- Southern Jiangsu Campaign
Infobox Military Conflict
Chinese Civil War
Jiangsu, northern Zhejiangand Anhui, China
August 13, 1945- August 28, 1945
strength1= Several thousands
strength2= Tens of thousands
JiangsuCampaign (苏南战役) was a series battle fought at the Southern Jiangsuand adjacent regions in Anhuiand northern Zhejiang, and it was a clash between the communists and the former nationalists turned Japanese puppet regime force who rejoined the nationalists after World War IIwith their Japanese ally. The battle was one of the Chinese Civil Warin the immediate post World War IIera, and resulted in communist victory.
Like other similar clashes immediately after the end of World War II between the
communists and the nationalists in China, this conflict also rooted from the fact that Chiang Kai-shekhad realized that his nationalist regime simply had neither the sufficient troops nor enough transportation assets to deploy his troops into the Japanese-occupied regions of China. Unwilling to let the communists who had already dominated most of the rural regions in Chinato further expand their territories by accepting the Japanese surrender and thus would consequently control the Japanese occupied regions, Chiang Kai-shekordered the Japanese and their turncoat Chinese puppet regime not to surrender to the communists and kept their fighting capabilities to “maintain order” in the Japanese occupied regions, fighting off the communists as necessary, until the final arrivals and completion of the deployment of the nationalist troops. As a result, most members of the Japanese puppet regimes and their military forces rejoined the nationalists.
However, it must be noted that most of these former nationalists turned Japanese puppet regime forces were not from
Chiang Kai-shek’s own clique, but instead, they were mainly consisted of troops of warlords who were only nominally under the Chiang Kai-shek’s before World War II, since they were nationalists in name only and mostly maintained their independent and semi-independent status. These warlords were only interested in keeping their own power and defected to the Japanese side when Japanese invaders offered to let them keep their power in exchange for their collaborations. After the World War II, these forces of former Japanese puppet regimes once again returned to the nationalist camp for the same reason they defected to the Japanese invaders. Obviously, it was difficult for Chiang to immediately get rid of these warlords for good as soon as they surrendered to Chiang and rejoined nationalists, because such move would alienate other factions within the nationalist ranks, and these former Japanese puppet regime's warlords could still help the nationalists to gain more territories by holding on to what was under their control until Chiang completed the deployment of his own troops to takeover. Chiang Kai-shek’s objective was to simultaneously solve the warlord problem that had plagued Chinafor so long and the problem of the extermination of communismtogether, which proved to be an extremely fatal mistake for him and his nationalist regime later on, as shown in this conflict.
In accordance with his strategy to simultaneously solve the warlord problem that had plagued
Chinafor so long and the problem of the extermination of communismtogether, Chiang Kai-shekand his followers had hoped that these former Japanese puppet regime's warlords who rejoined the nationalists would be able to hold on to the regions long enough for Chiang to deploy his own troops by holding off communists. If the communists were victorious in such conflicts, however, the result would still benefit to Chiang and China because the power of these warlords would be reduced as their military forces were smashed by the communists, and the warlord problem plagued China for so long could thus be greatly reduced, while at the same time, communists would be weakened by the fights and Chiang's own troops would have easier time to take control.
For the former nationalist turned Japanese puppet regime forces, these warlords and their troops had no problem of following
Chiang Kai-shek’s orders, and they were eager to prove themselves. These warlords and their troops were well aware that due to the collaboration with the Japanese invaders during the Second Sino-Japanese War, they were well hated by the general population in China, including those nationalists who refused to surrender to the enemy and fought the enemy until the eventual victory. Therefore, in the impending demilitarization after World War II, they were certainly be disarmed and discharged, which would probably be the best outcome and the power of these warlord would be reduced or even completely eliminated as a result. Chiang Kai-shek’s ordering them not surrendering to the communists and fighting off the communists was a savior for them because by carrying out such orders, these warlords and their troops could legitimize themselves and thus retain their power by fighting the communists who were targeted as rebels by Chiang Kai-shekand his nationalist regime. CommunistStrategy
communiststrategy was much simpler than that of the nationalists because there was not any huge division within the communistrank like that of the nationalist. The communists already earned considerable popular support by being the only Chinese force left in the region fighting the Japanese invaders and their puppet regime after the nationalist withdrew, and after successfully establishing communistbases in the rural regions where better life was provided to the general populace in comparison to that of Japanese occupied regions, the general Chinese populace agreed that the communists were well deserved to represent the Chinato accept the invaders’ surrender in the region and takeover the regions occupied by the invaders. Order of battle
*1st Column of the communist
Jiangsu– ZhejiangMilitary Region
September 8, 1945, the 1st Column of the communist Jiangsu– ZhejiangMilitary Region decided to take controls of regions in central Jiangsu, northern Zhejiangand adjacent regions in Anhuiby force after the local defenders consisted of Japanese troops and former nationalists turned Japanese puppet regime force who rejoined the nationalists after World War IIrefused to surrender. Since mid August, 1945, over a dozen enemy strongholds in the region from Jurong (句容) County in Jiangsuin the north to Changxing (长兴) Countyin Zhejiangin the south had fallen into the communist hands, including those at Front Horse (Qianma, 前马), Southern Crossing (Nandu, 南渡), Celestial King Temple (Tianwangsi, 天王寺), Baonian (宝埝) and Jiapu (夹铺) regions.
August 14, 1945, the 8th Regiment of the 3rd Division of the former nationalists turned Japanese puppet regime force totaling over 1,200 ventured out Jurong (句容) in an attempt to counterattack, and they were assisted by two companies of Japanese troops. The 1st Regiment of the 1st Column of the communist Jiangsu– ZhejiangMilitary Region ambushed the enemy at Zhang Family’s Hills (Zhangjiagang, 张家岗), and Duan Family’s Bridge (Duanjiaqiao, 段家桥) regions, and after an eleven-hour long fight, succeeded in killing over 30 Japanese troops and over 370 nationalist troops, including the regimental commander of the nationalist 8th Regiment of the 3rd Division. One Japanese troops and over 350 nationalist troops were also captured alive by the communist troops.
August 19, 1945, the 1st Column of the communist Jiangsu– ZhejiangMilitary Region attacked Jintanand Liyang, and annihilated the defenders consisted of a detachment of Japanese troops and two regiments of former nationalists turned Japanese puppet regime force in the process. Over 1,700 nationalist troops were captured alive by the attacking communists. Four artillery pieces and 48 machine guns also fell into communist hands. Taking advantage of their gains, communists took towns of Lishui (溧水), Gaochun (高淳), and towns of Eastern Hill), River Ripe (Hushu, 湖熟) of Jiangning (江宁) County, threatened the suburb of Nanjing. On August 24, 1945, Ji'anfell into communist hands, and on August 25, 1945, Langxi Countyfell into the communist hands. The campaign finally concluded on August 28, 1945when Guangde Countyfell into communist hands.
Like other similar clashes immediately after the end of World War II between the
communists and the nationalists in China, this conflict also showed that Chiang Kai-shek’s attempt to simultaneously solve the warlord problem that had plagued Chinafor so long and the problem of the extermination of communismtogether proved to be a fatal mistake. Although the result of the campaign turned out exactly like Chiang Kai-shekand his subordinates had predicted, and consequently the power of the warlords in this region was indeed reduced as their military forces were smashed by the communists, so that the warlord problem plagued Chinafor so long was thus reduced for this particular region, and Chiang Kai-shek’s secondary objective was achieved here, any positive gains obtained by the nationalists were negated by the politic fallout. The reason was that this success of achieving the secondary objective came at a huge cost in nationalists’ loss of popular support in this region formerly dominated by the Japanese, because the local population had already blamed nationalilsts for losing the regions to the Japanese invaders, while reassigning these former Japanese puppet regime forces as the nationalist forces to fight the communists, the only Chinese force left in the regions, only further alienated the local populace and strengthened the popular resentment to Chiang Kai-shekand his nationalist government.
*List of Battles of Chinese Civil War
National Revolutionary Army
History of the People's Liberation Army
Chinese Civil War
*Zhu, Zongzhen and Wang, Chaoguang, "Liberation War History", 1st Edition, Social Scientific Literary Publishing House in
Beijing, 2000, ISBN7801492072 (set)
*Zhang, Ping, "History of the Liberation War", 1st Edition, Chinese Youth Publishing House in
Beijing, 1987, ISBN750060081X (pbk.)
*Jie, Lifu, "Records of the Libration War: The Decisive Battle of Two Kinds of Fates", 1st Edition,
HebeiPeople's Publishing House in Shijiazhuang, 1990, ISBN7202007339 (set)
*Literary and Historical Research Committee of the
AnhuiCommittee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, "Liberation War", 1st Edition, AnhuiPeople's Publishing House in Hefei, 1987, ISBN7212000078
*Li, Zuomin, "Heroic Division and Iron Horse: Records of the Liberation War", 1st Edition, Chinese Communist Party History Publishing House in
Beijing, 2004, ISBN7801990293
*Wang, Xingsheng, and Zhang, Jingshan, "Chinese Liberation War", 1st Edition,
People's Liberation ArmyLiterature and Art Publishing House in Beijing, 2001, ISBN750331351X (set)
*Huang, Youlan, "History of the Chinese People's Liberation War", 1st Edition, Archives Publishing House in
Beijing, 1992, ISBN7800193381
*Liu Wusheng, "From
Yan'anto Beijing: A Collection of Military Records and Research Publications of Important Campaigns in the Liberation War", 1st Edition, Central Literary Publishing House in Beijing, 1993, ISBN7507300749
*Tang, Yilu and Bi, Jianzhong, "History of Chinese
People's Liberation Armyin Chinese Liberation War", 1st Edition, Military Scientific Publishing House in Beijing, 1993 – 1997, ISBN7800217191 (Volum 1), 7800219615 (Volum 2), 7800219631 (Volum 3), 7801370937 (Volum 4), and 7801370953 (Volum 5)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Campaign of the North China Plain Pocket — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Campaign of the North China Plain Pocket partof=Chinese Civil War place=Southern North China Plain, China date=June 22, 1946 August 31, 1946 result=Communist victory combatant1= combatant2= commander1= Cheng… … Wikipedia
Jiangsu — Coordinates: 32°54′N 119°48′E / 32.9°N 119.8°E / 32.9; 119.8 … Wikipedia
Longhai Campaign — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Longhai Campaign partof=the Chinese Civil War place=Central China date=August 10, 1946 August 22, 1946 result=Communist victory combatant1= combatant2= commander1= Sun Liangcheng 孙良诚 commander2= strength1=… … Wikipedia
Dingtao Campaign — Part of the Chinese Civil War Date September 2, 1946 September 8, 1946 Location Shandong, China … Wikipedia
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi — ((南)齊高帝) (427 482), personal name Xiao Daocheng (蕭道成), courtesy name Shaobo (紹伯), nickname Doujiang (鬥將), was the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi. He served as a general under the preceding dynasty Liu Song s Emperor Ming and… … Wikipedia
Shuangduiji Campaign — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Shuangduiji Campaign partof=the Chinese Civil War place=Anhui, China date=November 22, 1948 December 15, 1948 result=Communist victory combatant1= combatant2= commander1= commander2= strength1= 120,000 strength2 … Wikipedia
Menglianggu Campaign — Part of the Chinese Civil War … Wikipedia
Yanzhou Campaign — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Yanzhou Campaign partof=the Chinese Civil War place=Shandong, China date=May 29, 1948 July 18, 1948 result=Communist victory combatant1= combatant2= commander1= Huo Shouyi 霍守义 commander2= Tan Zhenlin 谭震林… … Wikipedia
List of Chinese battles — The following is a list of Chinese wars and battles, organized by date. The list is not exhaustive. Contents 1 Ancient China 2 Imperial China 2.1 Qin Dynasty (221 BC–207 BC) 2.2 Chu Han … Wikipedia
List of World War II topics (S) — # S 1 Uranium Committee # S 50 # S mine # S Phone # S. A. Ayer # S. J. Warmington # S.L.A. Marshall # S.S. Doomtrooper # S.S. Pink Star # S?awomir Maciej Bittner # S?kichi Takagi # S?saku Suzuki # Søren Kam # Søren Petersen # S1 Scout Car # SA… … Wikipedia