Atomic vapor laser isotope separation


Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

AVLIS Is an acronym which stands for atomic vapor laser isotope separation and is a method by which specially tuned lasers are used to separate isotopes of uranium using selective ionization of hyperfine transitions.

In the largest technology transfer in U.S. government history, in 1994 the AVLIS process was transferred to the United States Enrichment Corporation for commercialization. However, on June 9, 1999 after a $100 million investment, USEC cancelled its AVLIS program.

The AVLIS process provides high energy efficiency comparable with gas centrifuges, high separation factor, and low volume of radioactive waste.

AVLIS continues to be developed by some countries and it presents some specific challenges to international monitoring ( [http://www.cfr.org/publication/7876/laser_enrichment.html] ). Iran is now known to have had a secret AVLIS program. However, since it was uncovered in 2003, Iran has claimed to have dismantled it ( [http://www.iranwatch.org/privateviews/First%20Watch/perspex-fwi-Laser.pdf] , [http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefings/IranNuclear.htm] ).

Similar technology, using molecules instead of atoms, is the molecular laser isotope separation, MLIS.

Principle

The absorption lines of 235Uranium and 238U differ slightly due to hyperfine structure; for example, the 238U absorption peak shifts from 502.74 nanometers to 502.73 nm in 235U. AVLIS uses tunable dye lasers, which can be precisely tuned, so that only 235U absorbs the photons and selectively undergoes excitation and then photoionization. The ions are then electrostatically deflected to a collector, while the neutral unwanted uranium-238 passes through.

The AVLIS system consists from a vaporizer and a collector, forming the separation system, and the laser system. The vaporizer produces a stream of pure gaseous uranium.

The laser commonly used is a two-stage tunable pulsed dye laser usually pumped by a copper vapor laser; the master oscillator is low-power but highly precise, and its power is increased by a dye laser amplifier acting as optical amplifier. Three frequencies ("colors") of lasers are used for full ionization of uranium-235. [http://www.iraqwatch.org/controlled/annex3text.htm]

References


*Petr A. Bokhan, Vladimir V. Buchanov, Nikolai V. Fateev, Mikhail M. Kalugin, Mishik A. Kazaryan, Alexander M. Prokhorov, Dmitrij E. Zakrevskii: "Laser Isotope Separation in Atomic Vapor". Wiley-VCH, Berlin, August 2006, ISBN 3-527-40621-2

ee also

*Nuclear power
*Nuclear fuel cycle
*Gaseous diffusion
*Gas centrifuge
*Calutron
*Molecular laser isotope separation
*Chemical reaction by isotope selective laser (CRISLA)

External links

* [http://www.usec.com/newsroom/newsreleases/usecinc/1999/1999-06-09-usec-inc-suspends-avlis.htm USEC News Release Cancelling AVLIS]
* [http://www.iranwatch.org/privateviews/First%20Watch/perspex-fwi-Laser.pdf Report on Iranian AVLIS program] , PDF, 42KB.
* [http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefings/IranNuclear.htm Oxford Research Group report on Iran's nuclear activities] .
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/u-laser.htm Laser isotope separation uranium enrichment]
* [http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp?purl=/10102839-PDTP1e/native/ Overview of Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation] R.M. Feinburg and R.S. Hargrove. UCRL-ID-114671 August 1993.
* [http://www.llnl.gov/str/Hargrove.html Laser Isotope Separation] page at LLNL


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