Fawlty Towers


Fawlty Towers
Fawlty Towers
Fawlty Towers title card.jpg
Series title card. The "Fawlty Towers" sign changed in every episode except one.
Format Comedy
Created by John Cleese
Connie Booth
Written by John Cleese
Connie Booth
Directed by John Howard Davies
Bob Spiers
Starring John Cleese
Prunella Scales
Andrew Sachs
Connie Booth
Brian Hall
Ballard Berkeley
Gilly Flower
Renee Roberts
Theme music composer Dennis Wilson
Opening theme Fawlty Towers
Ending theme Fawlty Towers
Country of origin United Kingdom
No. of series 2
No. of episodes 12 (List of episodes)
Production
Running time 28–36 minutes
Production company(s) BBC
Distributor BBC Worldwide
Broadcast
Original channel BBC2
Original run 19 September 1975 – 25 October 1979

Fawlty Towers is a British sitcom produced by BBC Television and first broadcast on BBC2 in 1975. Twelve television program episodes were produced (two series each of six episodes). The show was written by John Cleese and his then wife Connie Booth, both of whom played major characters. The first series in 1975 was produced and directed by John Howard Davies; the second in 1979 was produced by Douglas Argent and directed by Bob Spiers.

Inspired by the rude behaviour of the proprietor of a hotel in the seaside town of Torquay, on the "English Riviera", the show follows Basil Fawlty (Cleese) in his running of the fictional Fawlty Towers hotel in the same area.

In a list of the BFI TV 100 drawn up by the British Film Institute in 2000, voted by industry professionals, Fawlty Towers was placed first.[1] It was also voted fifth in the BBC's "Britain's Best Sitcom" poll in 2004.[2]

In 1997, "The Germans" was ranked #12 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time.[3]

Contents

Origins

In May 1970 the Monty Python team stayed at the Gleneagles Hotel (which is referred to in "The Builders" episode) in Torquay whilst filming on location.[4] John Cleese became fascinated with the behaviour of the owner, Donald Sinclair, whom Cleese later described as "the most marvellously rude man I've ever met."[citation needed] This behaviour included Sinclair throwing a timetable at a guest who asked when the next bus to town would arrive;[citation needed] and placing Eric Idle's bag (containing squash gear) behind a wall in the garden on the suspicion that it contained a bomb (it actually contained a ticking alarm clock).[5] He also criticised the American-born Terry Gilliam's table manners for not being "British" (that is, he switched hands with his fork whilst eating). Cleese and Booth stayed on at the hotel after filming, furthering their research of the hotel owner. Cleese later played a hotel owner called Donald Sinclair in the movie Rat Race.

At the time, Cleese was a writer on the 1970s British TV sitcom Doctor in the House for London Weekend Television. An early prototype of the character that became known as Basil Fawlty was developed in an episode ("No Ill Feeling") of the third Doctor series (titled Doctor at Large). In this edition, the main character checks into a small town hotel, his very presence seemingly winding up the aggressive and incompetent manager (played by Timothy Bateson) with a domineering wife. The show was broadcast on 30 May 1971.[6] Cleese parodied the contrast between organisational dogma and sensitive customer service in many personnel training videotapes issued with a serious purpose by his company, Video Arts.

Cleese said in 2009 that the first Fawlty Towers script, written with then-wife Connie Booth, was rejected by the BBC. At a 30th-anniversary event honouring the show, Cleese said,

"Connie and I wrote that first episode and we sent it in to Jimmy Gilbert," the executive "whose job it was to assess the quality of the writing said, and I can quote [his note to me] fairly accurately, 'This is full of clichéd situations and stereotypical characters and I cannot see it as being anything other than a disaster.' And Jimmy himself said, 'You're going to have to get them out of the hotel, John, you can't do the whole thing in the hotel.' Whereas, of course, it's in the hotel that the whole pressure cooker builds up."[7]

Cleese was paid £6,000 for 43 weeks' work and supplemented his income by appearing in television commercials.[7][8]

Bill Cotton, the BBC's Head of Light Entertainment in the mid-1970s, said[citation needed] after the first series was produced that the show was a prime example of the BBC's relaxed attitude to trying new entertainment formats and encouraging new ideas. He said that when he read the first scripts he could see nothing funny in them but trusting that Cleese knew what he was doing, he gave the go-ahead.[citation needed] He said that the commercial channels, with their emphasis on audience ratings, would never have let the programme get to the production stage on the basis of the scripts.[citation needed]

Production

Although the series is set in Torquay in Devon, none of it was shot in south west England. For the exterior filming, the Wooburn Grange Country Club in Buckinghamshire was used instead of a hotel.[9][10] In several episodes of the series (notably The Kipper and the Corpse, The Anniversary and Basil the Rat) the entrance gate at the bottom of the drive states the real name of the location. This listed building later served as a nightclub named "Basil's" for a short time after the series ended before being destroyed by a fire in March 1991.[11][12] The remnants of the building were demolished and a housing estate was built on the site.[13] Other location filming was done mostly around Harrow, notably the 'damn good thrashing' scene in Gourmet Night where Basil loses his temper and attacks his car with a tree branch which was filmed at the T-junction of Lapstone Gardens and Mentmore Close (51°34′52″N 0°18′33″W / 51.581103°N 0.309072°W / 51.581103; -0.309072).

In the episode "The Germans", the opening shot is of Northwick Park Hospital. In the episode "Gourmet Night", the exterior of Andre's restaurant was filmed on Preston Road in the Harrow area. The launderette next door to the restaurant still exists today and Andre's is now a Chinese restaurant called "Wings".

Cleese and Booth were married to each other at the time of the first series. By the second, they had been divorced for almost a year, after ten years of union (1968–78).[14]

Both Cleese and Booth were so keen on every script being perfect, some episodes took four months and ten drafts to write until they were satisfied.[15]

Plot directions and examples

The series focuses on the exploits and misadventures of short-fused hotelier Basil Fawlty, his wife Sybil and their employees, porter and waiter Manuel, maid Polly, and (in the second series) chef Terry. The episodes typically revolve around Basil's efforts to succeed in 'raising the tone' of his hotel and his increasing frustration at the numerous complications and mistakes, both his own and those of others, which prevent him from doing so. Much of the humour comes from Basil's overly aggressive manner, engaging in angry but witty arguments with guests, staff and in particular his formidable wife, whom he addresses (in a faux-romantic way) with insults such as "that golfing puff adder", "my little piranha fish" and "my little nest of vipers". Despite this, he frequently feels intimidated, she being able to stop him in his tracks at any time, usually with a short, sharp cry of "Basil!" At the end of some episodes, Basil succeeds in annoying (or at least bemusing) the guests and frequently gets his comeuppance.

The plots are occasionally intricate and always farcical, involving coincidences, misunderstandings, cross-purposes and meetings both missed and accidental. The innuendo of the bedroom farce is sometimes present (often to the disgust of the socially conservative Basil) but it is his eccentricity, not his lust, that drives the plots. The events test what little patience Basil has to the breaking point, sometimes causing him to have a near total breakdown by the end of the episode.

The guests at the hotel are typically comic foils to Basil's anger and outbursts. Each episode's one-shot guest characters provide a different characteristic that he cannot stand (including promiscuity, working class or foreign). Requests both reasonable and impossible test his temper. Even the afflicted seem to annoy him, with the episode "Communication Problems" revolving around the havoc caused by the frequent misunderstandings between the staff and the hard-of-hearing Mrs Richards. By the end, Basil faints just at the mention of her name. This episode is typical of the show's careful weaving of humorous situations through comedy cross-talk. The show also uses mild black humour at times, notably when Basil is forced to hide a dead body and in Basil's comments to Sybil ("Did you ever see that film, How to Murder Your Wife? ... Awfully good. I saw it six times.") and the guests ("May I suggest that you consider moving to a hotel closer to the sea? Or preferably in it.").

Basil's physical outbursts are primarily directed at the waiter Manuel, an emotional but largely innocent Spaniard whose confused English vocabulary causes him to make elementary mistakes. Basil has beaten hapless Manuel with a frying pan and smacked Manuel's forehead with a spoon. The violence towards Manuel is one of the few reasons for the show's negative criticism. Sybil, on the other hand, is always condescending towards Manuel, excusing his behaviour to guests with, "oh, he's from Barcelona."

Basil often displays blatant snobbishness in order to climb the social ladder, frequently expressing disdain for the "riff-raff", "cretins" and "yobbos" that he believes to regularly populate his hotel. His desperation is readily apparent, as he makes increasingly hopeless manoeuvres and painful faux pas in trying to curry favour with those he perceives having superior social status. Yet, he finds himself forced to serve those individuals that are "beneath" him. As such, Basil's efforts tend to be counter-productive, with guests leaving the hotel in disgust and his marriage (and sanity) stretching to the breaking point.

Characters

Basil Fawlty

Basil Fawlty

Basil Fawlty, played by John Cleese, is a snobbish and miserly misanthrope who is desperate to belong to a higher social class. He sees a successful hotel as a means of achieving this ("turn it into an establishment of class...") yet his job forces him to be pleasant to people he despises.

He is terrified of his wife Sybil Fawlty. He yearns to stand up to her, but his plans frequently conflict with her demands. She is often verbally abusive (memorably describing him as "an ageing, brilliantined stick insect") but although he towers over her, he often finds himself on the receiving end of her temper, verbally and physically. Basil usually turns to Manuel or Polly to help him with his schemes, while trying his best to keep Sybil from discovering them. However, Basil occasionally laments the time when there was passion in their relationship, now seemingly lost. Also, it appears that he still does care for her. The penultimate episode — "The Anniversary" — is about his efforts to put together a surprise anniversary party, involving their closest friends. Things go wrong as Basil pretends the anniversary date doesn't remind him of anything, just to enhance the surprise (even accepting a slap in the process). Sybil believes he really forgot and leaves in a huff. In an interview in the DVD box set, Cleese claims that this episode deliberately takes a slightly different tone from the others, fleshing out their otherwise inexplicable status as a couple (as well as saying that, if a third series had been made, there would have been similar episodes).

In keeping with the lack of explanation about the marriage, not much is revealed of the characters' back-stories. It is known that Basil served in the British Army and saw action in the Korean War, possibly as part of his National Service. (John Cleese was only 13 when the Korean War ended.) Basil exaggerates this period of his life, proclaiming to strangers: "I killed four men." To this Sybil jokes that "He was in the Catering Corps. He used to poison them." Basil is often seen wearing a military tie (as well as that of the Royal Agricultural College), and his moustache seems to betray an Army background. He also claims to have sustained a shrapnel injury to his leg, although apparently it tends to flare up at suspiciously convenient times. The only person Basil consistently exhibits patience and decent manners towards is old and senile Major Gowen, a veteran officer of one of the World Wars (which one is never specified) who permanently resides at the hotel. When interacting with Manuel, Basil displays a rudimentary ability with Spanish( Basil states that he "learned classical Spanish, not the strange dialect he [Manuel] seems to have picked up"); this ability is also ridiculed, as in the first episode where a guest, whom Basil has immediately dismissed as a working-class bloke, communicates fluently with Manuel in Spanish after Basil was unable to do so.

Cleese described Basil as thinking that "he could run a first-rate hotel if he didn't have all the guests getting in the way," and as being "an absolutely awful human being", but says that in comedy, if an awful person makes people laugh, people unaccountably feel affectionate toward him.[16] Indeed, he is not entirely unsympathetic. The "Hotel Inspectors" and "Waldorf Salad" episodes feature guests who are shown to be deeply annoying with constant, and unreasonable demands. In "Gourmet Night", the chef gets drunk and is unable to cook dinner, leaving Basil to scramble in an attempt to salvage the evening. Much of the time, Basil is an unfortunate victim of circumstance.

Sybil Fawlty

Sybil Fawlty, played by Prunella Scales, is Basil's wife. Energetic and petite, she prefers a working wardrobe of tight skirt suits in shiny fabrics and sports a tower of permed hair necessitating the use of overnight curlers. She is often a more effective manager of the hotel, making sure Basil gets certain jobs done or stays out of the way when she is handling difficult customers. Despite this, she rarely participates directly in the running of the hotel; during busy check-in sessions or meal-times, while everyone else is busy working, she is frequently talking on the phone to one of her friends with her phrase "Oohhh, I knoooooooow", or chatting to customers. She has a distinctive conversational tone and braying laugh, which her husband compares to "someone machine-gunning a seal". Being his wife, she is the only regular character who refers to Basil by his first name. When she barks his name at him, he flinchingly freezes in his tracks.

Basil refers to her by a number of epithets, occasionally to her face, including "that golfing puff-adder", "the dragon", "toxic midget", "the sabre-toothed tart", "my little kommandant", "my little piranha fish", "my little nest of vipers", and "you rancorous, coiffured old sow". Despite these less than complimentary nicknames, Basil is terrified of her. There is only one time that he loses patience and snaps at her. Basil: "Shut up, I'm fed up.", Sybil :"Oh you've done it now."

Sybil and Basil Fawlty are said to have married on 17 April 1958 and started their hotel in 1960. Prunella Scales has said that the reason Sybil married Basil was because his origins were of a higher social class than hers. In Gourmet Night she recounts an anecdote about "Uncle Ted and his crate of brown ale." This and some of Sybil's behaviour suggests a working-class background.

Polly Sherman

Polly Sherman, played by Connie Booth, is a waitress and general helper at the hotel. She often stands as the voice of sanity during chaotic moments, but is frequently embroiled in ridiculous masquerades as she loyally attempts to aid Basil in trying to cover a mistake or keep something from Sybil.

In "The Anniversary" she complied with Basil's request that she impersonate a purportedly ill Sybil in front of the Fawltys' closest friends, under the mask of semi-darkness and a makeshift disguise. In this case there was a condition: she would only assist him if he lent her the money he had previously refused to lend.

Polly is generally good-natured but sometimes shows her frustration, and odd moments of malice. In The Kipper and the Corpse, the pampered shih-tzu dog of an elderly guest bit Polly and Manuel. As revenge Polly laced the dog's sausages with hot pepper, chilli powder and Tabasco sauce causing it to take ill.

Polly is apparently employed part-time (during meal times). In the first series she is said to be an art student who, according to Basil, has spent three years at university. Polly is not referred to as a student in the second series. Despite her part-time employment, as the most competent of the hotel staff, she is frequently saddled with many other duties. In one episode, she is seen to draw a sketch (presumably an impressionistic caricature) of Basil, which everyone but Basil immediately recognises. Polly is also a student of languages, displaying ability with both Spanish and German. In "The Germans" Basil alludes to Polly's polyglot inclination by saying that she does her work "while learning two oriental languages". Like Manuel, she has a room of her own at the hotel.

Manuel

Manuel, a waiter played by Andrew Sachs, is a well-meaning but disorganised and confused Spaniard from Barcelona with a poor grasp of the English language and customs. He is verbally and physically abused by his boss. When told what to do, he often answers, "¿Qué?" ("What?"). Manuel's character was used to demonstrate Basil's instinctive lack of sensitivity and tolerance. Every episode would involve Basil becoming enraged at Manuel's confusion at his boss's bizarre demands and even basic requests. Manuel is afraid of Fawlty's quick temper and violent assaults, yet often expresses his appreciation for being given employment. He is relentlessly enthusiastic and is proud of what little English he knows.

During the series, Sachs was twice seriously injured while playing Manuel. Cleese describes using a real metal pan to knock him unconscious in "The Wedding Party", although he would have preferred to use a rubber one. The original producer/director, John Howard Davies, explains that he made Basil use a metal one and that he was responsible for most of the violence on the show, which he felt was essential to the type of comical farce that they were creating. Later, when his clothes were treated to give off smoke after he escapes the burning kitchen in "The Germans", the corrosive chemicals ate through them and gave Sachs severe burns.[17]

Manuel's exaggerated Spanish accent is part of the humour of the show. Manuel actor Andrew Sachs' native language is German; he emigrated to Britain as a child.[18]

The character's nationality was switched to Italian (and the name to Paolo) for the Spanish dub of the show, while in Catalonia he is a Mexican (still called Manuel).[19]

Other regular characters and themes

Terry, played by Brian Hall, is the laid-back Cockney chef at Fawlty Towers.[20] Terry's cooking methods are somewhat casual, which frustrates and worries the neurotic Basil. He appears in only the second series of episodes. Terry used to work in Dorchester (not at The Dorchester, as believed by a guest). In "The Anniversary" Terry and Manuel come to blows since he doesn't like anyone else cooking in his kitchen, and proceeds to sabotage the paella Manuel is making for Sybil, leading to fisticuffs at the end of the episode.

Major Gowen, played by Ballard Berkeley, is a slightly senile, amiable old soldier who is a permanent resident at the hotel.[21][22] He is one of the few guests whom Basil seems to like. This is because of his former military status, making him a symbol of the establishment status that Basil craves. He is often introduced as their "oldest resident". He enjoys talking about the world outside, especially the cricket scores and workers' strikes, and is always on the lookout for the newspaper. In the episode "The Germans", he shows that he has trouble forgiving the Germans because of the wars; the best he can say is that German women make good card players. In the same episode, he also demonstrates his outdated racial attitudes when he comments about the ethnic difference between "wogs" and "niggers" — but in a manner innocent of malice or bigotry. Despite his good intentions, the Major can cause Basil's plans to go awry, notably in the episode "Communication Problems", when Basil tries his best to keep the money he won in a bet a secret from Sybil.

Miss Tibbs & Miss Gatsby, played by Gilly Flower and Renee Roberts respectively, are the other two permanent residents. Seemingly inseparable, these sweet-natured, dotty spinsters appear to have taken a fancy to Basil, feeling that they need to take care of him. In response Basil vacillates between superficial charm and blunt rudeness during his conversations with them.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

Audrey, had one on-screen appearance in "The Anniversary". Audrey is Sybil's lifelong best friend, and is mostly acknowledged during gossipy telephone calls to Sybil. Talking with Audrey is a refuge for Sybil. When times get tough (Audrey has a dysfunctional relationship with her husband George), Sybil will offer solutions and guidance, often resulting in the catchphrase "Ohhh, I knowwww..." when she tries to commiserate with Audrey's problems. In Audrey's one on-screen appearance she is played by actress Christine Shaw.

The Paperboy, though rarely seen, is revealed to be the prankster who rearranges the letters on the "Fawlty Towers" sign to sometimes crude phrases.[27] This may have been because of Basil's anger when he is late with a delivery. The shot of the hotel's sign appears at the beginning of every episode but one, "The Germans", when a hospital is used, since it is the only episode which does not begin at the hotel. During the first series, the sign loses letters each episode until almost no letters are left. Episode five brings the first anagram: "Warty Towels". In the second series, the first episode sign correctly spells 'Fawlty Tower', but changes in each subsequent episode, from the correct spelling to various anagrams.

The sign changes as follows:

  • Episode 1: "Fawlty Towers" (the letter "S" is askew)
  • Episode 2: "Fawlty Tower" (the letter "L" is askew)
  • Episode 3: "Fawty Tower" (the letter "W" is askew)
  • Episode 4: "Fawty Toer"
  • Episode 5: "Warty Towels"
  • Episode 7: "Fawlty Tower" (the letter "L" is askew)
  • Episode 8: "Watery Fowls"
  • Episode 9: "Flay Otters"
  • Episode 10: "Fatty Owls"
  • Episode 11: "Flowery Twats"
  • Episode 12: "Farty Towels"

Guest characters

Episode guide

The first edition of Fawlty Towers was originally broadcast on 19 September 1975. The 12th and final show was first shown on 25 October 1979. The first series was directed by John Howard Davies, the second by Bob Spiers. Both series had their premieres on BBC2.

Production of the last two episodes was disrupted by a strike of BBC technical staff, which resulted in the recasting of the role of Reg (the wisecracking friend of Basil and Sybil) in "The Anniversary", and delayed the episode's transmission date by one week. The episode "Basil the Rat" was also delayed, not being screened until the end of a repeat showing six months later.

Not the Nine O'Clock News was originally scheduled to debut after an episode of Fawlty Towers and Cleese was to have introduced Not the Nine O'Clock News in a sketch referring to the technicians' strike, explaining (in character as Basil Fawlty) that there was no show ready that week, so a "tatty revue" would be broadcast instead. However, the 1979 general election intervened, and Not the Nine O'Clock News was postponed as being too political. Later that year, Cleese's sketch was broadcast, but its original significance was lost.

When originally transmitted, the individual episodes had no on-screen titles. The ones in common currency were first used for the VHS release of the series in the 1980s. There were working titles, such as "USA" for "Waldorf Salad", "Death" for "The Kipper and the Corpse", and "Rat" for "Basil the Rat", which have been printed in some programme guides. In addition, some of the early BBC audio releases of episodes on vinyl and cassette included other variations, such as "Mrs. Richards" and "The Rat" for "Communication Problems" and "Basil the Rat" respectively.

It has long been rumoured that a thirteenth episode of the series was written and filmed, but never progressed further than a rough cut.[28] Lars Holger Holm, author of the book Fawlty Towers: A Worshipper's Companion, has made detailed claims about the episode's content, but he provides no evidence of its existence and it is most likely a hoax or fan fiction.

On the subject of whether more episodes would be produced, Cleese revealed (in an interview for the complete DVD box set, which was republished in the book, Fawlty Towers Fully Booked) that he once had the genesis of a feature-length special – possibly sometime during the mid-1990s. The plot (which was never fleshed out beyond his initial idea) would have revolved around the chaos that a now-retired Basil typically caused as he and Sybil flew to Barcelona to visit their former employee Manuel and his family. Of the idea, Cleese said:

We had an idea for a plot which I loved. Basil was finally invited to Spain to meet Manuel's family. He gets to Heathrow and then spends about 14 frustrating hours waiting for the flight. Finally, on the plane, a terrorist pulls a gun and tries to hijack the thing. Basil is so angry he overcomes the terrorist and when the pilot says, "We have to fly back to Heathrow", Basil says, "No, fly us to Spain or I'll shoot you". He arrives in Spain, immediately arrested and spends the entire holiday in a Spanish jail. He is released just in time to go back on the plane with Sybil. It was very funny, but I couldn't do it at the time. Making Fawlty Towers work at 90 minutes was a very difficult proposition. You can build up the comedy for 30 minutes, but at that length there has to be a trough and another peak. It doesn't interest me. I don't want to do it.

Cleese may also have relented because of the lack of Connie Booth's involvement. She had practically retreated from public life after the show finished (and had been initially unwilling to collaborate on a second series, which explains the four-year gap between productions).

The decision by Cleese and Booth to quit before a third series has often been lauded, as it ensured the show's successful status wouldn't be weakened with later, lower-quality work. Subsequently, it has inspired the makers of other shows to do likewise. Most notably, Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant refused to make a third series of either The Office or Extras, citing Fawlty Towers' short lifespan. Rik Mayall, Ben Elton and Lise Mayer, the writers behind The Young Ones, which also ran for only two series (each with six episodes), used this explanation too. Elton also took the decision to end his next sitcom, Filthy Rich & Catflap, after only one series, despite its popularity. Victoria Wood also indicated this influenced her decision to limit dinnerladies to just 16 episodes over two series.

Reception

Critical reaction

The series was not held in as high esteem on its original broadcast as it later was. The Daily Mirror review of the show in 1975 had the headline "Long John Short On Jokes".[29] Eventually though, as the series began to gain popularity, critical acclaim soon followed. Clive James writing in The Observer said the second episode had him "retching with laughter".[30] By the time the series had ended, it was an overwhelming critical success.

One critic of the show was Richard Ingrams, then television reviewer for The Spectator. Cleese got his revenge by naming one of the guests in the second series 'Mr Ingrams', who is caught in his room with a blow-up doll.[29]

In an interview for the "TV Characters" edition of Channel 4's 'talking heads' strand 100 Greatest (in which Basil placed second, between Homer Simpson and Edmund Blackadder), TV critic A. A. Gill theorised that the initially muted response may have been caused by Cleese seemingly ditching his label as a comic revolutionary – earned through his years with Python – to do something more traditional.

Awards

Three BAFTAs were awarded to people for their involvement with the series. Each of the two series was awarded the BAFTA in the category for "Best Situation Comedy", the first won by John Howard Davies in 1976, and the second by Douglas Argent and Bob Spiers in 1980. John Cleese won the BAFTA for "Best Light Entertainment Performance" in 1976.[31]

More recently, in a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes drawn up by the British Film Institute in 2000, voted for by industry professionals, Fawlty Towers was placed first. It was also voted fifth in the BBC's "Britain's Best Sitcom" poll in 2004[2] and second only to Frasier in The Ultimate Sitcom poll of comedy writers in January 2006. Basil Fawlty came top of the Britain's Funniest Comedy Character poll, held by Five on 14 May 2006.

Remakes and reunions

Three attempted remakes of Fawlty Towers were started for the American market, with two making it into production. The first, Chateau Snavely starring Harvey Korman and Betty White, was produced by ABC for a pilot in 1978, but the transfer from coastal hotel to highway motel proved too much and the series was never produced. The second, also by ABC, was Amanda's starring Bea Arthur, notable for switching the sexes of its 'Basil' and 'Sybil' equivalents. It also failed to pick up a major audience and was dropped.[32] A third remake called Payne (produced by and starring John Larroquette) was also produced, but was cancelled shortly after. A German pilot based on the sitcom was made in 2001, named Zum letzten Kliff, but further episodes were not made.

The popular sitcoms 3rd Rock From The Sun and Cheers (both in which Cleese had appeared) have cited Fawlty Towers as an inspiration, especially regarding its depiction of a dysfunctional "family" in the workplace. Also Arthur Mathews and Graham Linehan have cited Fawlty Towers as a major influence on their sitcom Father Ted. Guest House on Pakistan's PTV also resembled the series.

Several of the characters have made other appearances, as spin-offs or in small cameo roles. In 1981, in character as Manuel, Andrew Sachs recorded his own version of the Joe Dolce cod-Italian song "Shaddap You Face" (with the B-side "Waiter, There's a Spanish Flea in My Soup"). However, the record was not released after Joe Dolce took out an injunction; he was about to issue his version in Britain.[33] Sachs also portrayed Manuel (or a Manuel-like character) in a series of British TV advertisements for life insurance. Gilly Flower and Renee Roberts, who played Miss Tibbs and Miss Gatsby in the series, reprised the roles in a 1983 episode of Only Fools and Horses.[34] In 2006, Cleese played Basil Fawlty for the first time in 27 years, for an unofficial England 2006 World Cup song, "Don't Mention the War", named after the phrase Basil famously used in "The Germans".[35] In 2007, Cleese and Sachs reprised their roles for a six-episode corporate video for Norwegian oil company Statoil. In the video, Fawlty is running a restaurant called "Basil's Brasserie", while Manuel owns a Michelin Star restaurant in London.[36]

In November 2007, Prunella Scales returned to the role of Sybil Fawlty in a series of sketches for the BBC's annual Children in Need charity telethon. The character was seen taking over the management of the eponymous hotel from the BBC drama series Hotel Babylon, interacting with characters from that programme as well as other 1970s sitcom characters. The character of Sybil was used by permission of John Cleese.[37]

As of 2011, John Cleese plays a Basil Fawlty inspired character in advertisements for The Automobile Association home emergency response cover.

Fawlty Towers: Re-Opened

In 2009, Tiger Aspect Productions produced a two-part documentary for digital comedy channel G.O.L.D., called Fawlty Towers: Re-Opened. The documentary features interviews with all four main cast members, including Connie Booth, who had refused to talk about the series for 30 years.[38][39] John Cleese confirmed at the 30 year reunion in May 2009 that they will never make another episode of the comedy because they are too old and tired, and expectations would be too high.[40] In a television interview (shown in Australia on Seven Network and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation) on 7 May 2009, Cleese also commented that he and Connie Booth took six weeks to write each episode.[41][42]

Overseas

In just 1977 and 1978 alone, it was sold to 45 stations in 17 countries and was the BBC's best selling overseas programme for that year. Although it was initially a flop in Spain, because of the portrayal of the Spanish waiter Manuel, it was successfully resold, with Manuel's nationality changed to Italian.[15] In the Catalan region of Spain however, Manuel was Mexican.[33] To show how badly it translated, Clive James picked up a clip containing Manuel's "¿Qué?" phrase to show on Clive James on Television in 1982.

The series is still shown in the United States on at least one PBS member station. Maryland Public Television, which covers the state of the same name and the surrounding area, airs all episodes in order on Tuesday afternoons (4:00 pm ET) and Saturday nights (11:00 pm ET), along with other BBC sitcoms.[43]

Home video releases

Fawlty Towers was originally released by BBC Video in 1984, but was edited with the credits from all 3 episodes put at the end of the tape. It was re-released in 1995 unedited and remastered. It was re-released in 1998 with a special interview with John Cleese. Fawlty Towers – The complete series was released on DVD on 16 October 2001, available in regions 1, 2 and 4. A "Collector's Edition" is available in region 2.

Series one of the show was released on UMD Video for PSP.

In July 2009, BBC America announced a DVD re-release of the Fawlty Towers series. The DVD set was released on 20 October 2009. The reissue, titled Fawlty Towers Remastered: Special Edition, contains commentary by John Cleese on every episode as well as remastered video and audio.

All episodes are also available as streamed video-on-demand via Netflix. Both series are also available for download on iTunes.

Australian releases

  • Fawlty Towers: The Complete First Series" VHS
  • Fawlty Towers: The Complete Second Series" VHS
  • Fawlty Towers: The Complete Third Series" VHS
  • Fawlty Towers: The Complete Fourth Series" VHS
  • The Complete Fawlty Towers VHS Box Set
  • The Complete Fawlty Towers – 19 November 2001
  • Fawlty Towers Volume 1: Basil The Rat (3 episodes, 94 minutes) – 31 July 2007
  • Fawlty Towers Volume 2: The Psychiatrist (3 Episodes, 94 minutes) – 6 September 2007
  • Fawlty Towers Volume 3: The Kipper And The Corpse (3 Episodes, 93 minutes) – 2 October 2007
  • Fawlty Towers Volume 4: The Germans (3 Episodes, 93 minutes) – 7 November 2007
  • Fawlty Towers: The Complete Collection – Remastered (3 DVD set, all 12 episodes, 374 minutes) – 3 November 2009
  • Fawlty Towers – Series 1: Episodes 1–3 (Comedy Bites) (3 Episodes, 94 minutes) – 4 March 2010

References

  1. ^ BFI TV100. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  2. ^ a b Britain's Best Sitcom Top 10. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  3. ^ "Special Collector's Issue: 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time". TV Guide (June 28-July 4). 1997. 
  4. ^ Palin, Michael; Diaries 1969-1979: The Python Years; p24; 2007, Weidenfeld & Nicholson
  5. ^ Chapman, Graham; A Liar's Autobiography, Volume VI; p156; 1981,Magnum
  6. ^ BBC Comedy Guide Doctor At Large. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  7. ^ a b "John Cleese: BBC rejected first episode of Fawlty Towers" The Times / TimesOnline, 6 May 2009
  8. ^ "John Cleese recalls golden age of 'Fawlty Towers'" Newsvine / Newsvine, 6 May 2009
  9. ^ Gubler, Fritz (2008). Waldorf hysteria: hotel manners, misbehaviour & minibars. Great, Grand & Famous Hotels. ISBN 0980466717. 
  10. ^ McCann, Graham (2007). Fawlty Towers: the story of the sitcom. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 84. ISBN 0340898119. 
  11. ^ "Sybil to return to Fawlty Towers". BBC News. 9 August 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/devon/4776013.stm. 
  12. ^ "Fawlty star's red carpet welcome". BBC News. 18 September 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/devon/5355146.stm. 
  13. ^ Photographs of fire at Fawltysite.net. Retrieved 14 June 2006.
  14. ^ Britain's Best Sitcom – The case for Fawlty Towers, BBC Documentary presented by Jack Dee, broadcast 24 January 2004
  15. ^ a b Goddard, Peter. "FAWLTY TOWERS: British Situation Comedy". Museum of Broadcast Communications. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/F/htmlF/fawltytowers/fawltytowers.htm. Retrieved 8 August 2009. 
  16. ^ An Interview with John Cleese, DVD Special Programs, 2001
  17. ^ John Cleese, VHS or DVD cast interview, 1998
  18. ^ "Variety Club – Jewish Chronicle colour supplement "350 years"". The Jewish Chronicle. 15 December 2006. pp. 28–29. 
  19. ^ Reviewed by David Gómez Tato, 09-01-2005. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
  20. ^ McCann (2007) p.204
  21. ^ a b Slide, Anthony (1996). Some Joe you don't know: an American biographical guide to 100 British television personalities. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 0313295506. 
  22. ^ a b Terrace, Vincent (1985). Encyclopedia of Television Series, Pilots and Specials: 1974-1984. VNR AG. p. 141. ISBN 0918432618. 
  23. ^ Bayha, Marlies (2009). Extras und Co- Die Faszination der Groteske: Eine Untersuchung der komödiantischen Sch(m)erzgrenze in der britischen Fernsehserie. GRIN Verlag. p. 20. ISBN 3640430743. 
  24. ^ Foster, Paul (19 September 1975). "The war of the channel chuckles". Evening Times: p. 8. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=o21AAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wacMAAAAIBAJ&pg=4600,3809655&dq=miss-tibbs+miss-gatsby&hl=en. 
  25. ^ Ross, Robert (1999). Monty Python encyclopedia. TV Books. pp. 63, 70. ISBN 1575000369. 
  26. ^ Grewe, Alexander. "I'm sick to death with you..." or External Character Conflicts in Fawlty Towers. grin.com. doi:10.3239/9783638428859. ISBN 978-3-638-42885-9. 
  27. ^ This is revealed at the beginning of "The Psychiatrist" episode in the second series.
  28. ^ "fawltysite.net – Thirteenth Episode". 2004. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070403090421/http://www.fawltysite.net/thirteenth-episode.htm. 
  29. ^ a b "Awards and audiences for Fawlty Towers". Fawltysite.net. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080211064141/http://www.fawltysite.net/awards.htm. Retrieved 29 February 2008. 
  30. ^ James, Clive (1981) [12 October 1975]. Visions Before Midnight (11 September 1981 ed.). Picador (published 1977). ISBN 978-0330264648. 
  31. ^ List of awards at IMDb. Retrieved 14 June 2006.
  32. ^ Fawlty Towers at the BBC Guide to comedy. Retrieved 14 June 2006.
  33. ^ a b Fawltysite.net. Retrieved 13 December 2006. Archived December 10, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Homesick" (1983) cast list at IMDb. Retrieved 1 September 2006.
  35. ^ Article about the song by Adam Sherwin in The Times, 15 May 2006
  36. ^ Basil's back, Chortle.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  37. ^ "The Inside Story". Radio Times 335 (4361): p. 126. 10–13 November 2007. 
  38. ^ Parker, Robin (23 March 2009). "Gold to reopen Fawlty Towers". Broadcastnow. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/news/2009/03/gold_to_reopen_fawlty_towers.html. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  39. ^ "Fawlty Towers was originally rejected by the BBC for being clichéd, reveals John Cleese at 30th anniversary reunion". Daily Mail. 6 May 2009. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1177908/Fawlty-Towers-originally-rejected-BBC-clich-d-reveals-John-Cleese-30th-anniversary-reunion.html. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 
  40. ^ "Cleese rules out return of Fawlty". BBC News. 6 May 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/8036055.stm. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 
  41. ^ "John Cleese ('Fawlty Towers: Re-Opened'". Digital Spy. 8 May 2009. http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/tv/a155249/john-cleese-fawlty-towers-re-opened.html. Retrieved 9 May 2009. 
  42. ^ Deacon, Michael (6 May 2009). "Fawlty Towers: the classic sitcom the BBC didn’t want". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/5286579/Fawlty-Towers-the-classic-sitcom-the-BBC-didnt-want.html. Retrieved 9 May 2009. 
  43. ^ "Fawlty Towers". MPT. http://mpt.org/schedule/series.cfm?series_id=5520. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 

Further reading

  • Apter, Michael J. (1982), first published online in 2004 . "Fawlty Towers: A Reversal Theory Analysis of A Popular Television Comedy Series". The Journal of Popular Culture (Blackwell Publishing) 16 (3): 128–138.
  • Bright, Morris; Robert Ross (2001). Fawlty Towers: Fully Booked. London: BBC Books. ISBN 0563534397.
  • Cleese, John; Connie Booth (1988). The Complete Fawlty Towers. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413183904.
  • Holm, Lars Holger (2004). Fawlty Towers: A Worshipper's Companion. London: Leo Publishing. ISBN 9197366188.
  • McCann, Graham (2007). Fawlty Towers. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0340898119.

External links


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