The Way International


The Way International
The Way International
Founder(s) Victor Paul Wierwille
Location New Knoxville, Ohio, U.S.
Origins October 3, 1942 [1]
Vesper Chimes radio program[2]
Key people Rosalie F. Rivenbark, Chairman of the Board
Jean-Yves De Lisle, Director
Robert McCulloch, Director
John Rupp, Director
Greg Shaffer, Director
Area served Worldwide
Focus Biblical Research, Teaching, and Fellowship
Website http://www.theway.org

The Way International is a non denominational Christian ministry based in New Knoxville, Ohio, with home fellowships located in the United States and in over 30 other countries.[3] It was founded by Victor Paul Wierwille in 1942 as a radio program, and became The Chimes Hour Youth Caravan in 1947,[4] and The Way, Inc., in 1955. The ministry distributes works such as The Way Magazine through its publishing company, the American Christian Press, and has developed classes and other programs in several languages. It formed The Way Corps in 1970, a leadership training program, which continues today. The Way actively offers classes in biblical studies to its followers, highlighting The Way of Abundance and Power class series.

The Way promotes itself as a Biblical research, teaching, and fellowship ministry, providing service and direction on how to understand the bible so people can apply it and manifest the more abundant life.[5]

The Way has received criticism for some of its internal policies, including a practice known as "Mark and Avoid" which instructs followers to avoid individuals whose practices cause division and offences to the doctrine (Romans 16:17), and for its belief and promotion of living debt-free. Due to these and other practices, the ministry came under scrutiny as an alleged cult.[citation needed]

In 2000, the president of The Way, Craig Martindale, resigned following allegations of sexual misconduct.[6] Rosalie F. Rivenbark now heads the organization along with 4 other members on the board of directors.

Contents

History

Radio ministry

On October 3, 1942, Victor Paul Wierwille began a live radio program dubbed "Vesper Chimes." Wierwille assembled a group of youth to help him from local churches. The program was broadcast from WLOK in Lima, Ohio, where the youth would sing and perform alongside Wierwille's sermons that included incidents and "principles of the abundant life." Vesper Chimes began broadcasting directly from St. Jacob's in 1943 as a supplement to their church. Soon afterwards, the program was renamed "The Chimes Hour Youth Caravan." Wierwille's published his first book, Victory Through Christ in 1945, compiling his radio sermons addressed to young people. In 1947, The Chimes Hour Youth Caravan incorporated and Wierwille was named President alongside a board of directors. That year, The Way: The Chimes Hour Young People's Publication began publishing writings by young people associated with the radio program each month. Starting in 1948, Wierwille began broadcasting every morning in addition to the regular program. Nearly ten years following the first broadcast, "The Van Wert Gospel Gift Shop and Multigraph Printing and Publishing Co." opened for business and released the first issue of The Way Magazine.[7] The Chimes Hour Youth Caravan continued to have radio and public performances until April 1953, at which time the Nielson ratings showed that 70,000 homes were tuned in on Sundays, broadcasting over radio station WLW, Cincinnati.[8] Wierwille continued to broadcast his meditations over WIMA (formerly WLOK), Lima, WONW, Defiance, and WRFD, Worthington until 1955.[9]

Power For Abundant Living

In October 1953, Wierwille began teaching his first class, called "Receiving the Holy Spirit Today", which he based on a series he attended earlier that year in Calgary, Alberta. He received some criticism for drawing heavily on B. G. Leonard's "Gifts of the Spirit" class, and soon changed the name to "Power for Abundant Living". The class was initially taught live, with Wierwille traveling to each location personally. In 1967, the Foundational and Intermediate classes were filmed, and classes began to be run without Wierwille's presence. Weirwille continued teaching an advanced class in New Knoxville until filmed versions were put together in the late 1970s.

Beginnings of The Way

Wierwille incorporated under the name "The Way" in 1955, and resigned employment in the Evangelical and Reformed Church in 1957. He initially held meetings in his own home, and later constructed the Ecumenical Biblical Research Center on his family's farm in 1961, establishing it as his ministry's headquarters. Wierwille continued to teach Power for Abundant Living, and held additional seminars each summer for specialized classes. Wierwille recruited a board of directors from his former graduates, but disbanded it in the late 1950s. Wierwille explained his decision to disband the board in a later book, saying that the board was not supporting him in his decisions and it was not their purpose to argue with him, but to support his decisions. From then on, The Way was run by a board of Trustees headed by Wierwille as President, Ermal Owens as Vice President, and Wierwille's brother Harry Ernst Wierwille as secretary-treasurer.

Membership growth

The Way's membership grew in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In January 1968, Wierwille's visited San Francisco to meet with another ministry to promote his classes. Some of the groups he met with later incorporated, becoming The Way East (based in Rye, New York) and The Way West (based in San Francisco, CA). Wierwille also recruited a number of new members on his trip, marking a period of large growth for his ministry.[10]

In 1970, Wierwille began an outreach program entitled "Word Over the World" to draw renewed interest in his ministry. WOW ambassadors volunteered for one year to preach and recruit new students. These ambassadors were required to find part-time work and spend time witnessing for a set number of hours each week. Ambassadors were organized into "families" of four, and were typically sent out in "branches" of two to seven families. In some years, cities designated as "Outreach Cities" were sent hundreds of ambassadors at a time. Growth continued into the late 1980s, particularly in the United States, Europe, South America and Africa. WOW festivals modeled after the Rock of Ages, and were held in Great Britain, several South American countries and in Zaire. The program was discontinued in 1995 and replaced a year later by a six-month "Way Disciples Outreach Program."

"Passing the mantle"

In 1982 Wierwille installed L. Craig Martindale as President and accepted the title President Emeritus. Martindale had joined The Way in 1971 while a student at the University of Kansas. He served as head of the Way Corps Director from 1977 to 2000 (retaining that position while President). An elaborate ceremony accompanied Martindale's installation as President, including a passing of a literal mantle representing Wierwille's authority passing to Martindale.

After Wierwille died on May 20, 1985 of hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma, a period of disagreement developed between Martindale and some of the organization's other leaders and followers, lasting until the early 1990s, along with a general decline in numbers. (See section below on "Splinter Groups")

In 2000, Martindale's term as president was ended following allegations of sexual misconduct[11] and Rev. Rosalie F. Rivenbark replaced him. The Board is now called the Board of Directors, consisting of five directors, with Rivenbark as Chairman of the Board.

Structure

Organization

Main entrance to the Prevailing Word Auditorium, a 1,400-seat Teaching Center which holds Sunday teaching services, conferences and performances.[12]

The Way International headquarters is located in New Knoxville, Ohio, and presently they also own and operate Camp Gunnison—The Way Household Ranch in Gunnison, Colorado.[13] The Way is organized into branches located in the United States and in over 30 other countries,[3] generally consisting of several household fellowships. The Way focuses on these fellowships as a basic organizational unit. Meetings are run in each home by fellowship coordinators who have completed The Way of Abundance and Power class series. The Way International claims no official membership other than the Board of Directors; individuals who participate in fellowships are referred to as "followers of the way," or "believers."

Classes

The Way offers three sequential classes covering the beliefs of the organization. The Foundational and Intermediate classes are required prior to taking any other classes. To qualify for the Advanced class, which is held specially in Ohio each summer, a student must first complete the Foundational and Intermediate classes twice, in addition to "Defeating the Adversary".

  • The Foundational Class on The Way of Abundance and Power
  • The Intermediate Class on The Way of Abundance and Power
  • The Advanced Class on The Way of Abundance and Power
  • Defeating the Adversary
  • Living God's Word as a Family
  • Practical Keys to Biblical Research
  • Witnessing and Undersheperding
  • The Renewed Mind: The Key to Power

For many years, The Way offered a three-part "Power for Abundant Living" class, taught live by Wierwille beginning in 1953. This class was offered in video and audio tape form from 1968 until it was replaced in 1995 by Martindale's class "The Way of Abundance and Power," which was restructured and re-filmed in 2006.[14]

Leadership

As founder of The Way, Victor Paul Wierwille served as the organization's principal leader from 1942 to 1982. In 1947, The Chimes Hour Youth Caravan incorporated as a nonprofit religious organization with Wierwille serving as president aside a Board of Directors. The name of the corporation officially changed from The Chimes Hour Youth Caravan to The Way in 1955. The Board of Directors was discontinued in the 1970s, and in 1982, during The Way's fortieth anniversary celebration, Wierwille installed L. Craig Martindale as his succeeding president. Until his death in 1985, Wierwille held the title President Emeritus. Martindale served as The Way's President between 1982 and 2000, and was replaced by the former Vice President, Rosalie F. Rivenbark, following allegations of sexual misconduct.

Board of Trustees

From 1956 to 2001, The Way operated with a Board of Trustees, namely the offices of president, vice president, and secretary-treasurer. The original Board of Trustees was, Victor Wierwille, president, Ermal Owens, vice president, and Harry Wierville (Wierville's brother), secretary-treasurer. In 1977, the vice president and secretary-treasurer positions were filled by Wierwille's son, Donald Wierwille, and Howard Allen respectively. Victor Wierwille continued to hold his position until Martindale became President in 1982. In 1996, Rivenbark was appointed vice president and in 2000 she succeeded Martindale as president. Other served as Trustees for shorter terms.

Board of Directors and Officers

In 2001, to conform with Ohio state law, the Board of Trustees became known as the Board of Directors. Since that time, others have served on the Board of Directors fulfilling shorter terms than the original Trustees. Currently, The Way also functions with Senior Officers and Junior Officers.

Programs

The Way Corps

In 1970 Wierwille formalized his selection and training of ministry leaders by starting "The Way Corps". The inspiration for the term "Way Corps" came from his admiration for the United States Marine Corps. The Way Corp's motto is "It Is Written," and the The Way's website currently describes the program as "Leadership training for Advanced Class graduates who have a heart’s desire and passion to function as ministers of the Lord Jesus Christ." [15]

Prior to the First Corps, which began training in 1970, Wierwille invited a group of Way followers to New Knoxville for training and teaching. He disbanded the group for reasons which were never made public, other than a statement in The Way: Living in Love that they "couldn't get it together among themselves," and that Wierwille "gave them the privilege to leave" [16] In later years, this group was referred to as "The Zero Corps." (Groups who trained and graduated from the program together were at one time referred to "First Corps," "Second Corps," etc., referring to the order in which they graduated.)

Originally, the Way Corps was a 2-year program, with both years of training in-residence, participants living and working at Way International Headquarters in New Knoxville, Ohio. After a few years, a third year of training, called an "interim" year, was inserted between the 2 years, in which The Way Corps student was given a one year assignment before completing training (the Family Corps, a Way Corps program for families that included children, usually had this year tacked onto the end and was called a "practicum" year). Eventually, a fourth year of training, called an apprentice year, was added before the on-campus training during which a prospect was expected to meet certain requirements, including raising tuition and sponsorship.

As currently constituted, The Way Corps training consists of a preparatory year called the "Candidacy Year," followed by an "Apprentice Year," when the prospect leads a group of Way Disciples, and then two years of in-residency training at The Way International's headquarters in New Knoxville, Ohio, and at Camp Gunnison—The Way Household Ranch in Gunnison, Colorado.

Requirements

After completing the Advanced class, a follower may apply for enrollment. Before one can enter the program, however, the local leadership approves the applicant's entrance. Sponsorship requirements, as well as class prerequisites, change from time to time.

Graduation

Upon completion of the four-year curriculum, graduates receive an non-accredited degree in theology. The graduating Way Corps can be sent out to different states or countries to coordinate Branches or fulfill other assigned responsibilities, or remain at Headquarters or Gunnison as staff. Way Corps duties include providing spiritual leadership at all levels and carrying out decisions made by the Board of Directors. Way Corps promotional materials mention "A Lifetime of Christian Service."

Ordination and clergy

The Way has ordained Way Corps graduates over the years, and both men and women serve as clergy. Neither graduation from the Way Corps nor accepting a high leadership position guarantee ordination. At times state or region coordinators, and even members of the Board of Trustees have been laymen, while clergymen and women have served as fellowship coordinators, or without official responsibility whatsoever.

Dismissal from Way Corps

A member may be dropped from being Way Corps at any time without prior notice, although in recent years this practice has become uncommon. A policy titled Mark and Avoid was a major contributor to Way Corps discharge.[citation needed]

The College Division

The College Division program housed students in Emporia, KS, alongside Way Corps, for one year and two year programs. First-year classes included Beginning Greek, Harmony of the Gospels, and Old Testament History, while second-year classes included Aramaic, Hebrew, Advanced Greek, and Biblical research project. Classes were held during the day in addition to required fellowships. The College Division was sometimes invited to collaborate with the Way Corps in events such as the LEAD camping program or lessons in public speaking. The College Division had fewer participants than Way Corps or WOWs (varying in number from a handful to several dozen), but the College Division was considered more prestigious than other groups.

Rock of Ages

A yearly gathering of Way followers in New Knoxville, Ohio, known as "The Rock of Ages Festival," was a popular Way event from 1970 until 1995, when it was discontinued. One of the purposes of the festival was to welcome home returning WOW Ambassadors and to send out a new group on their yearly assignment. Some regional groups (states are known as "Limbs") now hold annual meetings instead. According to Way Corps conferences, one reason for the termination of the festival was the suspected teenage sexual relations on campus grounds.[17] The Rock of Ages typically had between 5,000 and 20,000 in attendance, with an international representation of Way followers.

Whitby Mansion

At one time, The Way maintained a historical archive at Sidney, located in the building now known as the "Whitby Mansion." As well as historic documents, the mansion also housed a collection of artworks.[18]

Publications

The Way published a three-volume interlinear version of the Syriac New Testament Bible in 1988, after a 15-year effort by The Way International Biblical Research Team.[19] The Way Biblical Research team cataloged 600 Aramaic manuscripts to compile their New Testament text and lexical aids.[20] This was the first printed edition of the Estrangelo script Aramaic New Testament.

Victor Paul Wierwille became associated in 1957 with Aramaic Bible scholar George M. Lamsa,[21] and Lamsa finished his translating the Lamsa Bible in Wierwille's home.[22] Lamsa and Wierwille produced the first American Aramaic New Testament in 1960.[22]

Aramaic Publications:

  • Aramaic-English Interlinear New Testament – 1988
    • Volume 1 Matthew – John
    • Volume 2 Acts – Philemon
    • Volume 3 Hebrews – Revelation
  • The Concordance to the Peshitta Version of the Aramaic New Testament − 1985
  • The English Dictionary Supplement to the Concordance to the Peshitta Version of the Aramaic New Testament – 1985
  • The Aramaic New Testament Estangelo Script – 1983

Beliefs and doctrines

Students are encouraged to follow a list of biblical research principles, instructing that the Bible should be taken literally wherever possible, and where this is not possible, it should be assumed that the language is figurative. The Way encourages its followers to study their publications before beginning any personal research on a subject. In his book Order My Steps in Thy Word, Wierwille asserts that God designed the universe to support the Earth and the Earth to support his children who could love God in return.

The Way rejects the Trinity, and teaches that, unlike God, Jesus is not omniscient, omnipotent, or omnipresent. According to their ministry, Jesus did not exist before his birth except in the foreknowledge of God. The Way teaches that at his birth, God created the sperm to fertilize Mary's ovum, and is the literal father of Jesus. Wierwille writes in his book, "Receiving the Holy Spirit Today", that the Holy Spirit is a reference to God, rather than a separate entity or person. He contrasts this term with the "holy spirit" (lower case), which he believes is a reference to a divine gift from God.[23] Wierwille claims that English translators of the Bible missed this distinction, and that Greek manuscripts were written in uncial script, which further confused the subject. The Way teaches that there are nine manifestations of the holy spirit and every born again Christian can inherently operate all nine. The list is derived from I Corinthians 12:7–10 (King James Version). Speaking in tongues, he claims, energizes the "effectual operation" of the other eight manifestations. According to Wierwille, speaking in tongues has numerous benefits for a believer.

The Way claims that there were four people crucified with Jesus, rejecting the standard interpretation which holds that there were two. Wierwille writes that different Greek words were used for those crucified with Jesus in the different Gospel accounts, as well as discrepancies in timing, statements, and actions of the characters in the narrative. Two malefactors (kakourgoi) were initially led and crucified with Jesus in Luke 23:32, then two robbers (lestai) were later crucified after his accusation was fastened in Matthew 27:38. Accordingly, two others were crucified on both sides of Jesus for a total of four. Additionally, they hold that the cross upon which Jesus was crucified was not the traditional t-shaped cross, but rather a stake or the trunk of a tree.[24][25] The Way maintains that Jesus did not carry his cross for any distance. Rather, after leaving the judgment hall, the soldiers immediately compelled Simon of Cyrene to bear the cross all the way to Calvary per the three Gospel accounts in Matthew 27:32, Mark 15:21 and Luke 23:26. The one account in John 19:17 which states "And he bearing his cross...", Wierwille believes refers to Jesus's spiritual bearing of sin.[26] Wierwille also preaches that the "thorn in the flesh" in 2 Corinthians 12:7 is individuals sent by Satan to disrupt the apostle Paul's ministry, not an illness as it is commonly interpreted.

The Way teaches that the dead do not immediately go to heaven or hell, rather death is a continuing state which will end at the tribulation.[27][28] Wierwille also writes that the unsaved simply "die a second and final death." Way followers reject baptism, holding that it wasn't intended as a continuing practice after Pentecost, and that it applied only to Israel.[29] Wierwille further teaches that once a person is born again, they receive holy spirit and cannot lose it through any sinful acts.[30]

The Way teaches that tithing 10% of one's net income to the church is a minimum requirement. Additional giving is called "abundant sharing", and "plurality giving" refers to giving away all money which isn't essential to live. Wierwille included his booklet on abundant sharing, Christians Should Be Prosperous, in his Foundational Class materials. Martindale frequently promoted increasing one's proportion of giving in Sunday teachings.

In his class Christian Family and Sex, Wierwille teaches that the original sin was masturbation. He compares the tree of life to verses where people were figuratively referred to as trees, and the fruit of the tree of knowledge with the human genitalia. In the Foundational Class on The Way of Abundance and Power, Martindale expands on this doctrine, concluding that virtually every word in Genesis 3:6 has a sexual connotation. Influenced by his belief that homosexuality was the lowest degradation of sexuality, he teaches that the original sin of mankind was Eve having lesbian sex with the Devil, who had "come into concretion" in the form of a beautiful woman.

Controversial practices

Mark and avoid

"Mark and Avoid" is a term for a form of shunning involving the separation of certain people from the main body of followers in the Way. The term is derived from the Biblical passage Romans 16:17 (King James Version)

(17) Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offenses contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them.

This practice is reportedly used when, according to the judgment of the Board of Directors of The Way International, a person has met the criteria of Romans 16:17 which would warrant separation from fellowships in The Way. In recent years, usage of the Mark and Avoid system has declined. "Spiritual Probation" was an intermediate step introduced by Martindale in which a follower was prohibited from direct involvement with the fellowship group for a set period of time, usually six months. When certain criteria were met, the follower was allowed back into full participation in Way activities. Generally, a letter to a high level coordinator was required, outlining the steps to be taken by the follower to ensure the "error" was corrected and they were back "in fellowship."[citation needed]

Debt

In the mid-nineties The Way began to teach extensively on debt, taking a position that God's will was for a believer to have no debt, including car loans and mortgages citing Proverbs 22:7: "The borrower is servant to the lender" and Romans 13:8: "Owe no man any thing." Eventually it became a requirement for all active Way Corps to be debt-free. A prerequisite for enrollment in the Advanced Class on the Way of Abundance and Power and various "Advanced Class Specials" was that the student be debt-free. Participants in fellowships were encouraged to get or stay out of debt.

Splinter groups

By the early 1990s, following the 1982 retirement of Wierwille and his death in 1985, a number of splinter groups had formed from the main body of The Way.

  • Christian Family Fellowships
  • The American Fellowship Services
  • Christian Biblical Counsel (renamed Living Hope in 2005)
  • Great Lakes Fellowship
  • Pacific West Fellowship
  • Spirit & Truth Fellowship International (also Christian Educational Services, 2005)
  • The Foundation of Life (2008)
  • Living Truth Fellowship (2009)
  • Philadelphia Bible Teaching Fellowship
  • Outreach of God's Word (Newark, DE)

The formation of splinter groups took place in the wake of actions by L. Craig Martindale after his appointment to replace Wierwille, including the implementation of new rules and beliefs, and the dissension among its leadership when Chris Geer initially read the authored 40,000 word document titled "The Passing of the Patriarch" to the Trustee leadership and Way headquarters staff. In it, Geer claimed that Wierwille, during his final weeks, revealed observations, concerns and recommendations regarding the unbiblical direction of The Way and the lack of Biblical leadership by Martindale. The document was later read to The Way Corps who disseminated the information throughout The Way.

The splinter groups' presence as organizations became significant in 1989, when L. Craig Martindale fired all Way staff-including local "branch," "territory," "limb" and "region" leaders who did not sign an "oath of allegiance" document to him. Martindale demanded that Way leaders declare openly whether they were supporting him or Geer as titular leader of The Way. Many leaders, as well as followers, saw this demand as unbiblical and withdrew voluntarily from association from The Way. Others, including those who did not choose sides, were dismissed. Shortly afterwards, Martindale sent a letter to all members announcing the firings. In the aftermath, according to figures cited by Martindale at the 1994 Word in Business and Profession Conference in Dallas, Texas, approximately 80% of the membership at the time had left The Way either by their own decision or by being dismissed. Large numbers of ex-Way followers formed the foundation of the splinter groups.

In recent years, since Martindale stepped down from president and left The Way, administrative authority and decision making has been spread across a larger base of leaders, checks and balances.

Criticism and cult allegations

Some groups have considered The Way's beliefs, viewed as heretical by a number of denominations, to be evidence of cult status.[31][32] There have also been some accusations about The Way's supposed history of sexual abuse,[citation needed] excessive control over members' lives, and brainwashing [33] The anti-cult movement (ACM) attempts to raise public consciousness of what they feel are the dangers of cult membership. They view a cult as a religious or other group that uses deceptive recruitment techniques to lure new members into the organization, and then subjects them to sophisticated mind-control techniques to reduce their ability to think and act individually (brainwashing).

Given The Way's high-intensity nature, in the 1970s, there were some instances of family members, who weren't a part of The Way, hiring deprogrammers to illegally abduct their loved one because they believed exposure to these doctrines or the followers was harmful. According to the Counter Cult Movement's (CCM) definition of a cult, The Way International would qualify. Note that this organization identifies a cult as being "basically Christian, but one which also holds some heretical beliefs." They define Heresy as "any deviation from the tenets of the historical Protestant Christian faith." According to CCM's diagnosis, Mormons, Roman Catholics, the Unification Church, United Churches, and hundreds of other new religious groups would also fall within the CCM's definition of being a "cult".

According to Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (OCRT) "It appears that The Way operates like most high-intensity religious groups: their followers enter the organization because they perceive it to offer positive value to their life. If and when it becomes negative, they drift away."

Plagiarism charges

Side-by-side comparisons of some of Wierwille's earlier books (Power for Abundant Living, Receiving the Holy Spirit Today and the Studies in Abundant Living Series) with previously-published works by other authors, including J.E. Stiles and E.W. Bullinger, show instances of verbatim copying, indicating plagiarism.[34] J.E. Stiles and B.G. Leonard, other authors whom Wierwille was said to have borrowed from, are mentioned by Wierwille at various times, but not credited as sources in any of Wierwille's publications.

Wierwille's later books published in the late 1970s and 80s are properly footnoted and credit sources, such as Jesus Christ Is Not God, Jesus Christ Our Passover, and Jesus Christ Our Promised Seed, while earlier books , such as Power for Abundant Living, Receiving the Holy Spirit Today, and the Studies in Abundant Living Series are not.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Encyclopedia of American Religions" (Seventh edition) by J. Gordon Melton. (2003) p608.
  2. ^ "The A to Z of new religious movements" by George D. Chryssides. (2006) p347.
  3. ^ a b "The Way International - About Us". http://www.theway.org/topic.php?page=about. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism" by Randall Herbert Balmer. (2004) p622.
  5. ^ "The Way International - About Us." www.theway.org http://www.theway.org/topic.php?page=about&lang=en
  6. ^ William, Laney (2000-11-07). "The Way International reaches settlement with couple". Wapakoneta Daily News. 
  7. ^ Born Again to Serve, by Dorothea Wierwille. American Christian Press. 1996. ISBN 0-910068-79-8, pp. 85,86
  8. ^ Born Again to Serve, p. 89
  9. ^ The Way Magazine, February 1955. American Christian Press.
  10. ^ "Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism" by Randall Herbert Balmer. (2004) "The Way International" page 623."
  11. ^ William, Laney (2000-11-07). "The Way International reaches settlement with couple". Wapakoneta Daily News. 
  12. ^ Prevailing Word Auditorium flyer, 2011.
  13. ^ "The Way International - What's Available."www.theway.org
  14. ^ 1953: Born Again to Serve, p.99; 1968: The Teacher, p.13; 1995: The Way Magazine, March/April 1996, p.22
  15. ^ TWI Way Corps.
  16. ^ "The Way: Living in Love by Elena Whiteside p235",
  17. ^ GreaseSpot Cafe Way Corps Notes
  18. ^ ISBN 040309982X Owen, Lorrie K., ed. Dictionary of Ohio Historic Places. Vol. 2. St. Clair Shores: Somerset, 1999, 1276.
  19. ^ The State of Assyria – Atour.com – lexicon help page Credits.
  20. ^ "The Aramaic New Testament Estrangelo Script. American Christian Press. 1983. p9"
  21. ^ "The Aramaic New Testament Estrangelo Script. American Christian Press. 1983. p7"
  22. ^ a b "The Aramaic-English New Testament. American Christian Press. 1988. p7"
  23. ^ W.R.I. – (World Religions Index): The Way International – "Holy Spirit"
  24. ^ "Jesus Christ Our Passover by Victor Paul Wierwille p272"
  25. ^ Fundamentals of Greek Research. Cummins, Walter. American Christian Press
  26. ^ "Studies in Abundant Living: The Word's Way by Victor Paul Wierwille p251"
  27. ^ "ISBN 0-910068-40-2 Are the Dead alive Now? by Victor Paul Wierwille p5"
  28. ^ W.R.I. – (World Religions Index): The Way International – "Retribution"
  29. ^ "ISBN 0-910068-49-6 Receiving the Holy Spirit Today. American Christian Press. p121"
  30. ^ W.R.I. – (World Religions Index): The Way International – "Redemption & Salvation"
  31. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (1996). The Encyclopedia of American Religions (5th edition ed.). Detroit: Michigan: Gale Research. ISBN 0-8103-7714-4. , as cited at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/wayintl.html.
  32. ^ Mary, Hargrove (1995-10-15). "The Way: After a family breaks up, questions arise about the group". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. http://www.ardemgaz.com/prev/way/11.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-02. 
  33. ^ GreaseSpot Cafe
  34. ^ "Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism" by Randall Herbert Balmer. (2004) "The Way International" page 742."

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