- Philip V of Macedon
The son of Demetrius II and Chryseis, Philip was nine years old at his father's death in 229 BC. His cousin, Antigonus Doson, administered the kingdom as regent until his death in 221 BC when Philip was seventeen years old.
On his ascent to the throne, Philip quickly showed that while he was young, this did not mean that Macedon was weak. In the first year of his rule, he pushed back the
Dardaniand other tribes in the north of the country.
The Social War
In the Social War (220 BC-217 BC), the Hellenic League of Greek states was assembled at Philip V’s instigation in
Corinth. He then led the Hellenic League in battles against Aetolia, Spartaand Elis. At the same time he was able to stamp on his own authority amongst his own ministers. His leadership during the Social War made him well-known and respected both within his own kingdom and abroad.
First Macedonian War
After the Peace of Naupactus in 217 BC, Philip V tried to replace Roman influence along the eastern shore of the Adriatic. He first tried to invade
Illyriafrom the sea, but with limited success. His first expedition in 216 BC had to be aborted, while he suffered the loss of his whole fleet in a second expedition in 214 BC. A later expedition by land met with greater success when he captured Lissusin 212 BC.
In 215 BC he entered into a treaty with
Hannibal, the Carthaginian general then in the middle of an invasion of Roman Italy. Their treaty defined spheres of operation and interest, but achieve little of substance or value for either side.
Philip became heavily involved in assisting and protecting his allies from attacks from the
Spartans, the Romans and their allies.
Rome's alliance with the
Aetolian Leaguein 211 BC effectively neutralised Philip's advantage on land. The intervention of Attalus I of Pergamumon the Roman side further exposed Philip's position in Greece.
Philip was able to take advantage of the withdrawal of Attalus from the Greek mainland in 207 BC, along with Roman inactivity and the increasing role of
Philopoemen, the strategosof the Achaean League. After sacking Thermum, the religious and political centre of Aetolia, Philip was able to force the Aetolians to accept his terms in 206 BC. The following year he was able to conclude the Peace of Phoenicewith Rome and its allies.
Expansion in the Aegean
Following an agreement with the
Seleucidking Antiochus III to capture Egyptian held territory from the boy king Ptolemy V, Philip was able to gain control of Egyptian territory in the Aegean Seaand in Anatolia.This expansion of Macedonian influence created alarm in a number of neighbouring states, including Pergamumand Rhodes. Their navies clashed with Philip’s off Chiosand Lade(near Miletus) in 201 BC. At around the same time, the Romans were finally the victorious over Carthage.
econd Macedonian War
In 200 BC, with Carthage no longer a threat, the Romans declared war on Macedon arguing that they were intervening to protect the freedom of the Greeks. After campaigns in
Macedonia in 199 BC and Thessalyin 198 BC, Philip and his Macedonian forces were decisively defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalaein 197 BC. The war also proved the superiority of the Roman legionover the Greek phalanx formation.
Alliance with Rome
The resulting peace treaty between Philip V and the Romans confined Philip to Macedonia and required him to pay 1000 talents
indemnity, surrender most of its fleet and provide a number of hostages, including his younger son Demetrius.After this, Philip cooperated with the Romans and sent help to them in their fight against the Spartans under King Nabisin 195 BC. Philip also supported the Romans against Antiochus III (192 BC-189 BC).
In return for his help when Roman forces under
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanusand his brother Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticusmoved through Macedon and Thracein 190 BC, the Romans forgave the remaining indemnity that he had to pay and his son Demetrius was freed. Philip then focused on consolidating power within Macedon. He reorganised the country's internal affairs and finances, mines were reopened and a new currency was issued.
However, Rome continued to be suspicious of Philip's intentions. Accusations by Macedon's neighbouring states, particularly
Pergamum, led to constant interference from Rome. Feeling the threat growing that Rome would invade Macedon and remove him as king, he tried to extend his influence in the Balkansby force and diplomacy. However, his efforts were undermined by the pro-Roman policy of his younger son Demetrius, who was encouraged by Rome to consider the possibility of succession ahead of his older brother, Perseus. This eventually led to a quarrel between Perseus and Demetrius which forced Philip to reluctantly decide to execute Demetrius for treason in 180 BC. This decision had a severe impact on Philip's health and he died a year later at Amphipolis.
He was succeeded by his eldest son Perseus, who ruled as the last king of
* The Oxford Classical Dictionary (1964)
* The Oxford History of the Classical World (1995)
* The Oxford Who's Who in the Classical World (2000)
* [http://virtualreligion.net/iho/philip_5.html Philip V] entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
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