkeiten,… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • BONIFACIUS I — BONIFACIUS I. Româ oriundus, post Zosimum, Episcopus Roman. scripsit ad Honorium, Ecclesiae mihi Deus sacerdotium. vobis res humanas regni deputavit. Socr. l. 7. c. 11. 25. 44. Obiit A. C. 423. Sedis 5. Vide etiam Sigebertum, Onuphrium, etc …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • BONIFACIUS II — BONIFACIUS II. Romanus, patre Gothô, Sigivultô, natus, post Felicem III. Papa. Homo elatus, aemulum Dioscurum habuit, qui paulo post obiit. Vivens Diaconum Vigilium successorem designavit, quod improbatum, et rescissum. Obiit, A. C. 532. sedis 1 …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • BONIFACIUS IV — BONIFACIUS IV. Valeriâ, Marsicanae provinc. urbe oriundus, patre Iohanne Medicô, priori, post interregnum 6. mens. successit. Pantheon, ab Agrippa, Iovi Vindici et Diis omnibus consecratum, Phocae indultu, B. Virgini omnibusque SS. Martyribus,… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale


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