- Soil solarization
Soil Solarization is an environmentally-friendly method of using
solar powerfor controlling disease agents in the soil by mulchingthe soil, usually with a transparent polyethylenecover.It may also describe methods of decontaminating soil using sunlight or solar power.
Soil solarization (also referred to as solar heating of the soil in early publications) is a relatively new soil disinfestation method, first described in 1976 by Katan et al., for controlling soilborne pathogens and weeds, mostly as a pre-planting soil treatment. It was achieved by covering (mulching, tarping) the soil with transparent polyethylene during the hot season, thereby heating it and killing the pests. The publication described in detail the method, its principles and potential in disease and weed control under field conditions. It presented the results of studies initiated in 1973 as presented at a meeting of the
Phytopathological Society of Israelin February 1975.
A 2008 study used a solar cell, to generate an electric field for electrokinetic (EK) remediation of cadmium-contaminated soil. It was found that a solar cell could be used to drive the electromigration of cadmium in contaminated soil, and removal efficiency achieved by solar cell was comparable with that achieved by conventional power supply. cite journal |author=Yuan S, Zheng Z, Chen J, Lu X |title=Use of solar cell in electrokinetic remediation of cadmium-contaminated soil |journal=J. Hazard. Mater. |volume= |issue= |pages= |year=2008 |month=June |pmid=18656308 |doi=10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.038 |url=]
In Korea in order to evaluate the potential use for ex situ remediation, a solar-driven, photocatalyzed reactor system was constructed and applied for the treatment of soil slurry and groundwater contaminated with benzene using selected advanced oxidation processes (AOP) processes. The remediation method was trialled at a contaminated gas station site and achieved 98% degradation, and lead to a substantial increase in the removal of benzene. cite journal |author=Cho IH, Chang SW |title=The potential and realistic hazards after a solar-driven chemical treatment of benzene using a health risk assessment at a gas station site in Korea |journal=J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng |volume=43 |issue=1 |pages=86–97 |year=2008 |month=January |pmid=18161562 |doi=10.1080/10934520701750090 |url=]
Attempts were made to use solar energy for controlling disease agents in soil and in plant material already in the ancient civilization of India. In
1939, Groashevoy, who used the term "solar energy for sand disinfection," controlled Thielaviopsis basicola upon heating the sand by exposure to direct sunlight.
Soil solarization is the third approach for soil
disinfestation; the two other main approaches, soil steamingand fumigation; were developed at the end of the 19th Century. The idea of solarization was based on observations by extension workers and farmers in the hot Jordan Valley, who noticed the intensive heating of the polyethylene-mulched soil. The involvement of biological controlmechanisms in pathogen control and the possible implications were indicated in the first publication, noticing the very long effect of the treatment. In 1977, American scientists from the University of Californiaat Davis reported the control of Verticilliumin a cotton field, based on studies started in 1976, thus denoting, for the first time, the possible wide applicability of this method.
It should be emphasized that the use of polyethylene for soil solarization differs in principle from its traditional agricultural use. With solarization, soil is mulched during the hottest months (rather than the coldest, as in conventional plasticulture which is aimed at protecting the crop) in order to increase the maximal temperatures in an attempt to achieve lethal heat levels.
In the first 10 years following the 76 publication soil solarization was investigated in at least 24 countries (today - more than 50), mostly in the hot regions, although there were some important exceptions. The studies demonstrated the effectiveness of solarization with various crops (vegetables, field crops, ornamentals and fruit trees) against many pathogens, weeds and a soil arthropod. Pathogens and weeds which are not controlled by solarization were also detected. In parallel, the biological, chemical and physical changes taking place in the solarized soil during and after the solarization process, interactions with other methods of control and many other topics, were investigated. Some findings, e.g. long-term effects, biological control and increased growth response were verified in various climatic regions and soils. This demonstrates involvement of general mechanisms in solarization.
simulationmodels were developed, and can be used as a guidelines by researchers and growers which are interested to employ solarization, and are not sure whether the ambient conditions in their place are suitable for solarization.
Studies of the improvement of solarization by integrating it with other methods or by solarizing in closed glasshouses, or studies concerning commercial application by developing mulching machines were also carried out.
The use of solarization in existing orchards (e.g. controlling Verticillium in
pistachioplantations) is an important deviation from the standard preplanting method and was reported as early as 1979.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Solarization — See also Solarisation for the photographic effect. Solarization refers to a phenomenon in physics where a material undergoes a temporary change in color after being subjected to high energy electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet light or… … Wikipedia
Tylenchulus semipenetrans — Citrus nematode Swollen female citrus nematode. Body of female is slightly crescent shaped. (Source: Nemaplex) Scientific classification Kingdom … Wikipedia
Senecio vulgaris — Common groundsel Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae … Wikipedia
Hebrew University of Jerusalem — Infobox University name =Hebrew University of Jerusalem native name =האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים established =1918 type =Public endowment = staff = faculty =1,200 president =Menachem Magidor provost = principal = rector = Sarah Stroumsa (Oct.… … Wikipedia
Kearney Research and Extension Center — The University of California s Kearney Research and Extension Center, the largest field station in the UC system, is an active extension facility dedicated to agricultural research. It is located on the border of the cities of Parlier and Reedley … Wikipedia
Nutrilite — est une marque de minéraux, vitamines, et suppléments diététiques créé en 1934 par le Dr. Carl F. Rehnborg. Les produits Nutilite sont actuellement fabriqués par Access Business Group, une filiale de Alticor dont les produits sont vendus à… … Wikipédia en Français
No-till farming — The article Conservation tillage redirects to this page. This article primarily discusses No till farming, which is one of several different conservation tillage techniques. Some others are Strip till and Minimum tillage … Wikipedia
Sudden oak death — acutie Oak Decline 240px Canker on an infected oak Scientific classification Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Chromalveolata … Wikipedia
Glossary of phytopathology — This is a glossary of some of the terms used in phytopathology.Phytopathology is the study of plant diseases. It is a multi disciplinary since prerequisites for disease development are the presence of a susceptible host species, a pathogen and… … Wikipedia
Lichtenberg figure — Lichtenberg figures (Lichtenberg Figuren, or Lichtenberg Dust Figures ) are branching electric discharges that sometimes appear on the surface or the interior of insulating materials. They are named after the German physicist Georg Christoph… … Wikipedia