Kumari Kandam


Kumari Kandam

Kumari Kandam ( _ta. குமரிக்கண்டம் "Kumarikkaṇṭam") is the name of a legendary sunken landmass said to have been located to the south of present-day Kanyakumari District at the southern tip of India in the Indian Ocean. The legend assigns the continent and its final submergence an antiquity ranging in tens of thousands of years. [ [http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=79&artid=13862 TamilNet: 07.01.05 Catastrophes of the past: poetic exaggeration or scientific facts? ] ] [ [http://koenraadelst.bharatvani.org/reviews/atlantis.html An Atlantis in the Indian Ocean ] ] [ [http://www.madurai.com/sangam.htm Tamil Sangams - Madurai ] ] [http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/mirrors/vv/literature/tlang.html]

The Legend in Tamil Literature

There are scattered references in Sangam literature, such as Kalittokai 104, to how the sea took the land of the Pandiyan kings, upon which they conquered new lands to replace those they had lost. [Harvnb|Ramaswamy|2004|p=143] There are also references to the rivers Pahruli and Kumari, that are said to have flowed in a now-submerged land.Harvnb|Ramaswamy|2000|p=584] The Silappadhikaram, a 5th century epic, stating that the the "cruel sea" took the Panidyan land that lay between the rivers Pahruli and the many-mountained banks of the Kumari, to replace which the Pandiyan king conquered lands belonging to the Chola and Chera kings (Maturaikkandam, verses 17-22). Adiyarkkunallar, a 12th century commentator on the epic, explains this reference by saying that there was once a land to the south of the present-day Kanyakumari , which stretched for 700 kavatams from the Pahruli river in the north to the Kumari river in the south.

This land was divided into 49 nadu, or territories, which he names as seven coconut territories ("elutenga natu"), seven Madurai territories ("elumaturai natu"), seven old sandy territories ("elumunpalai natu"), seven new sandy territories ("elupinpalai natu"), seven mountain territories ("elukunra natu"), seven eastern coastal territories ("elukunakarai natu") and seven dwarf-palm territories ("elukurumpanai natu"). All these lands, he says, together with the many-mountained land that began with Kumarikollam, with forests and habitations, were submerged by the sea.. Two these Nadus or territories were supposedly parts of present-day Kollam and Kanyakumari districts.

None of these texts name the land "Kumarikkandam" or "Kumarinadu", as is common today. The only similar pre-modern reference is to a "Kumarikandam" (written குமரிகண்டம், rather than குமரிக்கண்டம் as the legendary land is called in modern Tamil), which is named in the mediaeval Tamil text "Kantapuranam" either as being one of the nine continents, [Madras Tamil lexicon, [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:3074.tamillex குமரிகண்டம்] ] , or one of the nine divisions of India and the only region not to be inhabited by barbarians. [Harvnb|Ramaswamy|2000|p=582] 19th and 20th Tamil revivalist movements, however, came to apply the name to the legendary territories described in Adiyarkkunallar's commentary to the Silappadhikaram. [Harvnb|Ramaswamy|1999|p97] They also associated this territory with the legend of the Tamil Sangams, and said that the fabled cities of southern Madurai and Kapatapuram where the first two Sangams were said to be held were located on Kumarikkandam.

In Tamil national mysticism

In modern Dravidian ethnic nationalist literature, Kumari Kandam or "Lemuria" (a name made up in the 19th century to account for discontinuities in biogeography) was the "cradle of civilization", the origin of human languages in general and the Tamil language in particular. These ideas gained notability in Tamil academic literature over the first decades of the 20th century, and were popularized by the Tanittamil Iyakkam, notably by self-taught Dravidologist Devaneya Pavanar, who held that all languages on earth were merely corrupted Tamil dialects.

R. Mathivanan, then Chief Editor of the Tamil Etymological Dictionary Project of the Government of Tamilnadu, in 1991 claimed to have deciphered the Indus script as Tamil, following the methodology recommended by his teacher Devaneya Pavanar, presenting the following timeline (cited after Mahadevan 2002)::ca. 200,000 to 50,000 BC: evolution of "the Tamilian or "Homo Dravida",:ca. 200,000 to 100,000 BC: beginnings of the Tamil language:50,000 BC: Kumari Kandam civilisation:20,000 BC: A lost Tamil culture of the Easter Island which had an advanced civilisation:16,000 BC: Lemuria submerged:6087 BC: Second Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king:3031 BC: A Chera prince in his wanderings in the Solomon Island saw wild sugarcane and started cultivation in Tamilnadu.:1780 BC: The Third Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king:7th century BC: Tolkappiyam (the earliest extant Tamil grammar)

Mathivanan uses "Aryan Invasion" rhetoric to account for the fall of this civilization::"After imbibing the mania of the Aryan culture of destroying the enemy and their habitats, the Dravidians developed a new avenging and destructive war approach. This induced them to ruin the forts and cities of their own brethren out of enmity".

Mathivanan claims his interpretation of history is validated by the discovery of the "Jaffna seal", a seal bearing a Tamil-Brahmi inscription assigned by its excavators to the 3rd century BC (but claimed by Mathivanan to date to 1600 BC).

A [http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=79&artid=13862 supposed map] is available which shows a large land mass in the Indian Ocean stretching from Madagascar and East Africa in the West to Southeast Asia and Malaysia in the East. [ [http://thule.org/lemuria.html Lemuria ] ] [www.sepiamutiny.com/sepia/archives/004456.html]

Notes

References

*Iravatham Mahadevan, "Aryan or Dravidian or Neither? A Study of Recent Attempts to Decipher the Indus Script (1995-2000)" EJVS (ISSN 1084-7561) vol. 8 (2002) issue 1 (March 8). [http://www.ejvs.laurasianacademy.com/ejvs0801/ejvs0801.txt]
*Citation | last=Ramaswamy | first=Sumathi | title=Catastrophic Cartographies: Mapping the Lost Continent of Lemuria | journal=Representations | year=1999 | number=67 | pages=92-129
*Citation | last=Ramaswamy | first=Sumathi | title=History at Land's End: Lemuria in Tamil Spatial Fables | journal=The Journal of Asian Studies | year=2000 | volume=59 | issue=3 | pages=575-602
*Citation | last=Ramaswamy | first=Sumathi | title=The Lost Land of Lemuria: Fabulous Geographies, Catastrophic Histories | year=2004 | publisher=University of California Press | place=Berkeley | isbn=0520244400

ee also

* Silappatikaram
* Manimekalai
* Lemuria (continent)

External links

* [http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=79&artid=13862 Map of Kumari Kandam as per folklore]
* [http://koenraadelst.bharatvani.org/reviews/atlantis.html An Atlantis in the Indian Ocean]
* [http://www.madurai.com/sangam.htm Tamil Sangams]
* [http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/mirrors/vv/literature/tlang.html A short account on Tamil and (Tamil literary) history by C. V. Narasimhan]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kumari Kandam — Este artículo o sección sobre geografía y ficción necesita ser wikificado con un formato acorde a las convenciones de estilo. Por favor, edítalo para que las cumpla. Mientras tanto, no elimines este aviso puesto el 5 de junio de 2009. También… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Kumari Kandam — Localisation de Kumari Kandam Kumari Kandam ou encore Kumai Nadu est un continent légendaire englouti au sud de Kanyakumari, à l extrémité de l Inde. Kumari Kandam a souvent été comparée et assimilée à la Lémurie. D après la tradition Tamil, les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kumari Kandam — Kumarikkandam (குமரிக்கண்டம் Kumarikkaṇṭam ˈkumʌriˌkʌɳɖʌm; auch „Kumari Kandam“) ist der Name eines im modernen tamilischen Nationalismus zuweilen postulierten versunkenen Kontinents, der sich vom indischen Südkap Kanniyakumari aus nach Süden… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Anexo:Episodios de Los sábados secretos — Episodios de la serie norteamericana de televisión Los Sábados Secretos. 1° Temporada: 2008 2009 Episodio (Inglés) (Español Hispanoaméricano) Sinopsis …   Wikipedia Español

  • Episodios de Los Sábados Secretos — Anexo:Episodios de Los Sábados Secretos Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Episodios de la serie norteamericana de televisión Los Sábados Secretos. 1° Temporada Episodio (Inglés) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Lemuria (continent) — Lemuria (IPAEng|lɨˈmjʊəriə [OED] ) is the name of a hypothetical lost land variously located in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The concept s 19th century origins lie in attempts to account for discontinuities in biogeography. The concept of… …   Wikipedia

  • Dravidian civilization — The term Dravidian civilization refers to the civilization of the ancient speakers of the proto Dravidian languages. Due to the obscure history of the proto Dravidian speakers, and prevalence of several theories about their origin, the term… …   Wikipedia

  • Mahamuni Mayan — Le mahā múni Mayan (மாமுனி Māmuṉi, du sanskrit signifiant « grand ascète ») ou encore Brahma rishi Mayan[1] est un héros prométhéen de la culture tamoule. Personnage central de diverses épopées de la tradition littéraire Sangam (le… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kumarik kantam — Kumarikkandam (குமரிக்கண்டம் Kumarikkaṇṭam ˈkumʌriˌkʌɳɖʌm; auch „Kumari Kandam“) ist der Name eines im modernen tamilischen Nationalismus zuweilen postulierten versunkenen Kontinents, der sich vom indischen Südkap Kanniyakumari aus nach Süden… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kumarikhandam — Kumarikkandam (குமரிக்கண்டம் Kumarikkaṇṭam ˈkumʌriˌkʌɳɖʌm; auch „Kumari Kandam“) ist der Name eines im modernen tamilischen Nationalismus zuweilen postulierten versunkenen Kontinents, der sich vom indischen Südkap Kanniyakumari aus nach Süden… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.