Cocoa solids


Cocoa solids
A bowl of cocoa powder

Cocoa solids are the low-fat component of chocolate. When sold as an end product, it may also be called cocoa powder, cocoa, and cacao. In contrast, the fatty component of chocolate is cocoa butter. Cocoa butter makes up for 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties.[1] Cocoa liquor is the melted combination of cocoa butter and cocoa solids. Cocoa solids are obtained by extraction from the cocoa bean.

Contents

Extraction

Cocoa powder is extracted from roasted, cleaned, deshelled cocoa beans and grinded into a paste, called chocolate liquor. Pressing and milling the pressed chocolate liquor separates the cocoa powder from the fat.[2] This may be accomplished by a press, or by the Broma process. The resulting cocoa powder can be further processed with a hydroxide or carbonate of sodium of potassium.[3] Natural process cocoa powder (not processed) has a tart, bitter taste and is light in color. Processed cocoa powders are deeper in color and richer in flavour. Alkalization reduces the sour, bitter properties of natural cocoa powder improving the taste. Alkalization can also alter the solubility of the cocoa powder.[4] Dutch process chocolate has been treated so as to neutralize the acidity and has a milder flavor; it is also the traditional chocolate brown in color.[5]

Physical Properties

Cocoa solids can range from a light brown to a deep reddish brown color. The varying color corresponds to the pH value of the Cocoa. Safe, acceptable pH for cocoa ranges from 5.4 to 8.1 depending on how processed the cocoa powder is. Cocoa with a pH of 5.4-5.8 are considered natural powders and have a light brown color. Lightly alkalized cocoa solids have a pH of 6.8-7.2 and are a darker brown color. Moderately alkalized cocoa solids have a pH of 7.2-7.5 and have a deep reddish brown color, and heavily alkalized powders with a pH of 7.5-8.1 have dark red and black colors.[6]

Nutrition

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 954 kJ (228 kcal)
Carbohydrates 57.90 g
Fat 13.70 g
Protein 19.60 g
Water 3.00 g
Calcium 128 mg (13%)
Iron 13.86 mg (107%)
Magnesium 499 mg (141%)
Manganese 3.837 mg (183%)
Phosphorus 734 mg (105%)
Potassium 1524 mg (32%)
Sodium 21 mg (1%)
Zinc 6.81 mg (72%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Cocoa powder contains several minerals including calcium, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. All of these minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either cocoa butter or cocoa liquor.[7] Cocoa solids also contain 230mg of caffeine and 2057mg of theobromine, which are mostly absent from the other components of the cocoa bean.[8]

Flavenoids

Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, a type of polyphenolic. The amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes, but cocoa powder can contain up to 10% its weight in flavonoids.[7] Flavanols are one of six compounds futher classified as flavenoids. Flavanols, which are also found in fruits and vegetables, are linked to certain health benefits linked to coronary heart disease and stroke. The topic of how flavanols benefit cardiovascular health is still under debate. It has been suggested that the flavanols may take part in mechanisms such as nitric oxide and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet effects.[9] Benefiting these mechanisms may improve endothelial function, lipid levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance.[9]


Accordingly, health professionals recommend consuming chocolate in forms that are high in cocoa solids while low in cocoa butter, such as hot cocoa.[10]


See also

References

  1. ^ Steinberg, F.M.; Bearden, M.N., Keen, C.L. (February 2003). "Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (2): 215–223. http://www.sciencedirect.com.login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/science/article/pii/S0002822302000329#sec1.4. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  2. ^ Kattenberg, H.R. (1987). U.S. Patent No.4704292. Washington, D.C: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 
  3. ^ Kattenberg, H.R. (1987). U.S. Patent No.4704292. Washington, D.C: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 
  4. ^ "Understanding Chocolate". http://www.hersheys.com/nutrition-professionals/cocoa-powder/composition/natural-alkalized.aspx. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Marble Cake", Food Network
  6. ^ "Understanding Chocolate". http://www.hersheys.com/nutrition-professionals/cocoa-powder/composition/natural-alkalized.aspx. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Steinberg, F.M.; Bearden, M.M., Keen, C.L. (February 2003). Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health. 103. pp. 215–223. http://www.sciencedirect.com.login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/science/article/pii/S0002822302000329#sec1.4. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  8. ^ "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24, (2011)". http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/cgi-bin/list_nut_edit.pl. 
  9. ^ a b Corti, R.; Flammer, A.J., Hollenberg, N.K. (2009). "Cocoa and Cardiovascular Health". Circulation. Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine 119: 1433–1441. doi:10.1161/​CIRCULATIONAHA.108.827022. http://circ.ahajournals.org.login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/content/119/10/1433.long. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Hot Cocoa Tops Red Wine And Tea In Antioxidants; May Be Healthier Choice", Science Daily, November 6, 2003, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/11/031106051159.htm .




Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cocoa bean — Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa beans before roasting …   Wikipedia

  • Cocoa butter — Raw cocoa butter Fat composition Saturated fats 57 64%: stearic acid (24 37%), capric acid (0 10%), myristic acid, (0 4%), arachidic acid (1%), lauri …   Wikipedia

  • Cocoa — may refer to: Related to chocolate Theobroma cacao, the cocoa tree Cocoa bean, seed of Theobroma cacao Cocoa liquor or chocolate liquor, pure liquid chocolate extracted from the cocoa bean, including both cocoa butter and cocoa solids Cocoa… …   Wikipedia

  • cocoa — cocoa1 /koh koh/, n. 1. a powder made from roasted, husked, and ground seeds of the cacao, Theobroma cacao, from which much of the fat has been removed. 2. cacao (def. 2). 3. a beverage made by mixing cocoa powder with hot milk or water. 4.… …   Universalium

  • Cocoa — /koh koh/, n. a city in E central Florida. 16,096. * * * ▪ food Introduction       highly concentrated powder made from chocolate liquor a paste prepared from cocoa beans, the fruit of the cacao and used in beverages and as a flavouring… …   Universalium

  • Omanhene Cocoa Bean Company — is a chocolate company headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Omanhene is famous for the milk chocolate that they produce. All of Omanhene s chocolate beans come from the lush forests in Ghana. The difference between Omanhene s chocolate… …   Wikipedia

  • Chocolate — For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the …   Wikipedia

  • Types of chocolate — Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. Chocolate is a range of products derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (i.e. cocoa butter and/or plant oils) and finely …   Wikipedia

  • White chocolate — is a confection of sugar, cocoa butter, and milk solids. The melting point of cocoa butter is high enough to keep white chocolate solid at room temperature, yet low enough to allow white chocolate to melt in the mouthFact|date=August 2008. White… …   Wikipedia

  • Couverture chocolate — Warmed couverture chocolate for baking. Couverture chocolate is a very high quality chocolate that contains extra cocoa butter (32 39%). The higher percentage of cocoa butter, combined with proper tempering, gives the chocolate more sheen, firmer …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.