- Red October (submarine)
"Red October" ( _ru. "Красный Октябрь", "Krasniy Oktyabr" ) is a fictitious "Typhoon" class submarine in the
Tom Clancynovel " The Hunt for Red October" and the film which followed. She was built with a revolutionary stealth propulsion system called a "caterpillar drive", which is described as a hydrojet system in the book. In the film however, it is shown as being a magnetohydrodynamic drive.
The drama of the story partially centers around the dual capabilities of this submarine. As a submarine of the Typhoon class, it carries many ballistic missiles armed with nuclear warheads. With a stealthy propulsion unit, it can no longer be detected by NATO naval vessels. As described in both the book and the film, these capabilities combine to create a horrific weapon, whereby the submarine could easily surface near a city, like Washington DC, fire its missiles, and destroy key targets before any government or military leaders could order a counterattack. One interpretation, as offered in the film and book, is that this submarine's existence is for one purpose: not as a deterrent to an American attack on the Soviet Union, but solely as a weapon of first strike. It thus becomes critical for the U.S. government to see this submarine either destroyed or captured.
Captain First Rank Marko Aleksandrovich Ramius was the first and last commanding officer of "Red October".
According to the story "The Hunt for Red October", in late 1984 Ramius and his command crew took the Red October out on exercises. Once at sea Ramius murdered the political officer and then turned the ship towards the United States. Despite efforts by the
Soviet Navy, "Red October" was able to reach USS "Dallas" and the United States was able to engage in a complicated rescue plan. Along for the ride on the "Dallas", and later on the "Red October", is a part-time CIA analyst named Jack Ryan, who read Ramius' intent and suggested setting up the rendezvous. The rescue plan resulted in the Russian Navy believing the ship had been destroyed. Though her survival was discovered by a Soviet attack submarine the Red October was able to destroy that submarine before it could report back that the Red October's sinking had been staged.
Most of the officers defected with Ramius but the commander of the "Dallas" concealed the defection from the rest of the crew, who were repatriated in due course. The sub was gutted by the U.S. Navy to discern its secrets. Sometime between a year and eighteen months later the remains of the ship were sunk in a deep ocean trench. The technology then seems to disappear, although there are later references in some other books, including "The Sum of All Fears".
In reality, a variant of the magnetohydrodynamic drive stated in the film has been tested, but proved too inefficient and cumbersome to be used as an effective means of a propulsion system on a ship. This type of propulsion system also would not be enclosed in a duct/pipe (as depicted in the film) in the "real world". A pump jet would be more efficient, but not enough for a submarine of that size.
In the series of books to come by Tom Clancy, the "Red October" adventure proved useful to Ryan's career. In later books, Ryan is able to use his heroics in obtaining the submarine as a lever with which to force a threatening KGB Secretary to defect to the US against his will (in the novel "
The Cardinal of the Kremlin"), ending the possibility of a Kremlin coup against a politically centrist Soviet government.
Years later the truth of these events came to light when political opponents of then President John Ryan, revealed his part in the affair. By this time the Soviet Union had collapsed and the prevailing opinion in Moscow seems to have been "Well Done", though they put the Russian hierarchy in a political bind vis-a-vis cooperation with the United States at a critical point.
In the story, "Red October" is the seventh Typhoon class hull built for the
Soviet Navy; the real seventh boat, hull number TK-210, was laid down in the late 1980s, canceled before it could have been commissioned and scrapped in 1990. None of the real Typhoon class submarines had 26 missile tubes or were considerably larger than the other Typhoon class SSBN's in the Russian Navy. Most Typhoon class subs were only about 175 meters long with about a 23 meter beam. The "Red October" would also have been about 5 tons heavier than the normal Typhoon class sub. No Soviet submarines were officially named "Red October". There are no submarines in existence that have used a form of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion.
In the film, the Red October appears much like a standard Typhoon-class submarine though it has a number of significant differences. The aft section of the submarine contains two ducts for the caterpiller drive. The upper rudder carries a towed sonar array which typical Typhoon-class submarines do not feature. Also the bridge tower of the submarine is taller and more simplified, with no large bulging lower section of a standard Typhoon bridge tower, but instead a much smaller bulge. The difference in appearance of the bridge tower may have been an error in the design of the model of the Red October as earlier on in the film, schematics of a Typhoon-class submarine are shown which display a standard Typhoon bridge tower but also carry the sonar array attached to the rudder as on Red October.
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/russia/941-list.htm Global Security Typhoon class ship list]
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