- Kurdistan National Assembly
name = Kurdish National Assembly
coa_pic = Emblem of the Presidency of the Kurdistan Region.png
house_type = Unicameral
leader1_type = Speaker of Parliament
leader1 = Adnan Mufti
party1 = PUK,
January 30, 2005
leader2_type = Deputy Speaker of Parliament
leader2 = Dr. Kamal Kirkuki
party2 = KDP
January 30, 2005
members = 111 Seats in the Assembly
Kurdistan Democratic Party Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Kurdistan Islamic Union Islamic Group of Kurdistan
Kurdistan Communist Party Assyrian Democratic Movement
Democratic Socialist Party
Chaldean Cultural Society
Chaldean Democratic Union Party
Democratic Bet-Nahrain Party
Farmers Movement Party
Kurdistan Democratic National Union
Kurdistan Toilers' Party
January 30, 2005
meeting_place = KRG Parliament Building
website = [http://perleman.org/Default.aspx Official WebSite]
Kurdistan National Assembly (Kurdish: "Civata Nîştimanî Kurdistan", or simply "Perleman", _ar. المجلس الوطني لكوردستان lit: "Al-Majlis Al-Watani Li Kurdistan") is the
parliamentof Kurdistan Regional Governmentin Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Kurdish parliament which formed a federal government and a legal system was established in
Hewlerin beginning of 1990s. It began to work after elections were held in Iraqi Kurdistan in May 1992 in which several politicalparties took part and tens of internationalobservers watched these elections. Because the two large parties, the KDP and PUK, had agreed upon a 7 percent treshold, all parties exept them were kept out of the parliament - with the exception of the formal 5 seats for the Assyrians. Of the remaining 100 seats the KDP got 51 and the PUK 49, but the two parties agreed that 50-50 was better, so the KDP gave one seat to the PUK.
During the past decades the parliament has passed several important laws regarding administration, political parties, the press, the
economy, the culture, societyand etc.
The Kurdish parliament establish relations with many other parliaments in the world, almost every foreign delegation to Kurdistan has visited the Kurdish parliament in
Hewlerthe capitalof the Kurdistan Regional Government.
The Kurdistan National Assembly
The Kurdistan National Assembly (KNA) is the Kurdistan Region’s democratically elected parliament. The KNA consists of one elected chamber.
Functions of the Kurdistan National Assembly
The three main functions of the KNA are: to examine proposals for new laws; ¬ to scrutinise government policy and administration; ¬ to debate the major issues of the day. Founding principlesThe founding principles of the KNA are liberty, pluralism, accountability, openness and the representation of all peoples in the Kurdistan Region.
History of the Assembly
To protect civilians from attacks by Iraqi military forces following the 1991 Gulf War, the US, UK and France initiated a no-fly zone above the 36th line of latitude which cuts across Kurdistan. On the ground, a security zone was established by military forces from eleven countries. These no-fly and security zones strongly supported and encouraged refugees, including those who had left in the 1970s, to return to their homes.Later in 1991, Saddam Hussein withdrew his forces and his administration, including the national flag, from parts of the Kurdistan Region. Compounding the hardship caused by an international UN embargo on Iraq, Saddam Hussein enforced an additional internal embargo on the region that stopped food and fuel supplies, disconnected electrical power and prevented the movement of people to other parts of the country.Faced with the administrative vacuum and double embargo, the Kurdistan Front, an alliance of diverse political groups in the Kurdistan Region, decided to hold a general election. Their goal was to establish an administration to provide for essential public services and to meet the basic needs of the people. The population also expressed a strong desire to choose its representatives. The election, held on 19 May 1992, was the first free and fair parliamentary election in the history of Iraq. Voter turnout was very high and the elections were deemed to be free, fair, and democratic by international observers. After decades of dictatorship, the people in Kurdistan were able to vote for their representatives.This regional election led to the formation of the first Kurdistan National Assembly and the establishment of the Kurdistan Regional Government. The leadership and the people of the Kurdistan Region decided to remain part of Iraq, and to adopt and abide by all national laws except for those that violated human and universal rights.By 15 July 1992, the Kurdistan National Assembly had convened. Law No. 1, the first law passed by the assembly, established it as the Region’s legislature.
Elections for the Kurdistan National Assembly are held at least every four calendar years, (as stipulated in Article 8 of the Kurdistan Electoral Law).The last Assembly election was on 30 January 2005, to coincide with Iraq’s national and provincial council elections.Anyone aged 18 or over who is a citizen of the Kurdistan Region and is on the electoral register is eligible to vote in a direct, universal and secret ballot. Elections for the KNA are based on a closed party-list proportional representation system. Electors vote for a party’s list of candidates, rather for an individual candidate. After the election results are announced, each party is allocated seats in proportion to the number of votes it received, using the ranking order of candidates on its list. To ensure representation of all groups, if no party or person representing a minority (such as Turkmen, Chaldeans or Assyrians) gains a seat, one seat will be allocated to a party or person representing that minority. 
tructure of the Kurdistan National Assembly
There are 111 seats in the Assembly (as stipulated in Law No. 1 passed by the KNA in 1992).Currently women hold 29 seats, making up 27% of the Assembly. The legal requirement is that at least 25% of the parliamentarians must be women (according to KNA Law No. 1, Article 22).The KNA is lead by the Speaker, Mr. Adnan Mufti, who is assisted in his duties by the Deputy Speaker, Dr Kamal Kirkuki.
The Kurdistan National Assembly has a number of committees which work on the following areas:
*General and Higher Education
Healthand Social Affairs
Industry, Energy, and minerals
*Religious Endowments and Affairs
Powers of the Kurdistan National Assembly
As provided in the federal constitution of Iraq  , the KNA has considerable power to debate and legislate on policy in a wide range of areas: health services ¬ education and training ¬ policing and security ¬ the environment ¬ natural resources ¬ agriculture ¬ housing ¬ trade, industry and investment ¬ social services and social affairs ¬ transport and roads ¬ culture and tourism ¬ sport and leisure ¬ ancient monuments and historic buildings The KNA shares legislative power with the federal authorities in these areas, but priority is given to the KNA’s laws: customs ¬ electric energy and its distribution ¬ general planning ¬ internal water resources In addition, under Article 121 of the Iraqi federal constitution the KNA has the right to amend the application of Iraq-wide legislation that falls outside of the federal authorities’ exclusive powers.
Landmark legislation passed by the Kurdistan National Assembly
The KNA has passed several laws that have contributed to the Region’s social and economic progress. These include: passing a modern and open investment law; ¬ significantly increasing the prison sentence for those committing so-called honour killings, which were previously given minimum sentences. Other legislation and issues that the KNA is considering are: a petroleum law for the Kurdistan Region, which has been drafted and is being debated; ¬ a constitution for the Kurdistan Region; the KNA has established a committee to look into this and produce a draft; ¬ limits to or a ban on the practice of polygamy. Members of the Kurdistan National AssemblyIn the current parliament elected on 30 January 2005, one member is independent and the others represent 14 different political parties, including Turkmen, Assyrian and Chaldean parties. Three members of the the KNA are Yezidis belonging to different political parties.  The formula for the allocation of seats is based on a first calculation using a simple quota (Hare quota), and subsequent calculations using the largest remainders.  These powers are granted in the federal constitution of Iraq, articles 114, 115, 117, 120, 121, 126 and 141.Members of the Kurdistan National AssemblyIndependent Electoral Commission of Iraq Regulation 14/2005 on the KNA elections
Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election, 1992
Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election, 2005
* [http://www.kurdistan-parliament.org/ Official website]
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