- Buddhism in the United States of America
Buddhismis a religion with millions of followers in the United States, including traditionally Buddhist Asian Americans as well as non-Asians, many of whom are converts [ [http://www.beliefnet.com/story/7/story_732_1.html Beliefnet.com - American Buddhism's Racial Divide] ] [ [www.pluralism.org/research/profiles/display.php?profile=74435 Racial Diversity and Buddhism in the U.S. (2006)] ] . The U.S. presents a strikingly new and different environment for Buddhists, leading to a unique history and a continuing process of development as Buddhism and America come to grips with each other. [ [http://www.asiasource.org/news/at_mp_02.cfm?newsid=54751 Asia Source - Buddhism in the U.S.] ]
Buddhism and the West
Occasional intersections between Western civilization and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years. Perhaps the most significant of these began in 334 BC, early in the
history of Buddhism, when the Macedonian king Alexander the Greatconquered most of Central Asia. The Seleucids and successive kingdoms established an important Hellenistic influence in the area, which interacted with the Buddhism that had been introduced from Indiato produce Greco-Buddhism. In the Christian era, Buddhist ideas would periodically filter into Europevia the Middle East. A notable example is the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, folk heroes who were canonized by the Roman Catholic Churchand whose story is believed to be an altered account of the life of Siddhartha Gautama, translated from Persian to Arabic to Greek. The first direct encounter between European Christians and Buddhists to be recorded was in 1253 when the king of France sent William of Rubruckas an ambassador to the court of the Mongol Empire. Later, in the 17th century, a group of Mongols practicing Tibetan Buddhismestablished Kalmykia, the only Buddhist nation in Europe, at the eastern edge of the continent.
Buddhism in the New World
Because the above examples produced very little real religious interaction, the European settlers who would come to colonize the Americas had virtually no exposure to Buddhism. This almost complete isolation would last largely undisturbed until the 19th century, when significant numbers of immigrants from
East Asiabegan to arrive in the New World. In the United States, the first immigrants from Chinaentered around 1820, but they began to arrive in large numbers following the California Gold Rushof 1849. The first was built in 1853 in San Franciscoby the Sze Yap Company, a Chinese Americanfraternal society. Another society, the Ning Yeong Company, built a second in 1854; by 1875, there were eight such temples, and by 1900 there were approximately 400 Chinese temples on the west coast of the United States, most of them containing at least some Buddhist elements. These temples were often the subject of suspicion and ignorance by the rest of the population, and were dismissively referred to as " joss houses".
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 curtailed the growth of the Chinese American population, but large-scale immigration from
Japanbegan in the late 1880s and from Koreaaround 1903. In both cases, immigration was at first limited primarily to Hawaii. Populations from other Asian Buddhist countries followed, and in each case, the new communities established and organizations. For instance, the first Japanese temple in Hawaii was built in 1896 near Paauhau by the Honpa Hongwanji branch of Jodo Shinshu. In 1898, Japanese missionaries and immigrants established a Young Men's Buddhist Association, and the Rev. Sōryū Kagahi was dispatched from Japan to be the first Buddhist missionary in Hawaii. The first Japanese Buddhist temple in the continental U.S. was built in San Franciscoin 1899, and the first in Canadawas built at the Ishikawa Hotel in Vancouver in 1905 [http://www.faithandmedia.org/pdfdocs/guide-buddhism.pdf] . The first Buddhist clergy to take up residence in the continental U.S. were Shuye Sonoda and Kakuryo Nishimjima, missionaries from Japan who arrived in 1899.
At about the same time that Asian immigrants were first starting to arrive in America, some American intellectuals were beginning to come to terms with Buddhism, based primarily on information reaching them from British colonial possessions in India and East Asia. The Englishmen William Jones and
Charles Wilkinshad done pioneering work translating Sanskrit texts into English. The American Transcendentalists and associated persons, in particular Henry David Thoreautook an interest in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. In 1844, " The Dial", a small literary publication edited by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, published the first English version of a portion of the Lotus Sutra; it had been translated by Elizabeth Palmer Peabodyfrom a French version recently completed by Eugène Burnouf(this translation is often attributed to Thoreau himself, but this appears to be erroneous). His Indian readings may have influenced his later experiments in simple living: at one point in " Walden" he wrote: "I realized what the Orientals meant by contemplation and the forsaking of works." The poet Walt Whitmanalso admitted to an influence of Indian religion on his writings.
The first prominent American to publicly convert to Buddhism was
Henry Steel Olcott. Olcott, a former U.S. army colonel during the Civil War, had grown increasingly interested in reports of supernatural phenomena that were popular in the late 19th century. In 1875, he, along with Helena Blavatskyand William Quan Judgefounded the Theosophical Society, which was dedicated to the study of the occult and was partly influenced by Hindu and Buddhist scriptures. The group's leaders believed or claimed to believe that they were in contact, via visions and messages, with a secret order of adepts referred to as the "Himalayan Brotherhood" or "the Masters". In 1879, Olcott and Blavatsky travelled to India and then, in 1880, to Sri Lanka, where they were met enthusiastically by local Buddhists, who saw them as allies against an aggressive Christian missionary movement. On May 25of that year, Olcott and Blavatsky took the pancasila vows of a lay Buddhist before a monk and a large crowd of onlookers. Although most of the Theosophists appear to have counted themselves as Buddhists, they held idiosyncratic beliefs that separated them from all known Buddhist traditions; only Olcott was enthusiastic about following mainstream Buddhism. He would return to Sri Lanka on two further occasions, where he worked to promote Buddhist education, and also visited Japan and Burma. Olcott authored a "Buddhist Catechism", stating his view of the basic tenets of the religion.
Edwin Arnold, author of " The Light of Asia"]
A series of new publications greatly increased public knowledge of Buddhism in 19th century America. In 1879,
Edwin Arnold, an English aristocrat, published " The Light of Asia" [http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/books/lightasi/asia-hp.htm] , an epic poem he had written about the life and teachings of the Buddha, expounded with much wealth of local color and not a little felicity of versification. The book became immensely popular in the United States, going through eighty editions and selling more than 500,000 copies. Dr. Paul Carus, a German American philosopher and theologian, was at work on a more scholarly prose treatment of the same subject. Carus was the director of Open Court Publishing Company, an academic publishing house specializing in philosophy, science, and religion, and editor of " The Monist", a journal with a similar focus, both based in La Salle, Illinois. In 1894, Carus published "The Gospel of the Buddha", which was compiled from a variety of Asian texts and, true to its name, presented the Buddha's story in a form resembling the Christian Gospels.
Perhaps the most significant event in the 19th century history of Buddhism in America was the
Parliament of the World's Religions, held in Chicagoin 1893. Although most of the delegates to the Parliament were Christians of various denominations, the Buddhist nations of China, Japan, Thailand, and Sri Lanka sent representatives. Buddhist delegates included Soyen Shaku, a Japanese Zenabbott; Zenshiro Noguchi, a Japanese translator; Anagarika Dharmapala, a Sri Lankan associate of H. S. Olcott's; and Chandradat Chudhadharn, a brother of King Chulalongkornof Thailand. Paul Carus also attended as an observer. The Parliament provided the first major public forum from which Buddhists could address themselves directly to the Western public; Dharmapala was particularly effective in this role because he spoke fluent English. A few days after the end of the Parliament, in a brief ceremony conducted by Anagarika Dharmapala, Charles T. Strauss, a New York businessman of Jewish descent, became, it is believed, the first person to formally convert to Buddhism on American soil.Fact|date=April 2008 A few fledgling attempts at establishing a Buddhism for Americans followed. One of the most interesting, in fact, had initially appeared prior to the Parliament, met with little fanfare, in 1887: "The Buddhist Ray", a Santa Cruz, California-based magazine published and edited by Phillangi Dasa, born Herman Carl (or Carl Herman) Veetering (or Vettering), a recluse about whom little is known. The "Ray"'s tone was, in the words of Rick Fields, "ironic, light, saucy, self-assured ... one-hundred-percent American Buddhist" (Fields, 1981), which was by all means a novel development in that time and place. It ceased publication in 1894. Elsewhere, six white San Franciscans, working with Japanese Jodo Shinshu missionaries, established the Dharma Sangha of Buddha in 1900 and began publishing a bimonthly magazine, "The Light of Dharma". In Illinois, Paul Carus wrote further books about Buddhism and attempted setting portions of Buddhist scripture to Western classical music.
The Early 20th century
In the first half of the 20th century, it would prove to be Buddhist teachers from Japan who played the most active role in disseminating Buddhism to the American public, perhaps because Japan was the most developed and self-confident Buddhist country at the time. In 1905, Soyen Shaku was invited to stay in the United States by a Mr. and Mrs. Russell, a wealthy American couple. He lived for nine months in their home near San Francisco, where he established a small
zendoin their home and gave regular zazenlessons, making him the first Zen Buddhist priest to teach in North America. This short sojourn eventually produced an effect on American Buddhism that continues to the present. Shortly after Shaku settled in to his erstwhile home, he was followed by Nyogen Senzaki, a young monk from Shaku's home temple in Japan. Senzaki briefly worked for the Russell family and then, expressing his desire to stay in America, he was reportedly advised by Shaku to spend seventeen years as an ordinary worker before teaching Buddhism. Thus, it was in 1922 that Senzaki first rented a hall and gave an English talk on a paper by Soyen Shaku; his periodic talks at different locations became known as the "floating zendo". In 1931, he established a permanent sitting hall in Los Angeles, where he would teach until his death in 1958.
Another Zen teacher,
Sokatsu Shaku, one of Soyen Shaku's senior students, arrived in late 1906, founding a Zen meditation center called Ryomokyo-kai. Although he stayed only a few years and had limited contact with the English-speaking public, one of his disciples, Shigetsu Sasaki, made a permanent home. Sasaki, better known under his monastic name Sokei-an, spent a few years wandering the west coast of the United States, at one point living among American Indians near Seattle, and reached New York Cityin 1916. After completing his training and being ordained in 1928, he returned to New York to teach. In 1931, his small group incorporated as the Buddhist Society of America, later renamed the First Zen Institute of America. By the late 1930s, one of his most active supporters was Ruth Fuller Everett, a British socialite and the mother-in-law of Alan Watts. Shortly before Sokei-an's death in 1945, he and Everett would wed, at which point she took the name Ruth Fuller Sasaki.
In 1914, under the leadership of
Koyu Uchida, who succeeded Shuye Sonoda as the head of Jodo Shinshu missionary effort in North America, several Japanese Buddhist congregations formed the Buddhist Mission of North America (BMNA). This organization would later form the basis of the Buddhist Churches of America, currently the largest and most influential ethnic-based Buddhist organization in the U.S. The BMNA focused primarily on social and cultural activities for and ministering to Japanese American communities. In the late 1920s, it first began to develop programs to train English-speaking priests, for the benefit of the growing number of American-born parishioners. Also, in 1927, the Sotosect of Japanese Zen opened its own mission with Zenshuji temple in Los Angeles, although it did not make attempts at the time to attract non-Japanese members.
One American who made his own attempt to establish an American Buddhist movement was
Dwight Goddard(1861 – 1939). Goddard had been a Christian missionary to China, when he first came in contact with Buddhism. In 1928, he spent a year living at a Zen monastery in Japan. In 1934, he founded "The Followers of Buddha, an American Brotherhood", with the goal of applying the traditional monastic structure of Buddhism more strictly than Senzaki and Sokei-an. The group was largely unsuccessful: no Americans were recruited to join as monks and attempts failed to attract a Chinese Chan (Zen) master to come to the United States. However, Goddard's efforts as an author and publisher bore considerable fruit. In 1930, he began publishing "ZEN: A Buddhist Magazine". In 1932, he collaborated with D. T. Suzuki (see below), on a translation of the Lankavatara Sutra. That same year, he published the first edition of " A Buddhist Bible", an anthology of Buddhist scriptures focusing on those used in Chinese and Japanese Zen, which was enormously influential. [http://www.squareonepublishers.com/gen_authors.html]
However, another Japanese person, also an associate of Soyen Shaku's, had an even greater literary impact. This was D. T. Suzuki. At the World Parliament of Religions in 1893, Paul Carus befriended Soyen Shaku and requested his help in translating and preparing Oriental spiritual literature for publication in the West. Shaku instead recommended Suzuki, then a young scholar and former disciple of his. Starting in 1897, Suzuki worked from Dr. Carus's home in Illinois; his first projects were translations of the "
Tao Te Ching" and Asvaghosa's " Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana". At the same time, Suzuki began writing his first major book, "Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism", which was published in 1907. Suzuki returned to Japan in 1909 and married an American Theosophist and Radcliffe graduate in 1911. Through English language essays and books, such as "Essays in Zen Buddhism" (1927), he established himself as the most visible literary expositor of Zen Buddhism, its unofficial goodwill ambassador to Western readers, until his death in 1966. His 1949 book, "An Introduction to Zen Buddhism", featured a 30-page introduction by Carl Jung, an emblem of the deepening relationship between Buddhism and major Western thinkers.
Modern American Buddhism
Buddhist American scholar Charles Prebish believes there are three broad types of American Buddhism. The oldest and largest of these is "immigrant" or "ethnic Buddhism", those Buddhist traditions that arrived in America along with immigrants who were already believers and that largely remained with those immigrants and their descendants. The next oldest and arguably the most visible group Prebish refers to as "import Buddhists", because they came to America largely in response to the demand of interested American converts who sought them out, either by going abroad or by supporting foreign teachers; this is sometimes also called "elite Buddhism" because its practitioners, especially early in the process, tended to come from social elites. The newest trend in Buddhism is "export" or "evangelical Buddhist", groups based in another country and but who actively recruit members in the US from various backgrounds. By far, the most successful of these has been Soka Gakkai.
Immigrant Buddhist congregations in North America come in an extremely wide variety, exactly as wide a variety as exists in the different peoples of Asian Buddhist extraction who have settled there. The New World is home to Chinese Buddhists, Japanese Buddhists, Korean Buddhists, Sri Lankan Buddhists, Vietnamese Buddhists, Thai Buddhists, and Buddhists with family backgrounds in nearly every Buddhist country and region in the world. The passage of the 1965 Immigration Act in the United States greatly increased the number of immigrants arriving from China, Vietnam, and the
Theravada-practicing countries of southeast Asia.
It is common for Buddhist temples and societies to serve as foci for the social life of an immigrant community, helping to maintain a connection to Old World traditions in a foreign environment. However, as the passing of time produces congregations increasingly dominated by persons born in America, which is especially common among Japanese Buddhists, questions arise about how their religious customs should adapt.
The largest and most influentialFact|date=February 2007 national immigrant Buddhist organization in the United States is the
Buddhist Churches of Americaand the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii. The BCA is an affiliate of Japan's Nishi Hongwanji, a sect of Jōdo Shinshū, which is in turn a form of Pure Land Buddhism. Tracing its roots to the Young Men's Buddhist Association founded in San Francisco at the end of the 19th century and the Buddhist Mission of North America founded in 1914, it took its current form in 1944. All of the Buddhist Mission's leadership, along with almost the entire Japanese American population, had been interned during World War II. The name Buddhist Churches of Americawas adopted at Topaz War Relocation Centerin Utah; the use of the word "church", which normally implies a Christian house of worship, was significant. After internment ended, some members returned to the West Coast and revitalized churches there, while a number of others moved to the Midwestand built new churches. During the 1960s and 1970s, the BCA was in a growth phase and was very successful at fund-raising. It also began to publish two periodicals, one in Japanese and one in English. However, since 1980, BCA membership has declined markedly. The Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii has 36 temples throughout the state of Hawaii. The history and organization of the Mission is quite similar to the BCA.
It is interesting to note that, while a very large majority of the Buddhist Churches of America's membership are ethnically Japanese, it does have some members from non-Asian backgrounds. Thus, it can be seen as having some, currently very limited, aspects of an export Buddhist institution. As declining involvement by its ethnic community creates questions about its future, there has been internal discussion as to whether it should devote more attention to attracting the broader public.
Soka Gakkaiand Nichiren Buddhismbelow. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism_in_the_United_States#Export_Buddhists] "
Another institution with some appeal both to a specific ethnic group as well as to Americans generally is
Hsi Lai Templein Hacienda Heights, California. Hsi Lai is the American headquarters of Fo Guang Shan, an enormously successful modern Buddhist group in Taiwan. Hsi Lai was built in 1988 at a cost of $10 million and is often described as the largest Buddhist temple in the Western hemisphere. Although it continues to cater primarily to Chinese Americans, it also has regular services and outreach programs in English. Hsi Lai was at the center of a bizarre incident in the history of American Buddhism when a 1996 fund-raising event by Vice President Al Goreprovoked a controversy; at the time Hsi Lai was often referred to in the media as simply "the Buddhist temple".
Since Henry Steele Olcott travelled to Sri Lanka in 1880, interested Americans have sought out Buddhist teachers from a variety of countries in Asia, many of which have now established their teachings in America. The three most notable trends of this type are Zen, Tibetan Buddhism, and
Vipassana, which is an outgrowth of Theravada Buddhism. Because its membership tends strongly to be among educated, white, native English speakers, import Buddhism has come to enjoy a higher level of prominence and prestige than other types of Buddhism in America.
Soyen Shaku's invitation to San Francisco and then the ministries of Nyogen Senzakiand Sokei-an, Zen Buddhismwas the first import Buddhist trend to put down roots in North America. In the late 1940s and 1950s, writers associated with the Beat Movement, including Gary Snyder, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and Kenneth Rexroth, took a serious interest in Zen, which helped increase its visibility. In 1951, an octogenarian Daisetz Teitaro Suzukireturned to the United States to take a visiting professorship at Columbia University.
Settling in the United States even earlier was
Soyu Matsuoka-roshi, who established the Chicago Buddhist Temple in 1949 (now the Zen Buddhist Temple of Chicago) and was a great dynamic influence in both America and Japan, lecturing and providing Zen training to many people. Rev. Dr. Soyu Matsuoka-roshi served as superintendent and abbot of the Long Beach Zen Buddhist Temple and Zen Center. The Temple was headquarters to Zen Centers in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Everett, Washington. Matsuoka-Roshi was born in Japan into a family that has a history of Zen priests dating back six hundred years. Matsuoka attended Komazawa Universityin Tokyo, where he graduated with a bachelor's degree. He was sent to America to serve as a founder of temples both in Los Angeles and San Francisco. He then furthered his extensive graduate work at Columbia University with Dr. D.T. Suzuki. Finally, he established the Temple at Long Beach in 1971, where he resided until his passing in 1998. Sanbo KyodanZen is a contemporary Japanese Zen lineage which has had an impact in the West disproportionate to its size in Japan. It is rooted in the reformist teachings of Harada Daiun Sogaku(1871-1961) and his disciple Yasutani Hakuun (1885-1971), who argued that the existing Zen institutions of Japan, the Sotoand Rinzaisects, had become complacent and, with few exceptions, were unable to teach real Dharma. Harada had studied with both Soto and Rinzai teachers and Yasutani founded Sanbo Kyodan in 1954 to preserve what he saw as the vital core of teachings from both schools. Sanbo Kyodan's first American member was Philip Kapleau, who first traveled to Japan in 1945 as a court reporter for the war crimes trials. In 1947, Kapleau visited D. T. Suzuki at Engaku-ji in Japan and in the early 1950s, he was a frequent attendee of Suzuki's Columbia lectures. In 1953, he returned to Japan, where he met with Nakagawa Soen, a protégé of Nyogen Senzaki. At Nakagawa's recommendation, he began to study with Harada and later with Yasutani, whose disciple he became. In 1965, he published a book, " The Three Pillars of Zen", which recorded a set of talks by Yasutani outlining his approach to practice, along with transcripts of dokusan interviews and some additional texts.
The book quickly became popular in America and Europe, contributing to the prominence of the Sanbo Kyodan approach to Zen. Later in 1965, Kapleau returned to America and, in 1966, established the
Rochester Zen Centerin Rochester, New York, making him the first American-born Zen priest to found a training temple. In 1967, Kapleau had a falling out with Yasutani over some of Kapleau's moves to Americanize the style of his temple, after which it became independent of Sanbo Kyodan. The Rochester Zen Center is now part of a network of related centers in the United States, Canada, Europe, Mexico, and New Zealand, referred to collectively as the Cloud Water Sangha. One of Kapleau's most notable early disciples was Toni Packer, who herself left Rochester in 1981 to found a nonsectarian meditation center, not specifically Buddhist or Zen.
Robert Aitken is another important American member of Sanbo Kyodan. He was first introduced to Zen as a prisoner in Japan during the Second World War. After returning to the United States, he began studying with Nyogen Senzaki in
Los Angelesin the early 1950s. In 1959, while still a Zen student himself, he founded the Diamond Sangha, a zendo in Honolulu, Hawaii. Three years later, the Diamond Sangha hosted the first U.S. visit by Yasutani Hakuun, who would visit various locations in the U.S. six more times before 1969. Aitken traveled frequently to Japan and became a disciple of Yamada Koun, Yasutani's successor as head of the Sanbo Kyodan. Aitken became a dharma heir of Yamada's, authored more than ten books, and developed the Diamond Sangha into an international network with temples in the United States, Argentina, Germany, and Australia. In 1995, he and his organization split with Sanbo Kyodan in response to reorganization of the latter following Yamada's death. The Pacific Zen Instituteled by John Tarrant, Aitken's first Dharma successor continues as an independent Zen line. SotoZen Priest Shunryu Suzuki(not to be confused with D.T. Suzuki) arrived in San Francisco in 1959, where he quietly began teaching a growing number of native-born American students, who would go on to form the core of the San Francisco Zen Centerand its eventual network of Zen centers across the country, including the Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, one of the first Zen training centers in the Western world. His low-key teaching style became widely know to the public with the publication of " Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind," a compilation of Zen talks given by this highly influential roshi.
Another influential Japanese Zen teacher was
Taizan Maezumi, who arrived as a young priest to serve at Zenshuji, the North American Sōtōsect headquarters in Los Angeles, in 1956. Like Shunryu Suzuki, he showed considerable interest in teaching Zen to Americans of various backgrounds and, by the mid-1960s, had formed a regular zazen group. In 1967, he and his supporters founded the Zen Center of Los Angeles. He was later instrumental in establishing the Kuroda Institute and the Soto Zen Buddhist Association, the latter an organization of American teachers with ties to the Soto tradition. In addition to his membership in Soto, Maezumi was also recognized as an heir by a Rinzaiteacher and by Yasutani Hakuunof the Sanbo Kyodan. Maezumi, in turn, had several American dharma heirs who have become prominent, such as Bernie Glassman, John Daido Loori, Charlotte Joko Beck, and Dennis Genpo Merzel. His successors and their network of centers have organized as the White Plum Sangha. [http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/ZenPages/TaizanMaezumi.html]
Among the most influential
RinzaiZen teachers in the United States is Kyozan Joshu Sasaki, who founded the Mount Baldy Zen Centerand its branches after coming to Los Angeles from Japan in 1962. One of his most famous students was the Canadian poet and musician Leonard Cohen. Born in 1907, Sasaki-roshi is one of the very last teachers still living of the first wave of Japanese roshis to settle permanently in the West.
Not all the successful Zen teachers in the United States have been from Japanese traditions. There have also been teachers of Chinese Zen (also known as Chan), Korean Zen (or Seon), and Vietnamese Zen (or
Thien). The first Chinese Buddhist priest to teach Westerners in America was Hsuan Hua, a disciple of the preeminent 20th century Chan master, Hsu Yun. In 1962, Hsuan Hua moved to San Francisco's Chinatown, where, in addition to Zen, he taught Chinese Pure Land, Tiantai, Vinaya, and VajrayanaBuddhism. Initially, his students were mostly ethnic Chinese, but he eventually attracted a range of followers. In 1970, Hsuan Hua founded Gold Mountain Monastery in San Francisco and in 1976 he established a retreat center, the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas, on a 237 acre (959,000 m²) property in Talmage, California. These monasteries are noted for their close adherence to the vinaya, the austere traditional Buddhist monastic code. Hsuan Hua also founded the Buddhist Text Translation Society, which works on the translation of scriptures into English.
Another Chinese Chan teacher with a Western following is
Sheng-yen, a master trained in both the Caodongand Linjischools (equivalent to the Japanese Soto and Rinzai, respectively). He first visited the United States in 1978 under the sponsorship of the Buddhist Association of the United States, an organization of Chinese American Buddhists. In 1980, he founded the Ch'an Mediation Society in Queens, New York. In 1985, he founded the Chung-hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies in Taiwan, which now sponsors a variety of Chinese Zen activities in the United States. [http://www.chan1.org/biography.html] .
The most prominent Korean Zen teacher in America was
Seung Sahn. Seung Sahn had been the abbot of a temple in Seouland had also lived in Hong Kongand Japanwhen, in 1972, not speaking any English, he decided to move to America. On the flight to Los Angeles, a Korean American passenger offered him a job at a laundry in Providence, Rhode Island, the city which was to become the headquarters of Seung Sahn's Kwan Um School of Zen. Shortly after arriving in Providence, he attracted a group of America students and founded the Providence Zen Center. The affiliated Kwan Um School now has more than 100 Zen centers on six continents. Another notable Korean Zen teacher in America is Samu Sunim, who moved to America in 1968 and founded Toronto's Zen Buddhist Temple in 1971. He is now the head of the Buddhist Society for Compassionate Wisdom, which has temples in Ann Arbor, Chicago, and Mexico City.
Two notable Vietnamese Zen teachers have been influential in America: Thich
Thien-Anand Thich Nhat Hanh. Thich Thien-Ancame to America in 1966 as a visiting professor at UCLA and taught traditional Thien meditation. Thich Nhat Hanhwas a monk in Vietnam during the Vietnam War, during which he was a peace activist. In response to these activities, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prizein 1967 by Martin Luther King, Jr.In 1966, he left Vietnam in exile and now resides at Plum Village, a monastery in France. He has written more than one hundred books about Buddhism, which have made him one of the very few most prominent Buddhist authors among the general readership in the West. In his books and talks, Thich Nhat Hanh emphasizes mindfulness("sati") as the most important practice in daily life. His monastic students live and practice at two centers in the United States: [http://www.deerparkmonastery.org Deer Park Monastery] in Escondido, CA, and [http://www.bluecliffmonastery.org Blue Cliff Monastery] in Pine Bush, NY.
Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States
Perhaps the most widely visible Buddhist teacher in the world is
Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, who first visited the United States in 1979. As the exiled political leader of Tibet, he has become a popular cause célèbre. His early life was depicted in glowing terms in Hollywood films such as " Kundun" and "Seven Years in Tibet". He has attracted celebrity religious followers such as Richard Gereand Adam Yauch. The first Western-born Tibetan Buddhist monk was Robert A. F. Thurman, now a noted academic supporter of the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama maintains a North American headquarters at Namgyal Monasteryin Ithaca, New York.
The best-known Tibetan Buddhist lama to live in the United States was
Chögyam Trungpa. Trungpa, part of the Kagyuschool of Tibetan Buddhism, moved to Englandin 1963, founded a temple in Scotland, and then relocated to Barnet, Vermont, and Boulder, Coloradoin 1970. He established a series of what he named Dharmadhatu meditation centers, which were eventually organized under a national umbrella group called Vajradhatu(later to become Shambhala International). The methods and techniques he developed for teaching Westerners he termed Shambhala Training. Following Trungpa's death, his followers built the Great Stupa of Dharmakaya, a traditional reliquary monument, near Red Feather Lakes, Colorado. Consecrated in 2001, it is the largest stupain the United States. [http://www.shambhalamountain.org/stupa.html]
The first Tibetan Buddhist lama to come to the United States was
Geshe Ngawang Wangyal, a Kalmyk-Mongolian of the Geluglineage, who came to the United States in 1955 and founded the "Lamaist Buddhist Monastery of America" in New Jerseyin 1958. Among his students were the future western scholars Robert Thurman, Jeffrey Hopkinsand Alexander Berzin. Other early arrivals included Deshung Rinpoche, a Sakyalama who settled in Seattle, WA, in 1960, and Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche, the first Nyingmateacher in America, who arrived in the U.S. in 1968 and established the "Tibetan Nyingma Meditation Center" in Berkeley, Californiain 1969.
There are four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism: the Gelug, the
Kagyu, the Nyingma, and the Sakya. Of these, the greatest impact in the West was made by the Gelug, which is led by the Dalai Lama, and the Kagyu, specifically its Karma Kagyubranch, which is led by the Karmapa. As of the early 1990s, there were four significant strands of Kagyu practice in the United States: Chögyam Trungpa's Shambhala movement; Karma Triyana Dharmachakra, a network of centers affiliated directly with the Karmapa's North American seat in Woodstock, New York; a network of centers founded by KaluRinpoche; and an organization established by Ole Nydahl, a Danish-born lama with many supporters in Europe.(Lehnert, 1997)
In the 21st century, the Nyingma lineage is increasingly represented in the West, by both Western and Tibetan teachers.
Lama Surya Dasis a Western-born teacher carrying on the great rimé, or non-sectarian, branch of Tibetan Buddhism. H.E. Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche, before his death in 2002, founded centers in Seattleand Brazil. Khandro Rinpocheis a modern female Tibetan teacher who has a strong presence in America. Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo, in 1988, was the first Western woman to be recognized and enthroned as a Tulku, has also established Nyingma Kunzang Palyul Cholingcenters in Sedona, AZand Poolesville, MD.
Gelugtradition is most strongly represented in America by the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition(FPMT), founded by Lama Thubten Yesheand Lama Zopa. Another prominent Gelugpa teacher is Geshe Michael Roach, the first American to be awarded a Geshedegree, who has established centers in New York, NY, and at Diamond Mountain Universityin Arizona.
Also quite active in the United States is the
New Kadampa Tradition(NKT) established by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. An offshoot of the Gelug school founded in the 1990s in the UK, the NKT has over 50 Kadampa (NKT) Buddhist Centers and branches in the United States. Most members of the organization are Westerners or in the far east, principally in Hong Kong and Singapore.
Vipassana, also referred to by the rough translation "insight meditation" is an ancient meditative practice described in the Pali Canonof the Theravadaschool of Buddhism, and in similar scriptures of other schools. Vipassana also refers to a distinct movement which was begun in the 20th century by reformers such as Mahāsi Sayādaw, a Burmese monk. Mahāsi Sayādaw was a Theravada bhikkhuand Vipassana is rooted in the Theravada teachings, but its goal is to simplify ritual and other peripheral activities in order to make meditative practice more effective and available both to monks and to laypeople. This openness to lay involvement is an important development in Theravada, which has sometimes appeared to focus exclusively on monasticism.
In 1965, monks from Sri Lanka established the
Washington Buddhist Viharain Washington, D.C., the first Theravada monastic community in the United States. The Vihara was fairly accessible to English-speakers, and naturally vipassana meditation was part of it activities. However, the direct influence of the Vipassana movement would not reach the U.S. until a group of Americans returned there in the early 1970s after studying with Vipassana master in Asia. Joseph Goldstein, after journeying to Southeast Asia with the Peace Corps, had lived in Bodhgaya, where he was a student of Anagarika Munindra, the head monk of Mahabodhi Templeand himself a student of Māhāsai Sayādaw's. Jack Kornfieldhad also been in the Peace Corps in Southeast Asia, after which he studied and ordained in the Thai Forest Traditionunder Ajahn Chah, who was perhaps the most influential figure in 20th century Thai Buddhism. Sharon Salzbergwent to India in 1971 as a spiritual seeker and studied with Dipa Ma, a former Calcutta housewife trained in vipassana by Māhāsai Sayādaw [http://www.purifymind.com/LoveAbundantly.htm] .
Goldstein and Kornfield met in 1974 while teaching at the
Naropa Institutein Colorado. The next year, Goldstein, Kornfield, and Salzberg, who had very recently returned from Calcutta, along with Jacqueline Schwarz, founded the Insight Meditation Societyon an 80 acre (324,000 m²) property near Barre, Massachusetts. IMS became the central Vipassana instituation in America, hosting visits by Māhāsi Sayādaw, Munindra, Ajahn Chah, and Dipa Ma. In 1981, Kornfield moved to California, where he founded another Vipassana center, Spirit Rock Meditation Center, in Marin County. In 1985, Larry Rosenbergfounded the Cambridge Insight Meditation Centerin Cambridge, Massachusetts. Another important Vipassana center is the Vipassana Metta Foundation, located on Maui.
In 1989, the Insight Meditation Center established the
Barre Center for Buddhist Studiesnear the IMS headquarters, with the goal of promoting scholarly investigation of Buddhism from various perspectives. It director is Mu Seong, a former Korean Zen monk. S. N. Goenkais a Burmese-born meditation teacher who can also be considered part of the Vipassana movement. His teacher, Sayagyi U Ba Khinof Burma, was a contemporary of Māhāsi Sayādaw's, and taught a style of Buddhism with similar emphases on simplicity and accessibility to laypeople. Goenka has established a method of instruction which has proven very popular in Asia and throughout the world. In 1981, he established the Vipassana Research Institute based in Igatpuri, India. He and his students have built several active centers in North America. [http://www.dhamma.org/goenka.htm]
Although ethnic-based institutions, such as Hsi Lai Temple and the Buddhist Churches of America, show some evangelical tendencies, there is only one Buddhist group in North America which has focused on recruiting converts from among the general public and been successful:
Soka Gakkai, a Japan-based society which promotes Nichiren Buddhism.
Soka Gakkai, which literally means "Establishing Value Education Society", was founded in Japan in 1930 as a fraternal auxiliary to
Nichiren Shoshu, the largest sect of Nichiren Buddhism. It was perhaps the most successful of Japan's new religious movements, which enjoyed tremendous growth after the end of the Second World War. During the occupation of Japan, some American soldiers became aware of it, and it was the Japanese wives of veterans who became the first active Soka Gakkai members in the West. A U.S. branch was formally organized on October 13, 1960. Its Korean-Japanese leader took the name George M. Williamsto emphasize his commitment to reaching the English-speaking public. Soka Gakkai expanded rapidly in the U.S. through an aggressiveFact|date=August 2008 recruitment technique called shakubuku. One of the results of this outreach is that Soka Gakkai has been much more effective than any other group at attracting non-Asian minority converts, chiefly African Americanand Latino, to Buddhism. It has also been successful in attracting the support of celebrities, such as Tina Turner, Herbie Hancock, and Orlando Bloom.
Soka Gakkai has no priests of its own and was originally part of Nichiren Shoshu, a formal religious sect in Japan. In fact, its United States branch was originally named
Nichiren Shoshu America(NSA). However, in 1991 Soka Gakkai split from Nichiren Shoshu and became a separate organization; at that time, the U.S. branch changed its name to Soka Gakkai International—United States of America (SGI-USA). Nichiren Shoshu proper maintains six temples of its own in the U.S. and another Nichiren group exists which is primarily the domain of ethnic Japanese.
The main religious practice of Soka Gakkai members, like other Nichiren Buddhists, is chanting the mantra "Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō" and sections of the
Lotus Sutra. Unlike import Buddhist trends such as Zen, Vipassana, and Tibetan Buddhism, Soka Gakkai does not teach meditative techniques other than chanting.
Demographics of Buddhism in the United States
It is not easy to arrive at an accurate idea of the number of Buddhists in the United States. The simplest reason is that it is not at all clear how to define who is and who is not a Buddhist. The easiest and most intuitive definition is one based on self-description, but this has its pitfalls. Because Buddhism exists as a cultural concept in American society, there may be individuals who self-describe as Buddhists but have essentially no knowledge of or commitment to Buddhism as a religion or practice; on the other hand, others may be deeply involved in meditation and committed to the Buddhadharma, but may refuse the label "Buddhist". Despite these difficulties, several scholars have investigated this question. Most studies have indicated a Buddhist population in the United States of between 1 and 4 million. The U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report for 2004 indicates that 2% of the U.S. population is Buddhist, which would mean a total of 5,973,446 Buddhists. Other estimates, perhaps relying on a greater degree of intuition, are larger: in the 1990s,
Robert A. F. Thurmanstated his opinion that there were 5 to 6 million Buddhists in America, and others might speculate there are more. Whatever the total number, it appears that roughly 75 to 80 percent of Buddhists in the U.S. are of Asian descent and inherited Buddhism as a family tradition; the remaining 20 to 25 percent are non-Asians.
Discussion about Buddhism in America has sometimes focused on the issue of the visible ethnic divide separating ethnic Buddhist congregations from import Buddhist groups. [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week445/cover.html] Although many Zen and Tibetan Buddhist temples were founded by Asians, they now tend to attract very few Asian-American members. With the exception of
Soka Gakkai,Fact|date=February 2007 almost all active Buddhist groups in America can be readily classed as either ethnic or import Buddhism based on the demographics of their membership. There is often very limited contact between these Buddhists of different ethnic groups. This divide can be disturbing in view of the historical necessity of relying on Asian peoples to transmit Buddhism, and in light of ongoing and complex tensions surrounding ethnicity and immigration in America. Some Asian-American Buddhists feel that their non-Asian counterparts ignore the many contributions of their ethnic communities toward the development of American Buddhism.
However, the cultural divide should not necessarily be seen as pernicious. It is often argued that the differences between Buddhist groups arise benignly from the differing needs and interests of those involved. Convert Buddhists tend to be interested in
meditationand philosophy, in some cases eschewing the trappings of religiosity altogether. On the other hand, for immigrants and their descendants, preserving tradition and maintaining a social framework assume a much greater relative importance, making their approach to religion naturally more conservative. Further, Kenneth K. Tanaka suggests, based on a survey of Asian-American Buddhists in San Francisco, that "many Asian-American Buddhists view non-Asian Buddhism as still in a formative, experimental stage" and yet they believe that it "could eventually mature into a religious expression of exceptional quality". [http://www.beliefnet.com/story/7/story_732_1.html]
Additional questions come from the demographics within import Buddhism. Researchers and casual observers alike report that the vast majority of American converts practicing at Buddhist centers are white, often from Christian or Jewish backgrounds. Only Soka Gakkai has attracted significant numbers of African-American or Latino members. A variety of ideas have been broached regarding the nature, causes, and significance of this racial uniformity. Journalist Clark Strand noted that:…that it has tried to recruit [African-Americans] at all makes Soka Gakkai International utterly unique in American Buddhism [Strand, "Tricycle", Spring 2004, p. 9] .
Strand, writing for Tricycle (an American Buddhist journal) in 2004, notes that SGI has specifically targeted African-Americans, Latinos and Asians, and other writers have noted that this approach has begun to spread, with Vipassana and Theravada retreats aimed at non-white practitioners led by a handful of specific teachers [Gina Sharpe, "Tricycle", Fall 2004, p. 26-27] .
A key question is the degree of importance ascribed to discrimination, which is suggested to be mostly unconscious, on the part of white converts toward potential minority converts [Charles R. Johnson, as quoted by Clark Strand, "Tricycle", Winter 2003, p. 55] . To some extent, the racial divide is indicative of a class divide, because convert Buddhists tend strongly to be drawn from the more educated segments of society [James Shaheen, "Tricycle", Winter 2003, p. 7] . Among the African American Buddhists who have commented on the dynamics of the racial divide in convert Buddhism are
Jan Willisand Charles R. Johnson. [http://www.shambhalasun.com/Archives/Features/2001/sept01/pintak.htm]
Trends in American Buddhism
An important trend that has developed in Buddhism in the West is socially
engaged Buddhism. While some critics have asserted that the term is redundant, as it is mistaken to believe that Buddhism in the past has not affected and been affected by the surrounding society, others have suggested that Buddhism is sometimes seen as too quietistic and passive toward public life. This is particularly true in the West, where almost all converts to Buddhism come to it outside of an existing family or community tradition. Engaged Buddhism is an attempt to apply Buddhist values to larger social problems, including warand environmental concerns. The term "engaged Buddhism" was coined by Thich Nhat Hanh, who developed the idea during his years as a peace activist in Vietnam. The most notable engaged Buddhist organization is the Buddhist Peace Fellowship, which was founded in 1978 by Robert Aitken, Anne Aitken, Nelson Foster, and others and received early assistance from Gary Snyder, Jack Kornfield, and Joanna Macy. [http://www.bpf.org/html/about_us/history/history_chapter_01.html] Another engaged Buddhist group is the Zen Peacemaker Order, which was founded in 1996 by Bernie Glassman and Sandra Jishu Holmes. [http://www.zpf-motherhouse.org/zpo/index.htm]
Buddhist Education in the United States
A variety of Buddhist groups have established institutions of higher learning in America. The first four-year Buddhist college in the U.S. was the
Naropa Institute(now Naropa University), which was founded in 1974 by Chögyam Trungpa. It has enjoyed consistent involvement both from convert Buddhists and counterculture personalities, such as Allen Ginsberg, who christened the Institute's poetry department the "Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics". Naropa is currently fully accredited and offers degrees in some subjects not directly related to Buddhism. Another Buddhist university is the University of the West, which is affiliated with Hsi Lai Temple and was, until recently called Hsi Lai University. Soka University of America, in Aliso Viejo California, was founded by the Soka Gakkai as a secular school closely committed to philosophic Buddhism. The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is the site of Dharma Realm Buddhist University, a four-year college teaching courses primarily related to Buddhism but including some general-interest subjects. The Institute of Buddhist Studiesin Berkeley, California, in addition to offering a Masters Degree in Buddhist Studies acts as the ministerial training arm of the Buddhist Churches of America and is affiliated with the Graduate Theological Union.The school recently moved into its new headquarters within the Jodo Shinshu Center in Berkeley.
The first Buddhist
high schoolin the United States, Developing Virtue Secondary School, was founded in 1981 by the Dharma Realm Buddhist Associationat their branch monastery in the City of Ten Thousand Buddhasin Ukiah, California. A second Buddhist high school, Tinicum Art and Science, which combines Zen practice and traditional liberal arts, opened in Ottsville, Pennsylvania in 1998. It is associated informally with the World Shim Gum Do Association in Boston. The Pacific Buddhist Academy, opened in Honolulu, Hawai'iin 2003. It shares a campus with the Hongwanji Mission School; an elementary and middle school. Both schools are affiliated with the Honpa Hongwanji Jodo Shinshu mission. [http://www.pacificbuddhistacademy.org/history.html]
Buddhism in Canada
American Zen Teachers Association
Religion in the United States
United States religious history
List of religious topics
*Fields, Rick (1981, 1992). "How the Swans Came to the Lake: A Narrative History of Buddhism in America". London: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-583-2.
*Lehnert, Tomek (1997). "Rogues in Robes". Nevada City, California: Blue Dolphin Publishing. ISBN 1-57733-026-9.
*Prebish, Charles (2003). "Buddhism — the American Experience". Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books, Inc.. ISBN 0-9747055-0-0.
* [http://buddhism.2be.net/Category:U.S.A. List of Buddhist organizations, centers and groups in U.S.A.]
* [http://www.jbeonlinebooks.org/prebish-BAE/preview-BAE-ch1.pdf "Buddhism — The American Experience", Chapter 1] by Charles Prebish (first chapter is available without charge, complete book must be ordered)
* [http://americanbuddhist.net/ American Buddhist Net: Buddhist News & Forums]
*" [http://www.shambhalasun.com/Archives/Features/2002/Mar02/surveying.htm Surveying the Buddhist Landscape] ", article by Charles Prebish, from
*" [http://www.globalbuddhism.org/2/baumann001.html Global Buddhism: Developmental Periods, Regional Histories, and a New Analytical Perspective] ", article by Martin Baumann
*" [http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma/mainstreet.html Buddhism Comes to Main Street] ", article by Jan Nattier on UrbanDharma.org
*" [http://www.chibs.edu.tw/exchange/CONFERENCE/4cicob/fulltext/Deeg.htm Buddhist Studies and its Impact on Buddhism in Western Societies] ", article by Max Deeg
* [http://www.berzinarchives.com Archives of American Tibetan Buddhist scholar Alexander Berzin]
* [http://www.uoguelph.ca/~vincent/hbakker/work/book_american.htm Review] of Tweed, Thomas A. "The American Encounter with Buddhism, 1844-1912". Reviewed by J. I. Bakker
*" [http://www.poughkeepsiejournal.com/projects/cultures/fr042304s2.shtml Buddhism evolves as followers multiply] ", article from the "
Poughkeepsie Journal", April 23, 2004
*" [http://www.shindharmanet.com/course/chapter8.htm Shin Buddhism in the American Context] ", article by Dr. Alfred Bloom
* [http://www.terebess.hu/english/names.html Chronology of the lives of important persons in the history of Zen in America] , from Terebess Online
* [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/history.html A chronology of Theravada Buddhism] , from accesstoinsight.org
* [http://www.geocities.com/cynthias2_07042/NEWBUD.html Garden State Sangha: Buddhist Organizations in New Jersey USA]
* [http://www.unc.edu/ncbuddhism/location.htm Buddhist organizations in North Carolina]
* [http://awakening.to/timeline.html Timeline of Buddhist history and related events] , from awakening.to
* [http://www.tricycle.com "Tricycle: The Buddhist Review", an independent voice of dharma in the West]
* [http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?path=/Religion/FaithsDenominations&id=h-1540 The New Georgia Encyclopedia: Buddhism in the U.S.]
* [http://www.floridabuddhism.org Florida Buddhism] — Theravada lineage in Florida
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States — Below is a timeline of important events regarding Zen Buddhism in the United States. Dates that have ? are approximations. =Events=Early history* 1893: Soyen Shaku comes to the United States to lecture at the World Parliament of Religions held in … Wikipedia
Society of the United States — The society or culture of the United States is a Western culture, and has been developing since long before the United States became a country with its own unique characteristics and developments such as dialect, music, arts, cuisine, etc. Today… … Wikipedia
Outline of the United States Virgin Islands — … Wikipedia
Immigration to the United States — 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States has been a major source of … Wikipedia
Chinese immigration to the United States — consists of three major waves with the first beginning in the early 19th century. For nearly two centuries, the history of Chinese immigration to the United States has witnessed hardship as well as success.The Chinese have been arriving in large… … Wikipedia
Abortion in the United States — has been legal in every state since the United States Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, on January 22, 1973. Prior to Roe , there were exceptions to the abortion ban in at least 10 states; Roe established that a woman has a right to self… … Wikipedia
Marriage in the United States — Chart illustrating marital status in the United States Marriage is the state of being united to a person of the opposite sex as husband or wife in a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law.  However, marriage can also be the… … Wikipedia
Religion in the United States — has a history of diversity, due in large part to the nation s multicultural demographic makeup. Among developed nations, the US is one of the most religious in terms of its demographics. According to a 2002 study by the Pew Global Attitudes… … Wikipedia
Demographics of the United States — As of today s date, the United States has a total resident population of 312,615,000, making it the third most populous country in the world. It is a very urbanized population, with 82% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2008 (the worldwide… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in the West — broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism outside of Asia. Occasional intersections between Western civilization and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years, but it was not until the era of European… … Wikipedia