Fatimah


Fatimah

A series of articles on


Fatimah


Life
Family tree · Fatimah marital life · Descendants · Succession to Muhammad · Fadak · Book of Fatimah · Umar at Fatimah's house


Perspectives
Shi'a · List of Shi'a titles for Fatima Zahra · The Fourteen Infallibles v · d · e

Fatimah (Arabic: فاطمة‎; fāṭimah; pronounced /ˈfɑːtˤɪma/; c. 605[1][2] or 615[3] – 632) was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.[1][2] She is regarded by Muslims as an exemplar for men and women.[4][5] She remained at her father's side through the difficulties suffered by him at the hands of the Quraysh of Mecca. After migration to Medina, she married Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin, and was mother to five of his children. She died a few months after her father, and was buried in Jannat Al-Baqi' in the city of Medina near by Imam Hasan's grave, the exact location of her grave is unknown to many. Most Shias believe that she was injured when defending Ali against the first Caliphate, and that this incident led to her early death.[1]

According to Shia, she seems to have performed only three acts of political significance, each recorded in almost all sources of Shia, though in different versions. First, after the conquest of Mecca she refused her protection to Abu Sufyan ibn Harb; second, after the death of Muhammad she defended Ali's cause, opposed the election of Abu Bakr, and had violent disputes with him and particularly with Umar; third, she laid claim to the property rights of her father and challenged Abu Bakr's categorical refusal to cede them, particularly Fadak and a share in the produce of Khaybar.[6]

Contents

Birth

Fatimah (c. 605–632), the daughter of Muhammad, was born in Mecca to Khadija, the first wife of Muhammad. There are differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth, but the widely accepted view is that she was born five years before the first Qur'anic revelations, during the time of the rebuilding of the Kaaba in 605,[7][8][9] although this does imply she was over 18 at the time of her marriage which was unusual in Arabia.[1] Shia sources, however, state that she was born either two or five years after the first Qur'anic revelations,[3] but this timeline would imply her mother was over fifty at the time of her birth.[1]

Fatimah is the fourth of Muhammad's daughters after Zaynab, Ruqayya, and Umm Kulthum.[1] While according to Shi'a scholars, Fatimah was Muhammad's only biological daughter.[10][11] , they further claimed, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum are actually, being the daughters of Hala, the sister of Khadijah, who were adopted by Muhammad and Khadijah at her death, however the well known fact and accepted is that [Mohammad] had four daughter's all from Khadijah[12]

Titles

Arabic calligraphy reading Fatimah az-Zahra.

Fatimah is given many titles by Muslims to show their admiration of her moral and physical characteristics. The most used title is "az-Zahra" (meaning "the shining one") and she is commonly referred to as Fatimah Zahra.[2][13] She was also known as Ummu Abeeha (Mother of her Father) and "al-Batul" (the chaste and pure one) as she spent much of her time in prayer, reciting the Qur'an and in other acts of worship.[2]

Muslims regard Fatimah as a loving and devoted daughter, mother, wife, a sincere Muslim, and an exemplar for women.[4][14] It is believed that she was very close to her father and her distinction from other women is mentioned in many hadith.[15] After Khadijah, Muslims regard Fatimah as the most significant historical figure, considered to be the leader (Arabic: Sayyidih) of all women in this world and in Paradise.[4][16][17] It is because of her moral purity that she occupies an analogous position in Islam to that Mary occupies in Christianity. She was the first wife of Ali, whom Sunnis consider the fourth Rashidun caliph and Shias consider the first infallible Imamah, the mother of the second and third Imams, and the ancestor of all the succeeding Imams; indeed, the Fatimid Caliphate is named after her.[18]

Early life

Following the birth of Fatimah, she was personally nursed contrary to local customs where the newborn were sent to "wet nurses" in surrounding villages.[19] She spent her early youth under the care of her parents in Mecca in the shadow of the tribulations suffered by her father at the hands of the Quraysh.[1]

According to tradition, on one occasion while Muhammad was performing the salah (prayer) in the Kaaba, Amr ibn Hishām (Abu Jahl) and his men poured camel placenta over him. Fatimah upon hearing the news rushed to her father and wiped away the filth while scolding the men.[1][20]

Following the death of her mother, Fatimah was overcome by sorrow and found it very difficult to come to terms with her death. She was consoled by her father who informed her that he had received word from angel Gabriel that God had built for her a palace in paradise.[1]

Marriage

Many of Muhammad's companions asked for Fatimah's hand in marriage including Abu Bakr and Umar. Muhammad turned them all down saying that he was awaiting a sign of her destiny.[1] Ali, Muhammad's cousin, also had a desire to marry Fatimah but did not have the courage to approach Muhammad due to his (Ali's) poverty. Even when he mustered up the courage and went to see Muhammad, he could not vocalise his intention but remained silent. Muhammad understood the reason for his being there and prompted Ali to confirm that he had come to seek Fatimah in marriage. He suggested that Ali had a shield, which if sold, would provide sufficient money to pay the bridal gift (mahr).[1][2] Muhammad put forward the proposal from Ali to Fatimah who remained silent and did not protest which Muhammad took to be a sign of affirmation and consent.[1][21]

The actual date of the marriage is unclear, but it most likely took place in 623, the second year of the hijra, although some sources say it was in 622. Fatimah is reported to have been between the ages of 9 and 19 at the time of her marriage while Ali was between 21 and 25.[1][2][3] Muhammad told Ali that he had been ordered by God to give his daughter Fatimah to Ali in marriage.[22] Muhammad said to Fatimah: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me."[2] Ali sold his shield to raise the money needed for the wedding, as suggested by Muhammad.[1] However, Uthman ibn Affan, to whom the shield was sold, gave it back to Ali saying it was his wedding gift to Ali and Fatimah.[2] Muhammad himself performed the wedding ceremony and two of his wives, Aisha and Umm Salama, prepared the wedding feast with dates, figs, sheep and other food donated by various members of the Medinan community.[1] According to Hossein Nasr, their marriage possesses a special spiritual significance for all Muslims because it is seen as the marriage between the greatest saintly figures surrounding Muhammad.[22]

Their marriage lasted about ten years and ended when Fatimah died. Although polygyny is permitted by Islam, Ali did not marry another woman while Fatimah was alive.[22]

Descendants

Fatimah was survived by two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum.[1] Controversy surrounds the fate of her third son, Muhsin. Shias say that she miscarried following an attack on her house by Abu Bakr and Umar,[23] while Sunnis insist that Muhsin died in his infancy of natural causes.[19]

Modern descendants of Muhammad trace their lineage exclusively through Fatimah, as she was the only surviving child of Muhammad. Muhammad had no sons who reached adulthood.[24]

Fatimah's descendants are given the honorific titles sharif (meaning noble), sayyid (meaning lord or sir) and respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'as place much more emphasis and value on the distinction.[25][26]

Life before the death of Muhammad

Poverty

After her marriage to Ali, the wedded couple led a life of abject poverty in contrast to her sisters who were all married to wealthy individuals.[2] Ali had built a house not too far from Muhammad's residence where he lived with Fatimah. However, due to Fatimah's desire to be closer to her father, a Medinan (Haritha bin al-Numan) donated his own house to them.[citation needed]

At the beginning they were extremely poor. For several years after her marriage, she did all of the work by herself. The shoulder on which she carried pitchers of water from the well was swollen and the hand with which she worked the handmill to grind corn where often covered with blisters.[27] Fatimah vouched to take care of the household work, make dough, bake bread, and clean the house; in return, Ali vouched to take care of the outside work such as gathering firewood, and bringing food.[28] Ali worked to irrigate other peoples lands by drawing water from the wells which caused him to complain of chest pains.[2] Their circumstances were akin to many of the Muslims at the time and only improved following the Battle of Khaybar when the produce of Khaybar was distributed among the poor. When the economic situations of the Muslims become better, Fatimah gained some maids but treated them like her family and performed the house duties with them.[1]

Another reference to their simple life comes to us from the Tasbih of Fatimah, a divine formula that was first given to Fatimah when she asked her father for a kaneez (servant girl) in order to help her with household chores. Her father asked her if she would like a gift instead that was better than a servant and worth more than everything in the world. Upon her ready agreement, he told her to recite at the end of every prayer the Great Exaltation, Allahu Akbar 34 times, the Statement of Absolute Gratitude, Alhamdulillah 33 times and the Invocation of Divine Glory, Subhan'Allah 33 times, totalling 100. This collective prayer is called the Tasbih of Fatima.[29]

Tree shia islam n3 .pdf

Marriage Relationship

According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, Fatimah had occasional disputes with her husband and often sought the intercedence of her father who showed signs of great satisfaction upon reconciling the couple's differences. On one occasion, a member of the house of Hisham ibn al-Mughirah proposed that Ali marry a woman from their clan. Ali did not immediately reject the proposal and when word reached Muhammad he is reported to have said, "Fatima is a part of me and whoever offends her offends me."[30]

Muhammad re-iterated his affection for Fatimah when she was made aware that Ali had proposed to a daughter of Abu Jahl. From the pulpit Muhammad pronounced, "she is indeed a part of me" and that Ali would have to first divorce Fatimah before the marriage could go ahead. Ali was given the name of Abu Turab (the man of dust) by Muhammad. One of the explanations for this is linked to the disputes with Fatimah where, instead of arguing with Fatimah, Ali would go and put dust on his head.[31]

Shia acknowledge the saying of Muhammad, "Fatimah is a part of me and whoever offends her offends me", however the context of the reporting in reference to Ali is disputed. "Among the many fabricated stories told against Imam Ali was that he had asked for Abu Jahl's (the chief of infidels) daughter's hand in marriage. When this news reached Fatimah (A), she rushed to her father who found out the falsity of the story."[32]

Shia say this statement was used by Fatimah herself when she spoke to Abu Bakr and Umar, stating that they had both displeased her.[33]

On the battlefield

Following the Battle of Uhud, Fatimah tended to the wounds of her father and husband, and took it upon herself to regularly visit the graves of all those who died in the battle and pray for them. Fatimah, along with her husband, was also called upon by Abu Sufyan to intercede on his behalf with Muhammad while attempting to make amends following the violation of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Abu Sufyan also asked for Fatimah's protection when she went to Mecca while it was under occupation which she refused under instruction from her father.[1]

In the Quran

Some verses in the Qur'an are associated to Fatimah and her household by classical exegetes, although she is not mentioned by name. According to J. D. McAuliffe, two of the most important verses include the verse of purification, which is the 33rd ayah in sura al-Ahzab[34] and the 61st ayah in sura Al-i-Imran.[35][36] In the first verse, the phrase "people of the house" (ahl al-bayt) is ordinarily understood to consist of Muhammad, Fatimah, her husband Ali and their two sons (al-Tabari in his exegesis also mentions a tradition that interprets "people of the house" as Muhammad's wives; for Ibn al-Jawzi, the order of these options is reversed).[36] The second verse refers to an episode in which Muhammad proposed an ordeal of mutual adjuration (mubahala) to a delegation of Christians. Fatimah, according to the "occasion for the revelation" of this verse, was among those offered by Muhammad as witnesses and guarantors.[36]

Muslim exegesis of the Qur'anic verse 3:42, links the praise of Mary, the mother of Jesus, with that of Fatimah based on a quote attributed to Muhammad that lists the outstanding women of all time as Mary, Asiya (the wife of Pharaoh), Khadija and Fatimah (the all Muslim commentaries insists upon the absolute superiority of Fatimah).[36]

Life after the death of Muhammad

Location of grave of Fatema (marked *) and others at J.Baqi, Medina
grave of Fatema(single front one) and others at J.Baqi,Medina

Caliphate of Abu Bakr

For the few months that she survived following the death of her father, Fatimah found herself indirectly at the center of political disunity. Differing accounts of the events surrounding the commencement of the caliphate exist which were the cause of the Shia and Sunni split. According to the Sunnis the majority of Muslims at the time of Muhammed's death favoured Abu Bakr as the Caliph while a portion of the population supported Fatimah's husband, Ali.[1] Shias believe that Ali was appointed by Muhammed to be the new caliph at Ghadir Al-Khumm.[citation needed] Some Sunnis dispute this claim while others accept the event of Ghadir Al-Khumm but do not accept his caliphate.[citation needed]

Following his election to the caliphate after a meeting in Saqifah, Abu Bakr and Umar with a few other companions headed to Fatimah's house to obtain homage from Ali and his supporters who had gathered there. Then Umar threatened to set the house on fire unless they came out and swore allegiance with Abu Bakr.[37] There isn't consensus among the sources about what happened next.

According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, some Shia sources say that upon seeing them, Ali came out with his sword drawn but was disarmed by Umar and their companions. Fatimah, in support of her husband, started a commotion and threatened to "uncover her hair", at which Abu Bakr relented and withdrew.[1]

Shia historians hold that Umar called for Ali and his men to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. When they did not, Umar broke in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken by being pressed between the door and the wall causing her to miscarry Muhsin which led to her eventual death.[38][39] Another version of the events says that Umar sent a force led by his slave-boy Qunfud to Fatimah's house instructing them to bring Ali to the mosque. Arriving at the house, Qunfud requested permission to enter, which was refused by Ali causing Qunfud to return to Abu Bakr and Umar and relate the events, who instructed them to go back and enter the house by force if necessary. Qunfud and his men returned but were this time refused permission by Fatimah which caused Qunfud to send his men back to Abu Bakr and Umar for further instructions who told them to burn the house down if necessary in order to bring Ali to them.[38][39].[1]

Inheritance

After the death of her father, Fatimah approached Abu Bakr and asked him to relinquish her share of the inheritance from Muhammad's estate. Fatimah expected the land of Fadak (situated 30 mi (48 km) from Medina[40]) and a share of Khaybar would be passed onto her as part of her inheritance. However, Abu Bakr rejected her request citing a narration where Muhammad stated that prophets do not leave behind inheritance and that all their possessions become sadaqah to be used for charity. Fatimah was upset at this flat refusal by Abu Bakr and did not speak to him until her death (however some Sunni sources claim she had reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr before she died).[1] Shias contend that Fadak had been gifted to Fatimah by Muhammad and Abu Bakr was wrong in not allowing her to take possession of it.[41]

In the hadith collected by Muhammad al-Bukhari Aisha stated the following;

(mother of the believers) After the death of Allah's Apostle Fatimah the daughter of Allah's Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity)." Fatimah, the daughter of Allah's Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatimah remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Apostle.
—Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 53, One-fifth of Booty to the Cause of Allah (Khumus)[42]

According to the one of the famous scholars, "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, (Book of the Major Classes), Volume 2, by Ibn Sa’d, pages 391–394

Fatimah asked Abu Bakr, "When you die who will inherit you?" He replied, "My children and relatives." She said, "What is the justification of your becoming inheritor of the Prophet keeping us away?" He replied, "O daughter of the Apostle of Allah! I did not inherit your father’s land, gold, silver, slave, or property. She said, "The share of Allah (Khums i.e. one-fifth) which He has allotted to us and which is only our share is in your hands." Thereupon he replied, "I heard the Apostle of Allah saying, "It is the food that Allah makes me eat. When I die it will be distributed among the Muslims" (page 392). Abu Bakr said, "Verily, the Apostle of Allah said, "We do not leave inheritance, what we leave goes into sadaqah. Verily, the members of Muhammad’s family will get provision from this money. By Allah! I shall not change the distribution of the sadaqah of the Apostle of Allah from what it was in the time of Apostle of Allah. I shall continue to spend them under the same heads as the Apostle of Allah was spending. So Abu Bakr refused to give anything to Fatimah. Consequently Fatimah became angry with Abu Bakr and left him. She did not talk with him till she died. She lived six months after the Apostle of Allah. (page 392)

Fatimah came to Abu Bakr and demanded her share in the inheritance. Al-Abbas came to him and demanded his share in the inheritance. Ali came with them. Thereupon Abu Bakr said, "The Apostle of Allah said, "We leave no inheritance, what we leave behind us is sadaqah." I shall make provisions for those for whom the Prophet had made." On this Ali said, "Sulayman (Solomon) inherited Dawud (David), and Zakariya said, ‘He may be my heir and the heir of the children of Yaqab (Zachariah and John the Baptist)’". Abu Bakr said, "This is as this is. By Allah! You know it as I know." Thereupon Ali said, "This is the Book of Allah that speaks." Then they became quiet and retired. (page 393).

Death

Following the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad summoned Fatimah and informed her that he would be dying soon but also informed her that she would be the first of his household to join him.[1][2] Some days after this discussion, Muhammad died, following which Fatimah was grief stricken and remained so for the remainder of her life until she died less than six months later, in the month of Ramadhan.[2] Sunnis believe that Fatimah reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr prior to her death although the Shia Muslims believe in her anger with him until her death.[1][9]

There are two distinct views on the manner of her death between the Shias and Sunnis.

The Sunnis state that on the morning of her death, she took a bath, put on new clothes and lay down in bed. She asked for Ali and informed him that her time to die was very close. Upon hearing this news, Ali began to cry but was consoled by Fatimah who asked him to look after her two sons and for him to bury her without ceremony. After her death, Ali followed her wishes and buried her without informing the Medinan people.[2]

Shias, however, maintain that Fatimah died as a result of injuries sustained after her house was raided by Umar ibn al-Khattab who burnt the house and stomed her house by pushing the door to the farthest extent, cracking her rib-cage whilst she was pregnant.Note(this accident is also had been afirmed by the sufi(nagina mosque order) scholar Maulana shibli's famous book AL-farook but he has described the other reasons for this incident.)[43][44][45][46] Omar not only murdered her in the process but, her fetus child Mohsen who was aborted shortly thereafter as a direct result of his attack.[45] Muhammad appeared in a dream and informed Fatimah that she would be passing away the next day. Fatimah informed her husband Ali and asked him not to allow those who had done injustice to her, to be involved in her janazah (prayer performed in congregation after the death of a Muslim) or take part in the burial.[47]

Some sources say, the next day when she died, her two sons were the first family members to learn of her death and immediately proceeded to the mosque to inform their father who, upon hearing the news, fell unconscious. When he regained consciousness, Ali, according to Fatimah's wishes, performed the janazah and buried her during the night on 3rd Jumada al-Thani 11 AH (632) making out three other false graves to ensure her real grave could not be identified. With him were his family and a few of his close companions.[48] Her grave is in Jannat Al-Baqi', Medina beside Imam Hasan and other Imams. The single separate grave in the group is of Fatimah as per Dawoodi Bohra and other Shias.

Views

Shia view

Fatimah, regarded as "the Mother of the Imams", plays a special role in Shia piety. She has a unique status as Muhammad's only surviving child, the wife of Ali, their first Imam, and the mother of Hasan and Husayn. Fatimid Caliphate/ Imamate is based on her name. Fatimid faith continue further in Ismaili/Bohras (refer Tree on right). She is believed to have been immaculate, sinless and a pattern for Muslim women. Although leading a life of poverty, the Shia tradition emphasizes her compassion and sharing of whatever she had with others.[49]

According to Mahmoud Ayoub, the two main images of Fatimah within the Shia tradition is that of "Eternal Weeper" and "the Judge in the hereafter".[50] According to Shia tradition, the suffering and death of Fatimah was the first tragedy of Islam. She spent her last days mourning at the death of her father. Fatimah eternally weeps at the death of her two sons, who were murdered by the Umayyads. Shias believe they share in Fatimah's suffering by weeping for her sorrows. The tears of the faithful is also believed to console Fatimah.[51] Shias hold that Fatimah will play a redemptive role as the mistress of the day of judgment in the hereafter as a reward for her suffering in this world.[52]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Fatimah", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Fatimah bint Muhammad. Muslim Students' Association (West) Compendium of Muslim Texts.
  3. ^ a b c Ordoni (1990) pp.42-45
  4. ^ a b c Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:819
  5. ^ Fadlallah, chapter three
  6. ^ "Fatema". Encyclopedia Iranica. 
  7. ^ Parsa, 2006, pp. 8-14
  8. ^ MSN Encarta article on Fatimah
  9. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica
  10. ^ Al-Tijani in his The Shi'ah are (the real) Ahl al-Sunnah on Al-Islam.org note 274
  11. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.32
  12. ^ Template:Ordoni
  13. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.98
  14. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.?
  15. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:111
  16. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.117
  17. ^ Tahir-ul-Qadri (2006), pp.19-24
  18. ^ Esposito (1999) p.?
  19. ^ a b Ghadanfar, p?
  20. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.99
  21. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.100
  22. ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005712/Ali. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 
  23. ^ Ordoni, Abu-Muhammad. "47". Fatima the Gracious. pp. 206. 
  24. ^ Armstrong (1993) p.?
  25. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Ali". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 
  26. ^ "Sayyid". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9065994/sayyid. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  27. ^ Ashraf (2005), pp.42-43
  28. ^ Ordoni (1990), p.140
  29. ^ Tasbih-e-Fatima
  30. ^ al-Balād̲h̲urī, Ansāb, i, 403; Tirmid̲h̲ī, ii, 319, etc. From "Fatimah", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online
  31. ^ Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, Cairo 1313, iv, 326; Buk̲h̲ārī, ed. Krehl, ii, 440, etc From "Fatimah", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online
  32. ^ - Fatimah ['a] The Gracious by Abu Muhammad Ordoni Published by: Ansariyan Publications Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran
  33. ^ ibn Qutayba, Abu Muhammad. Al-Imama wa-al-siyasa. 1. Dar ul-marifa. pp. 14. 
    al-Qurashi, Baqir (2006). The Life of Fatimah az-Zahra. Ansariyan Publications. pp. 240–241. 
    Ordoni, Abu-Muhammad (1992). "52". Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. pp. 255. 
  34. ^ Quran 33:33
  35. ^ Quran 3:61
  36. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Fatima
  37. ^ Madelung, 1997, p. 43
  38. ^ a b Ordoni, Abu-Muhammad (1992). "47". Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. pp. 205–207. 
  39. ^ a b al-Qurashi, Baqir (2006). The Life of Fatimah az-Zahra. Ansariyan Publications. pp. 217–220. 
  40. ^ Imam Malik's Muwatta, Book 41, Number 41.2.13
  41. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.101
  42. ^ Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:325
  43. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IEB13E9NuE
  44. ^ http://muxlim.com/blogs/salvation2010/how-was-fatima-sa-killed/
  45. ^ a b http://www.almujtaba.com/articles/3/000988.html
  46. ^ http://www.alhsa.org/forum/showthread.php?t=173863
  47. ^ Ordoni, Abu-Muhammad (1992). "54". Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. p. 261. 
  48. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.103
  49. ^ John Esposito (1998), p.112
  50. ^ Ayoub (1978), p.40, 19
  51. ^ Ayoub (1978), p.45–46
  52. ^ Ayoub (1978), p.19

References

Primary Sources

Books and journals

  • Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-250886-5. 
  • Ashraf, Shahid (2005). Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. ISBN 8126119403. 
  • Ayoub, Mahmoud (1978). Redemptive Suffering in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of (Ashura) in Twelver Shi'Ism. 
  • Esposito, John (1990). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195107999. 
  • Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195112344. 
  • Fadlullah, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn. Fatimah al-Ma`sumah (as): a role model for men and women. London: Al-Bakir Cultural & Social Centre. http://al-islam.org/fatimahrolemodel/. 
  • Ghadanfar, Mahmood Ahmad. Great Women of Islam. Darussalam. ISBN 9960897273. 
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960. 
  • Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad Kazim Qazwini (1992). Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN B000BWQ7N6. 
  • Parsa, Forough (فروغ پارسا) (2006). "Fatima Zahra Salaamullah Alayha in the works of Orientalists" (فاطمهٔ زهرا سلام‌الله علیها در آثار خاورشناسان)". Nashr-e Dānesh 22 (1). 0259-9090.  (In Persian)
  • Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad (2006). Virtues of Sayyedah Fatimah. Minhaj-ul-Quran Publications. ISBN 9693202252. 

Encyclopedias

External links

  • Fatimah by Jean Calmard, article at Enyclopaedia Iranica

Shia sources



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  • Fatimah Jackson — Fatimah Jackson, full name Fatimah Linda Collier Jackson is an African American biologist and anthropologist. She is a professor of Applied Biological Anthropology at the University of Maryland and has been teaching there for over 15 years. [… …   Wikipedia

  • Fatimah bint Amr — ( ar. فاطمة بنت عمر) (died 576) was Muhammad s grandmother.She was married to Abd al Muttalib ibn Hashim.Her full name was: Fatimah daughter of Amr ibn A idh ibn Imran ibn Makhzum. Her mother s name was Sahre, Sahre s mother was Tahmur. Tahmur… …   Wikipedia

  • Fatimah bint Husayn — ( ar. فاطمة بنت حسين) was, according to a Sunni source, the daughter of Umm Ishaq bint Talhah and Husayn ibn Ali. Husayn was the third Shi a Imam and Umm Ishaq was the daughter of the prominent Muslim general, Talha ibn Ubayd Allah.… …   Wikipedia

  • Fatimah bint al-Khattab — was the sister of the second Sunni Caliph: Umar. She was married to Sa id ibn Zayd. See also *Fatima (name)*Sahaba …   Wikipedia

  • Fatimah bint al-Hasan — Fātimah bint al Hasan ibn ‘Alī (Arabic: فاطمة بنت الـحسن بن علي ) was a daughter of Hasan ibn ‘Alī, wife of ‘Alī ibn Husayn (fourth Twelver Imām), and mother of Muhammad al Bāqir (fifth Twelver Imām). Her kunya was Umm ‘Abd Allāh [Thahdhib al… …   Wikipedia

  • Fatimah Hashim — Tun Fatimah Hashim (born December 25, 1924) [ [http://www.wanita umno.org.my/berita eksklusif 30.html Wanita Umno page] ] is a Malaysian freedom fighter and former minister in the Malaysian cabinet. Along with her husband, Tan Sri Abdul Kadir… …   Wikipedia

  • Fatimah Hashim — Tun Fatimah Hashim (* 25. Dezember 1924 in Kampung Parit Kurma, Muar, Johor; † 9. Januar 2010 in Kuala Lumpur) war eine malaysische Politikerin. Biografie Nach dem Schulbesuch an der Sekolah Melayu Perempuan Mersing in Johor war sie als Lehrerin… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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