Ipswich Borough of Ipswich Coordinates: Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent Country England Region East of England County Suffolk Borough Ipswich Government – Type Leader and Cabinet – MPs Ben Gummer Area– Ranked 292nd – City 15.2 sq mi (39.42 km2) Population – City Ranked 160th
– Density 8,430.4/sq mi (3,255/km2) – Urban Unknown – Ethnicity 90.5% White
1.1% Chinese or Other
2.4% Mixed Race
ONS code 42UD
Ipswich i// is a non-metropolitan district and the county town of Suffolk, England. It is located on the estuary of the River Orwell. Nearby towns are Felixstowe, Needham Market and Stowmarket in Suffolk and Harwich and Colchester in Essex.
The town of Ipswich overspills the borough boundaries significantly, with only 85% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2001 Census, when it was the third-largest settlement in the United Kingdom's East of England region, and the 38th largest urban area in England.
The modern name is derived from the medieval name 'Gippeswick', probably taken from the River Gipping which is the non-tidal section of the River Orwell. As of 2007, the borough of Ipswich is estimated to have a population of approximately 128,000 inhabitants.
Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell and Gipping. A large Roman fort, part of the coast defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe (13 miles, 21 km), and the largest Roman villa in Suffolk (possibly an administrative complex) stood at Castle Hill (north-west Ipswich).
Ipswich is one of England's oldest towns, and took shape in Anglo-Saxon times (in the 7th–8th centuries) around Ipswich dock. As the coastal states of north-western Europe emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, essential North Sea trade and communication between eastern Britain and the continent (especially to Scandinavia, and through the Rhine) passed through the formerly Roman ports of London (serving the Kingdoms of Mercia, the East Saxons and of Kent) and of York (Eoforwic) (serving the Kingdom of Northumbria).
Gipeswic (also Gippelwich ) arose as the equivalent to these serving the Kingdom of East Anglia, its early imported wares dating to the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English (616–624). The famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby (9 miles, 14.5 km) is probably his grave. The Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Mildenhall Treasure and the Sutton Hoo treasure. A gallery devoted to the town's origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons, jewellery and other artefacts.
The 7th century town, called 'Gippeswick' was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and set up the first large-scale potteries in England since Roman times. Their wares were traded far across England, and the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years. With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was laid out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of national and international importance.
Parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule. The earth ramparts circling the town centre were probably raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English. They were unsuccessful. The town operated a Mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, which continued through the Norman Conquest until the time of King John, in about 1215. The abbreviation 'Gipes' appears on the coins.
King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the medieval foundations of its modern civil government. In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth, trading Suffolk cloth with the Continent. Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories (St Peter and St Paul, and Holy Trinity, both mid-12th century), and those of the Greyfriars (Franciscans, before 1298), Ipswich Whitefriars (Carmelites founded 1278–79) and Blackfriars (Dominicans, before 1263), stood in medieval Ipswich. The last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, author of the oldest English historical verse-drama (Kynge Johan, c.1538). There were also several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a famous pilgrimage destination, and attracted many pilgrims including Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon. At the Reformation the statue was taken away to London to be burned, though some claim that it survived and is preserved at Nettuno, Italy.
Around 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer satirised the merchants of Ipswich in the Canterbury Tales. Thomas Wolsey, the future cardinal, was born in Ipswich about 1475 as the son of a wealthy landowner. One of Henry VIII's closest political allies, he founded a college in the town in 1528, which was for its brief duration one of the homes of the Ipswich School. He remains one of the town's most famed figures.
In the time of Queen Mary the Ipswich Martyrs were burnt at the stake on the Cornhill for their Protestant beliefs. A monument commemorating this event now stands in Christchurch Park. From 1611 to 1634 Ipswich was a major centre for emigration to New England. This was encouraged by the Town Lecturer, Samuel Ward. His brother Nathaniel Ward was first minister of Ipswich, Massachusetts, where a promontory was named 'Castle Hill' after the place of that name in north-west Ipswich, UK. Ipswich was also one of the main ports of embarkation for puritans leaving other East Anglian towns and villages for the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the 1630s and what has become known as the Great Migration.
The painter Thomas Gainsborough lived and worked in Ipswich. In 1835, Charles Dickens stayed in Ipswich and used it as a setting for scenes in his novel The Pickwick Papers. The hotel where he resided first opened in 1518; it was then known as The Tavern and is now known as the Great White Horse Hotel. Dickens made the hotel famous in chapter XXI of The Pickwick Papers, vividly describing the hotel's meandering corridors and stairs.
In 1824, Dr George Birkbeck, with support from several local businessmen, founded one of the first Mechanics' Institutes which survives to this day as the independent Ipswich Institute Reading Room and Library. The elegant 15 Tavern Street building has been the site of the Library since 1836.
In 1797 Lord and Lady Nelson moved to Ipswich, and in 1800 Lord Nelson was appointed High Steward of Ipswich.
In the mid-19th century Coprolite (fossilized animal dung) was discovered, the material was mined and then dissolved in acid, the resulting mixture forming the basis of Fisons fertilizer business.
Ipswich was subject to bombing by German Zeppelins during the First World War but the greatest damage by far occurred during the German bombing raids of World War II. The area in and around the docks were especially devastated. The last bombs to fall on Ipswich landed on Seymour Street in March 1945.
Ipswich has undergone an extensive rebuilding and a gentrification programme in recent years, principally centred around the waterfront. Though this has turned a former industrial dock area into an emerging residential and commercial centre, it is being completed at the expense of much of the town's industrial and maritime heritage and in spite of efforts made by a local civic group, The Ipswich Society. Much of this development is residential and is marketed at high net-worth individuals in the DINKY demographic. As such, some have considered it incompatible with Ipswich's existing socio-economic mix. It could therefore be considered to be aimed at encouraging economic migration to the town, particularly as a commutable satellite town of London.
The Tolly Cobbold brewery, built in the 19th century and rebuilt 1894–1896, is one of the finest Victorian breweries in the United Kingdom. There was a Cobbold brewery in the town from 1746 until 2002 when Ridley's Breweries took Tolly Cobbold over. Felix Thornley Cobbold presented Christchurch Mansion to the town in 1896. Smaller breweries include St Jude's Brewery situated in an 18th century coach-house near the town centre.
The town centre contains the glass-clad building owned by Willis, properly called the Willis Building but still often called the "Willis-Faber building" by locals, as the company Willis Corroon themselves used to be called Willis Faber. Designed by Norman Foster, the building dates from 1974. It became the youngest Grade I listed building in Britain in 1991 and at the time one of only two buildings to be listed and be under 30 years of age.
On 13 March 2007 Ipswich was awarded the cleanest town award.
Ipswich remains a 'town' despite a few attempts at winning 'city' status. It does not have a cathedral, so the Bishop of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich is based at Bury St Edmunds the former headquarters of West Suffolk.
The Ipswich docks area (also 'the waterfront') is now devoted primarily to leisure use and includes extensive recent development of residential apartment blocks and the new University Campus. Fairline Boats and Spirit Yachts operate from the dock as does a timber merchant. Other industrial uses dominate to the south of the wet dock. Recently Waterfront Action was formed to help create a friendly, thriving and vibrant community for the Ipswich Waterfront with the initiative being led by Waterfront Churches.
Holywells is the area around Holywells Park, a 67 acre (27 ha) public park, situated near the docks, that was painted by Thomas Gainsborough. Alexandra Park is the nearest park to the Northern Quay of the Ipswich Waterfont and situated on Back Hamlet next to the Northern block of UCS
Chantry is the name of a housing estate and park to the South-West of Ipswich.
Other districts outside the town centre include Bixley Farm, Broke Hall, California, Castle Hill, The Dales, Gainsborough, Greenwich, Kesgrave (which is actually a separate town situated in Suffolk Coastal District), Maidenhall, Pinebrook, Priory Heath, Racecourse, Ravenswood(built on the former air field), Rose Hill, Rushmere, Springvale, St Margarets, Stoke, Warren Heath, Westbourne, Whitehouse and Whitton.
To the east of the town is Trinity Park near Bucklesham the home of the annual Suffolk Show one of the County shows in United Kingdom. The 'Trinity' is the name given to the three animals native to the county of Suffolk, namely Red Poll cattle, the powerful Suffolk Punch horse and the black faced Suffolk Sheep.
Ipswich is home to many artists, with galleries at Christchurch Mansion, the Town Hall, a gallery in Ancient House and the Artists Gallery in Electric House being the more prominent. The visual arts are further supported with many sites of sculpture with easy accessibility. The Borough Council promotes creation of new public works of art and has been known to make this a condition of planning permission.
Performing arts are well represented with Ipswich being home to many cultural hubs.
The New Wolsey Theatre is a 400 seat theatre situated on Civic Drive. Although the Wolsey Theatre was built in 1979, The New Wolsey Theatre Co. took on the management and running of the Wolsey Theatre in 2000, opening its first production in February 2001. Celebrating its 10th birthday in 2011 the New Wolsey Theatre offers a diverse range of quality productions for mixed ages and tastes. If you are hard of hearing, Deaf or deafened, use BSL or are blind, then the theatre can still be accessed via captioning, BSL interpreted performances and audio description. This theatre is also the producer of the incredibly popular Rock 'n' Roll pantomimes at Christmas.
The New Wolsey is also host to the annual Pulse Fringe Festival that takes place in May/June each year, bringing new and emerging work at various stages of development, from both national and international companies, to different venues in the town.
DanceEast, which has the primary aim of advocating innovation and development of dance in the East of England is now resident in their new premises as part of the waterfront development . They are building new premises as part of the waterfront development. These are the first custom built dance facilities in the East of England at a cost of around £8million..
The Eastern Angles (www.easternangles.co.uk) theatre group are based at the Sir John Mills Theatre  in Ipswich, named after the famous actor who lived in Felixstowe as a child. In 2012 it celebrates its 30th anniversary. As well as its rural touring Eastern Angles are well known for their riotious alternative Christmas Shows (Mansfield Park & Ride, The Haunted Commode and Round the Twist for example) and larger scale site specific work.
Since 1991, there has been an annual arts festival called Ip-Art  which brings together many events across art disciplines and different venues, notably a free music day in Christchurch Park, which in 2006 had over 50 different acts performing over 7 stages.
Key Arts  is an artists run space using the redundant St Mary at the Quay Church on the waterfront. They hold a comprehensive programme of events and residencies during the year and have been running since 2006.
Norwich remains the regional centre for TV broadcasting, but both BBC East and Anglia TV have presenters and offices in Ipswich. The town has three local radio stations, BBC Radio Suffolk covering the entire county, where the East Anglian Accent can be heard on its many phone-ins, the commercial SGR-FM which was founded in 1975 as Radio Orwell covering the A14 corridor in Suffolk and Town 102 which was founded in 2006 and is the first full time commercial station specific for Ipswich. The younger audience is catered for with Suffolk based Kiss 105-108. On 15 August 2007, Ipswich Community Radio launched full-time after successfully gaining a licence in early 2006.
In addition to the Christchurch Mansion and Ancient House, Ipswich in the 21st century has some important cultural buildings including the New Wolsey Theatre and the Regent Theatre – the largest theatre venue in East Anglia where, in the 1960s, The Beatles performed when it was still known as the Gaumont.
There are several medieval Ipswich churches but the grandest is the Victorian St Mary le Tower. [Holy Trinity Church] by Ipswich Waterfront is one of the few churches in the country which was built during the reign of William IV and whilst the outside looks plain, the interior is quite spectacular. The world's oldest circle of church bells is housed in St Lawrence Church.
Modern buildings include the new Suffolk County Hall in the area known as Ipswich Village close to Ipswich Town's Portman Road stadium. The stadium has hosted England under 21, under 23, and full international matches in addition to an England hockey game.
On the north-west side of Ipswich lies Broomhill Pool, a Grade II listed Olympic-sized lido which opened in 1938 and closed in 2002, since which time a campaign to see it restored and re-opened has been run by The Broomhill Pool Trust.
The tallest building in Ipswich, "The Mill", was topped out in November 2008; its purpose is accommodation for university students.
Ipswich is governed locally by a two-tier Council System. Ipswich Borough Council fulfils district council functions such as refuse collection, housing and planning and Suffolk County Council provides the County Council services such as transport, education and social services.
Between 1979 and September 2004, Ipswich Borough Council was under Labour control. The town was then governed by a Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition until May 2011 when it reverted back to Labour.
The town is covered by two parliamentary constituencies: Ipswich, which covers about 75% and is represented by Conservative MP Ben Gummer, and Central Suffolk & North Ipswich, which covers the remaining 25% and is represented by Conservative MP Daniel Poulter.
In April 2006 the borough council initiated public discussions about the idea of turning the borough into a unitary authority (Ipswich had constituted a county borough from 1889 to 1974, independent of the administrative county of East Suffolk, and this status was not restored by the Banham/Cooksey Commission in the 1990s). Ipswich, Norwich, Exeter and Oxford united to campaign for unitary authority status for the four towns, hoping to use the window of opportunity presented by the October 2006 Local Government White Paper. In March 2007, it was announced that Ipswich was one of sixteen shortlisted councils and on the 25 July 2007, the Secretary of state announced that she was minded to implement the unitary proposal for Ipswich, but that there were 'a number of risks relating to the financial case set out in the proposal', on which she invited Ipswich to undertake further work before a final decision is taken. Early in December plans were thrown into doubt as the Government announced that it had 'delayed' the unitary bids for Ipswich and Exeter. In July 2008 the Boundary Committee announced their preferred option was for a unitary authority covering Ipswich and the south-eastern corner of Suffolk (including Felixstowe).
Industry around Ipswich has had a strong agricultural bias with Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies Ltd, one of the most famous agricultural manufacturers, located in the town. It is notable that the world's first commercial motorised lawnmower was built by Ransomes in 1902. There was a sugar beet factory at Ipswich for many years; it was closed in 2001 as part of a rationalisation by British Sugar. The hotel industry has been given a boost with the opening of the brand new Ramada Encore Hotel on Ranelagh Road near Ipswich Town football club.
The British Telecom Research Laboratories were located to the east of the town in 1975 at Martlesham Heath. They are now a science park called Adastral Park. The area was originally RAF Martlesham Heath – a WW2 airfield. Part of the old airfield is now the site of Suffolk Constabulary's Headquarters.
Ipswich is one of the Haven ports and is still a working port, handling several million tonnes of cargo each year. Prior to decommissioning, HMS Grafton was a regular visitor to the port and has special links with the town and the county of Suffolk. HMS Orwell, named after the river, is also closely linked with the town. With the rise in popularity of the town around the Neptune Marina and the Ipswich dock a number of ship and boatbuilders have become established, in particular Fairline Yachts are a significant employer.
Ipswich sits close to the A14 and the A12 roads; it is also on the Great Eastern Main Line from London to Norwich, the East Suffolk Line to Lowestoft and the Felixstowe Branch Line with two railway stations (Ipswich and Derby Road). It is an hour from Stansted airport, 40 minutes from Harwich International Port and is also on Sustrans's National Cycle Route 5 and National Cycle Route 51. The Port of Felixstowe is a major container port 12 miles to the east.
Ipswich engine shed opened in 1846 and closed in 1968, although Ipswich is still a signing-on point for loco crews and a stabling point.
Ipswich formerly had a municipal airport to the South-east of the town, which was opened in 1929 by the Ipswich Corporation. The airport was controversially closed in 1996 by Ipswich Borough Council, amid significant public opposition to the decision. The site was redeveloped for housing as the Ravens Wood estate.
Ipswich's sole professional football club are Ipswich Town, who were established in 1878 and currently play in the second-tier Football League Championship at the 30,300-capacity Portman Road. They have a strong rivalry with Norwich City, and have been the previous clubs of the two most successful England managers, Alf Ramsey (who is buried in the Old Cemetery in the town) and Bobby Robson. They won the League Championship in 1961–62 during Ramsey's reign, as well as the 1978 FA Cup and the 1981 UEFA Cup under Robson. The club are also undefeated at home in all European competitions having drawn 6 and won the other 25. Ipswich is also home to several non-League clubs, including Ipswich Wanderers and Whitton United in the Eastern Counties League, and Achilles, Crane Sports and Ransomes Sports amongst several others in the Suffolk & Ipswich League.
The Speedway team, the Ipswich Witches, have ridden at Foxhall Stadium on the outskirts of Ipswich since 1951. The Witches have won the top tier league title four times, the knock-out cup five times and the second tier knock-out cup twice. The stadium is also used regularly for Hot Rod and Stock car racing.
The town has representation in both codes of Rugby. It has two amateur Rugby Union teams, Ipswich RUFC who play in London 3 North East League, and Ipswich YM RUFC (a third side Orwell RUFC, formerly Ransomes RFC having folded some time in the 1980s). The amateur rugby league side, Ipswich Rhinos, plays in the Rugby League Conference.
The Ipswich Cardinals (American football) is a successful American Football team, playing in the South-East Conference of BAFACL 1 – the second tier of the BAFA Community Leagues.
Ipswich is home to team Ipswich Swimming. Formed in 1884 as Ipswich Swimming Club, it is based at the town's Crown Pools, and also uses the Fore Street swimming pool. The most successful club member is World Championship gold medallist Karen Pickering.
Ipswich had a racecourse which ran a mix of flat and National Hunt races from 1710 to 1911.
There are a number of comprehensive schools such as Chantry High School, Copleston High School and an academy, Ipswich Academy. Ipswich is also home to several independent schools including Royal Hospital School, Ipswich School (both are co-educational and members of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference), Ipswich High School (girls-only) and St Joseph's College (Catholic, co-educational).
Further and higher education
Suffolk New College is a further education college located in Ipswich, serving students from the town and wider area. Suffolk One is a Sixth Form College located in Ipswich, which serves students from the same area.
Ipswich is the location of University Campus Suffolk, Suffolk's first university. Established in 2007, it is a collaboration by the University of Essex in Colchester, the University of East Anglia in Norwich, various further education colleges and the local government. The nearest established full-fledged university is the University of Essex, which is approximately 18 miles away.
Ipswich experiences a maritime climate, like the rest of the British Isles, with a narrow range of temperatures, low sunshine totals, and rainfall spread evenly throughout the year. The nearest weather station for which data is available is East Bergholt, about 7 miles east south east of the Town centre and at a similar elevation, and similar river valley/estuary situation. The average July maximum of 22.9c(73.2f) is the highest outside of the London area, illustrating the relative warmth of the area during the summer part of the year.The record maximum is 35.2c(95.4f), set during August 2003. Typically 19.9 days of the year will record a maximum temperature of 25.1c (77.2f) or above, and the warmest day of the year should reach 30.0c(86.0f), on average.
The absolute minimum is -16.1c(3.0f), set in January 1963, although frosts have been recorded in all months except July, August and September. In an average year, 55.33 nights will report an air frost.
Climate data for East Bergholt, elevation 7m, 1971-2000, extremes 1960- Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 14.9
Average high °C (°F) 7.1
14.5 Average low °C (°F) 0.9
5.5 Record low °C (°F) −16.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 52.14
Ipswich 2006 serial murders
A serial killer or spree killer responsible for the murders of five women in Ipswich gained notoriety in late 2006, as the Ipswich Murderer. The five women were identified as prostitutes; their bodies were found in December 2006. Suffolk Constabulary formally linked the murders in their investigation.
Steven Gerald James Wright, who had previously worked at the Port of Felixstowe, was arrested at his house in Ipswich on 19 December. On 21 December, Wright was formally charged with the murders of Gemma Adams, 25, Anneli Alderton, 24, Tania Nicol, 19, Paula Clennell, 24, and Annette Nicholls, 29. He appeared in Ipswich Magistrates' Court on 22 December 2006 and was remanded in custody until 2 January 2007 to appear in Ipswich Crown Court where he was remanded in custody for a second court appearance, held on 1 May 2007. At that hearing he pleaded not guilty to all five murders. His trial began in Ipswich on 14 January 2008. The jury returned a guilty verdict on 21 February, and the next day, Wright was sentenced to life imprisonment by Mr Justice Gross, who recommended that he should never be released from prison, on the basis that the murders resulted from a "substantial degree of pre-meditation and planning". The three-episode TV program titled 'Five Daughters' was based on the serial murders of the five prostitutes that happened in Ipswich in 2006.
Probably the most famous person born in the town is the Tudor Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. The artist Thomas Gainsborough and the cartoonist "Giles" worked here, Horatio, Lord Nelson became Steward of Ipswich, and Margaret Catchpole began her adventurous career here. Alf Ramsey and Sir Bobby Robson were both successful managers of Ipswich Town F.C.
- Professional darts player Mervyn King (born 1966) was born in Ipswich, as was the 1983 World Champion Keith Deller (born 1959).
- It is also purported that Geoffrey Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales was born here.
- Vocalist Dani Filth of renowned extreme metal band Cradle of Filth.
- Punk rock band The Adicts
Ipswich is also home to the current world's heaviest man, Paul Mason – weighing in at 70 stone (980 lb; 440 kg). Academy Award-nominated English actor Ralph Fiennes was born in an Ipswich hospital while his parents were living near Southwold but did not live in the town.
- In the original version of Monty Python's famous Dead Parrot sketch Michael Palin's character claims that Ipswich is the palindrome of Bolton.
- Ipswich is mentioned in a children's television show watched by the character Stewie Griffin in Family Guy.
- Ipswich was the base of operations for Russian "illegal" agent Valeri Petrofsky in the Frederick Forsyth novel, The Fourth Protocol (and the later film based on the novel).
- Michael Palin's 1987 comedy about provincial English seaside holidays in the 1950s was entitled East of Ipswich.
- In 2006 The Jarvis Cocker Record contained the track From Auschwitz to Ipswich written and performed by Jarvis.
- In Stardust, starring Charlie Cox, Claire Danes, Sienna Miller and Robert De Niro, Ipswich is mentioned at the beginning of the movie when Sienna Miller as Victoria says of her fiancé, "I can't exactly say no, after he's gone all the way to Ipswich!".
- In the Doctor Who episode "The End of the World" after the Doctor tells her to stay where she is Rose Tyler says "where am I gonna go, Ipswich?"
- In the Pilot episode of Queer as Folk, after Nathan asks Stuart if he could meet him later that night, Stuart answers "God knows where I'll be tonight, you know, I could be anywhere. I could be in Ipswich!"
- Matthew Freeman from Anthony Horowitz's novels The Power of Five is sent to Ipswich after the death of his parents
- In Tim Minchin's song Some People Have It Worse Than I - "I could be an Ipswich prostitute", referring to the 2006 spree killings.
- ^ List of English cities by population from Census 2001 figures
- ^ "An Etymology of "Ipswich"". http://www.xefer.com/2009/05/ipswich. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
- ^ J. Fairclough and S. J. Plunkett, 'Drawings of Walton Castle and other Monuments in Walton and Felixstowe', Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History 39 Part 4, 419–459. See also J. Fairclough, Boudica to Raedwald: East Anglia's Relations with Rome (Malthouse Press, Ipswich 2010), 174–77.
- ^ The so-called 'Whitton' villa, see J. Fairclough, 'Boudica to Raedwald' (cited above), 134–145.
- ^ "History of Medieval Ipswich". http://www.trytel.com/~tristan/towns/ipswich1.html. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- ^ ""England's Oldest Town"". http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/FeaturesBritain/EnglandOldestTown.htm. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
- ^ Emanuel Bowen, An Accurate Map of the County of Suffolk Divided into its Hundreds c. 1760
- ^ K. Wade, 'Gipeswic – East Anglia's first economic capital, 600–1066', in N. Salmon and R. Malster (eds), Ipswich From The First To The Third Millennium (Ipswich, 2001), 1–6; R. Hodges, Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Town and Trade AD 600–1000 (London 1982); S. Plunkett, Suffolk in Anglo-Saxon Times (Tempus, Stroud 2005), 76–78, 129–133, 148–52, 156–58, 200–202; Rhodri Gardner, 'Ipswich, Cranfield's Mill', in 'Archaeology in Suffolk 2005', Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History 41 Part 2, 2006, p.251; A. E. Verhulst, The Rise of Cities in North-Western Europe (Cambridge University Press 1999), pp. 27–30; R. Malster, A History of Ipswich (Phillimore, Chichester 2000), pp. 5–13.
- ^ "Gypiswic in Doomsday book". http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=51063. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
- ^ K. Wade, 'Gipeswic – East Anglia's First Economic Capital 600–1066,' in N. P. Salmon and R. Malster (Eds), Ipswich From the First to the Third Millennium (Papers from an Ipswich Society Symposium), (Ipswich Society, Ipswich 2001), 1–6, at pp. 3–4.
- ^ S. J. Plunkett, Suffolk in Anglo-Saxon Times (Tempus, Stroud 2005), 130–133, 201.
- ^ Wade 2001.
- ^ Wade 2001, 5.
- ^ R. Malster, A History of Ipswich (Phillimore, Chichester 2000), 13.
- ^ J. J. North, English Hammered Coinage (Spink and Son, London 1980), Volume I: Early Anglo-Saxon to Henry III, 'Mint Towns' (page 194), Ipswich, Suffolk: Edgar to John. Example figure:Aethelred II first hand type, Plate X no. 23, Cat. 766 & p. 120.
- ^ Geoffrey Martin, 'The Medieval and Early Modern Borough' in N. P. Salmon and R. Malster (Eds), Ipswich From the First to the Third Millennium (Papers from an Ipswich Society Symposium), (Ipswich Society, Ipswich 2001), 7–17.
- ^ Text of charter (translated into English) and image of 1200 Town Seal, see J. Wodderspoon, Memorials of the Ancient Town of Ipswich (Pawsey (Ipswich): Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans (London) 1850), 'Ancient Incorporation of the Town', pp 75–130, at pp 75–85.
- ^ Malster 2000, 41–45.
- ^ B. Zimmerman, 1899, 'The White Friars at Ipswich', Proc. Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 10 Part 2, 196–204, at p. 199.
- ^ Wodderspoon 1850, 331–332.
- ^ Malster 2000, 43–47, 63–67.
- ^ Malster 2000, 67.
- ^ J. M. Blatchly, A Famous Antient Seed-Plot of Learning (Ipswich School 2003), 27–41.
- ^ Thompson, Roger, Mobility & Migration, East Anglian Founders of New England, 1629–1640, Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1994
- ^ "Fisons at the root of modern agriculture". http://www.yara.com/en/about/history/stories/fisons_inter.html. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
- ^ http://www.eadt.co.uk/content/war/story.aspx?brand=EADOnline&category=War70&tBrand=EADOnline&tCategory=War70&itemid=IPED03%20Sep%202009%2008%3A42%3A18%3A703, Retrieved 20 Feb. 2010
- ^ "Tolly Cobbold Heritage". http://www.harwich.net/tolly/. Retrieved 18 June 2006.
- ^ "Borin Van Loon: Ipswich Historic Lettering". Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/ipswich_lettering/fredsmithandco.html&date=2009-10-26+00:29:39. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- ^ "PIONEERING MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR MODERN LISTED BUILDINGS". Context. September 1995. http://ihbc.org.uk/context_archive/47/williscarroon.htm.
- ^ "Ipswich – Arras". Ipswich Borough Council. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080330213916/http://www.ipswich.gov.uk/Partnerships/Ipswich+-+Arras.htm. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
- ^ "Ipswich wins Clean Britain Award 2007". Evening Star. 13 March 2007. http://www.eveningstar.co.uk/content/eveningstar/news/story.aspx?brand=ESTOnline&category=News&tBrand=ESTOnline&tCategory=news&itemid=IPED13%20Mar%202007%2015%3A10%3A35%3A483.
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- ^ "contact us". Spirit Yachts. http://www.spirityachts.com/spirityachts_contact.htm.
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Boroughs or districts Major settlements
- Bury St Edmunds
- Carlton Colville
- Needham Market
See also: List of civil parishes in Suffolk
Topics Members of the Hanseatic League by Quarter Wendish Quarter Saxon Quarter Baltic Quarter Westphalian
Principal Kontore Subsidiary Kontore Other cities Districts of the East of England Essex Hertfordshire Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire Norfolk Suffolk
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Ipswich — Ipswich, SD U.S. city in South Dakota Population (2000): 943 Housing Units (2000): 440 Land area (2000): 1.311053 sq. miles (3.395611 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.311053 sq. miles (3.395611… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
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