Channel (Chinese medicine)


Channel (Chinese medicine)

Channel (zh-stp|p=jīngluò|s=经络|t=經絡), also known as meridian, in traditional Chinese medicine, is the common name of vessel (zh-stp|s=经脉|t=經脈|p=jīngmài, also known as channel) and collaterals (zh-stp|s=络脉|t=絡脈|p=luòmài). It is the path of running qi (zh-stp|s=气|t=氣|p=qì) and blood (zh-cp|c=血|p=xuè), connection zang-fu viscera (zh-stp|s=脏腑|t=臟腑|p=zàngfǔ), communication inside and outside, and run through top and bottom. (Note: In Japan, "meridian" is known as "keiraku". In Korea, "meridian" is known as "kyungrak".)

It is from the techniques and doctrines of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), including acupuncture, acupressure, and qigong. According to these practices, the body's vital energy, "qi", circulates through the body along specific interconnected channels called "meridians". There is no physically verifiable anatomical or histological proof of their existence. Research is purported to show how transmission of information experienced as qi could be possible through the subcutaneous fascia. [Energy Medicine: The Scientific Basis by James L. Oschman, PhD, Churchill Livingston, 2000] Failed verification|date=May 2008

Background

In TCM, patterns of disharmony (ie, bad health and emotional disorders) in the body are thought to be caused by disruptions of the body's energy flow along a series of acu-tracts. To correct those disruptions, specific points (腧穴) on the meridians called acupoints (穴位) are stimulated via needles, burning incense cones (moxa), applying pressure or other means.

There are about 400 acupuncture points and 20 meridians connecting most of the points, however by the 2nd Century CE, 649 were recognised in China. [ [http://www.wpro.who.int/publications/pub_9290611057.htm Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature] , World Health Organization] [cite book |last= Needham |first= Joseph |coauthors=Lu Gwei-Djen |title= Celestial Lancets |publisher= Cambridge University Press |year=1980 |isbn= 0-521-21513-7 | pages=p.100 ] Such 20 meridians are usually called the "twelve regular channels" (zh-stp|s=十二经脉|t=十二經脈|p=shíèr jīngmài) or "twelve regular meridians" (zh-stp|s=十二正经|t=十二正經|p=shíèr zhèngjīng), with each meridian corresponding to each organ; nourishing it and extending to an extremity. There are also "Eight Extraordinary Channels" or "Eight Extraordinary Meridians" (zh-stp|s=奇经八脉|t=奇經八脈|p=qíjīng bāmài), two of which have their own sets of points, and the remaining ones connecting points on other channels.

The "twelve standard meridians" go along the arms and the legs. They are: Lung, Large Intestine, Stomach, Spleen, Heart, Small Intestine, Urinary Bladder, Kidney, Pericardium, Triple Warmer (aka Triple Heater), Gall Bladder, and Liver. These terms refer to biological functions and not the structural organ, which is why there are some on the list with no corresponding anatomical structure.

Meridians are divided into Yin and Yang groups. The Yin meridians of the arm are: Lung, Heart, and Pericardium. The Yang meridians of the arm are: Large Intestine, Small Intestine, and Triple Warmer. The Yin Meridians of the leg are Spleen, Kidney, and Liver. The Yang meridians of the leg are Stomach, Bladder, and Gall Bladder. [Dillman, George and Chris, Thomas. "Advanced Pressute Point Fighting of Ryukyu Kempo." A Dillman Karate International Book, 1994. ISBN 0-9631996-3-3]

The table below gives a more systematic list of the meridians: [Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji with Kevin Baker. "A Manuel of Acupuncture" Journal of Chinese Mediceine, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9510546-5-9] [中医药学名词审定委员会. 中医药学名词, 北京:科学出版社, 2005. ISBN 7030151542]

Authors Hernan Garcia and Sierra Antonio argue that the Chinese meridians have their counterpart in the Mayan acupuncture techniques practiced in the Yucatan. They say that the analogous concept is that of wind channels, and that most of the key points in Mayan acupuncture correspond with key acupuncture points in the Chinese meridian model. [Garcia, Hernan and Antonio, Sierra. "Wind in the Blood - Mayan Healing & Chinese Medicine." Redwing Books, 1999. ISBN 1-56643-304-2]

Author Alberto Villoldo indicates that these Chinese meridians coincided exactly with the flux lines or cekes which are known to Inca medicine people as rios de luz, rivers of light that flow within the luminous body. The kawak, the seers, can see the rivers of light or cekes along the surface of the skin. And Shamans throughout the Americas rely on their ability to massage the points where it was blocked so that the light could flow freely again. [Alberto Villoldo. "Shaman, Healer, Sage" Hamony Books, 2000. ISBN 0-609-60544-5]

Modern Channel History

*1996, Deng Yu et al "fractal dimension of the meridian and the form of anatomy" (non-gap channels, cell backfill's non-tube channels).

**Zhang in 1996, "gap dimension" meridians (error)

*In 1985, France de Vernejoul P tracer isotope imaging methods; In addition, France Niboyet study of electric skin.

*In 1984, Xie Haoran, the meridian of human anatomical structure of space observation.

*In 1984, Hungary Eore use carbon dioxide detector meridian research.

*1980 Zhang Baozhen to the naked eye, such as the use of on-chip shop on the ground to observe and vascular perfusion.

*1978 Meridian Meng Zhao Wei's third-balance system

*1972 year Wang Tong proposed that channels and collaterals' essence was double reflection hypothesis.

*in the 1970s Japanese scholar this Shan Bo 本山博 with the liquid crystal thin film law observation, followed after transmission on-line temperature change.

*In 1970, France J. Borsarello the use of infrared thermal imaging method of Meridian Research.

*1956 Nogierop to the Chinese ear acupuncture points on the map and the role of research.

*In 1955, Nakatani Kazuo 中谷一雄 "well transmit sub-meshwork (Ryodoraku)" results, Sasakawa 笹川 "good points lead(good transmit points)", "Ryodoraku (well transmit sub-network)".

*In 1952, Fujita Rokuro 藤田六郎 put forward the hypothesis on the meridian.

*In 1950, Japan Nagahama 长滨善夫 reported on followed Meridian of sense of mass transmission phenomenon.

Fractal Channel

Fractal fractal dimension channels and collaterals shape and dissection structure

(non-gap, non-smooth, non-pipeline, rough (crude), cell backfill fractal fractal dimension channels and collaterals) in 1996,
Deng Yu et al, Beijing Jiuxianqiao Hospital.

Channels and collaterals' fractal fractal dimension characteristic is the channels and collaterals shape dissection, the organizational structure foundation and the essence. Why is this also channels and collaterals' dissection structure not easily the basic reason which was discovered by the predecessor. It has promulgated channels and collaterals' fractal fractal dimension characteristic, also revealed for the channels and collaterals mass transfer mechanism opened the new path, enabled to have the fractal dimension characteristic, the similar fractal dimension membrane (filtration, ultra filtered with reverse osmosis) or the chromatographic analysis column type “microscopic dynamic `static shuts activity open' the fractal fractal dimension `cell backfill ' the channels and collaterals model” to arise at the historic moment.

Criticism of TCM meridian theory

:"See also: "In 1694, during the "quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns", after having seen some meridian diagrams from the Lèi Jīng and misinterpreting them as anatomical drawings, British Scholar William Wotton wrote this famous criticism of TCM [cite book | last=Needham | first=Joseph | coauthors=Lu Gwei-Djen | year=1980 | title=Celestial Lancets | publisher=Cambridge Press | location=Cambridge, UK | isbn=0-521-21513-7 | pages=pp. 281-282 ] :

:It would be tedious to dwell any longer upon such Notions as these, which every page of Cleyer's book is full of. The Anatomical Figures annexed to the Tracts, which also were sent out of China, are so very whimsical, that a Man would almost believe the whole to be a Banter, if these Theories were not agreeable to the occasional hints that may be found in the Travels of the Missionaries. This, however, does no prejudice to their [Medicinal Simples] , which may, perhaps, be very admirable, and which a long Experience may have taught the Chineses to apply with great success; and it is possible that they may sometimes give not unhappy Guesses in ordinary Cases, by feeling their Patients Pulses: Still, this is little to Physic, as an Art; and however, the Chineses may be allowed to be excellent Empiricks, as many of the West-Indian Salvages [Savages] are, yet it cannot be believed that they can be tolerable Philosophers; which, in an Enquiry into the Learning of any Nation, is the first Question that is to be considered.

Skeptics of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) often characterize the system as pseudoscientific. Proponents reply that TCM is a prescientific system that continues to have practical relevance. Others will say that this is a simple communication mismatch between the reductionist Western medical system focused on form, and the holistic Eastern system focused on function, and that they are both valid ways to approach development of knowledge.

See also

* Terms and concepts in alternative medicine
* Marmam
* Pressure points

References

Bibliography

* Lo S.Y. (2002) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11863401 Meridians in acupuncture and infrared imaging] . Medical Hypotheses 58(1):72-76.
*J. Kwon et al., "Scanning probe microscopy study of microcells from the organ surface Bonghan corpuscle", Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, article number 173903, 2007. (Note: This 2007 paper has quite some references related to Bonghan Kim's theory on meridians.)

External links

* [http://www.acupuncture.com.au/education/meridians/meridians.html Meridian Pathways] Images showing the pathways of the 12 main meridians plus the Ren and Du Meridians
* [http://www.acupuncture.com//education/theory/mechanismacu.htm The Mechanism of Acupuncture]
* [http://www.traditionalmedicine.net.au/images/meridian.gifA meridian chart]
* [http://www.flashmavi.com/taiji_meridians_acupuncture_points.shtml Meridians, Acupuncture Points and Martial Arts Instructions]
* [http://www.bojuka.ca/pressure-points-charts.shtml Pressure Point Charts]


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