- World Agudath Israel
World Agudath Israel (The World Jewish Union), usually known as the Aguda, was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi
Torah Judaism, in succession to "Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel" (Union of Faithful Jewry). Its strong base of support was located in Eastern Europebefore the Second World Warbut due to the revival of the Hasidicmovement it included Orthodox Jews throughout Europe.
World Agudath Israel was established at a conference held at
Kattowitz(Katowice) in 1912 after the Tenth World Zionist Congresshad defeated a motion by the Torah Nationalists Mizrachimovement for funding religious schools. Its aim was to perpetuate authentic Judaism by mobilizing Torah-loyal Jews to promote the supremacy of Torah in all problems facing Jews as individuals and as a nation. [ [http://www.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Aguddah.html About Agudath Israel] ]
Agudath Israel gained a significant following, particularly among Hasidic Jews, and even ran in Polish elections winning seats in that country's
parliament( Sejm). Among the elected representatives were Alexander Zusia Friedman, Rabbi Meir Shapiro, Rabbi Yosef Nechemya Kornitzer of Krakówand Rabbi Aharon Lewin of Reysha. Great Torah luminaries of the day at the helm of Agudath Yisroel included the Gerrer Rebbe and the Chafetz Chaim. In Latvia between 1922-1934 the Agudath Israel faction, led by Rabbi Mordechai Dubin, was present in Saeima(The Parliament). Another prominent member of Agudath Israel was Michoel Ber Weissmandl.
In Britain, the Agudath Israel movement was represented by the
Adath Israel Synagogue, formed in 1909 and then the Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregationsformed in 1926. By 1943 it represented approximately 5000 families and was led by Rabbi Dr Solomon Schonfeld. The British secretary of the Agudath Israel World Organization, the political wing of the movement, was Harry Goodman, publisher and editor of " Jewish Weekly". He played a key part in maintaining the Agudath Israel organization through World War II. [Pamela Shatzkes (2002) "Holocaust and Rescue: Impotent or Indifferent? Anglo-Jewry 1938-1945" Basingstoke: Palgrave, p.13-14]
Prior to World War II and the
Holocaust, Agudath Israel operated a number of Jewish educational institutions throughout Europe and continues to do so in both the United States as Agudath Israel of Americaand in Israel. Agudath Israel is guided by its Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah(Council of Sages) in Israel and the USA.
In the post-War period, Agudath Israel reached a
modus vivendiwith the State of Israel, which was predominantly led by secularists, and thus the need to secure the status quobetween Ashkenazi Rabbinical leaders and David Ben-Gurionwhich ensured Ashkenazi Rabbinical co-ordination with the state, as well as the implementation of such guarantees, such as being Shomer Shabbatand Shomer Kashrut. It has established itself as an Israeli political party winning seats in the Knesseteither as the Agudat Israelor in coalition with other Orthodox groups running under the name United Torah Judaism.
The World Agudath Israel Federation holds international conferences and Torah congressional meetings known as a "Knessia Gedola".
Agudath Israel of America
Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Politics/aguddat.html Agudat Israel] article from the Jewish Virtual Library
* Gershon C.Bacon, "The Politics of Tradition: Agudat Israel in Poland, 1916-1939", The Magnes Press, Jerusalem, 1996, ISBN 9652239623
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