Genetic architecture

Genetic architecture

Genetic architecture refers to the underlying genetic basis of a phenotypic trait. A synonymous term is the 'genotype-phenotype map', the way that genotypes map to the phenotypes.

The genotype-phenotype map has been analyzed in terms of several principle axes: epistasis, polygeny, pleiotropy, quasi-continuity, modularity, phenotypic plasticity, robustness, and evolvability.

  • Epistasis: when the alleles at one locus change the phenotypic effects of genetic variation at another locus, the two genes are said to exhibit 'epistasis' in their interactions.
  • Polygeny: when multiple genes contribute to a particular phenotypic character, the map is said to possess 'polygeny'. The genetic architecture in cases of polygeny can be further characterized by the spectrum of contributions of the genes, e.g. many genes of small effect vs. few genes of large effect.
  • Pleiotropy: when multiple phenotypic characters are affected by a single genetic variation, the map is said to possess 'pleiotropy'.
  • Quasi-continuity: when small genetic changes map to small phenotypic changes, the map is said to possess "quasi-continuity" (Lewontin).
  • Modularity: when two different phenotypic characters can be mapped to mostly non-overlapping sets of genes, the map is said to possess 'modularity', though this concept is still in flux in the scientific literature.
  • Plasticity: when a single genotype gives rise to a spectrum of phenotypes, the phenotype is said to have 'plasticity'. The plasticity may occur as different phenotypes among different individuals of the same genotype, or different phenotypes within the lifetime of a single individual, or different phenotypes in response to specific environmental conditions.
  • Mutational robustness: when the same phenotype occurs in an organism despite a variety of environmental perturbations, it is said to be 'robust'. When the same phenotype is produced despite mutations in the genes involved it its production, it is said to possess 'mutational robustness'.
  • Evolvability: when there is a significant chance that genetic variation can be produced which produces a net increase in adaptation in an organism, the genotype-phenotype map is said to have 'evolvability'.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas — For a non technical introduction to genetics in general, see Introduction to genetics …   Wikipedia

  • architecture —    by Francesco Proto   From his early involvement in the French magazine Utopie, Baudrillard s commitment to architecture is noticeable throughout his oeuvre. Analogous to the third order of simulation, where the model always anticipates the… …   The Baudrillard dictionary

  • List of genetic engineering topics — NOTOC # 3 end 5 end A Acentric chromosome Achondroplasia Active site Adam s Curse Adaptation Adenine Adenosine Adenosine diphosphate Adenovirus ADP Ala Alagille syndrome Albino Alcoholism Alkylating agent Allele Allele frequency Alleles… …   Wikipedia

  • A Theory of Architecture — is a somewhat controversial book on Architecture by Nikos Salingaros, published in 2006 by Umbau Verlag, Solingen, ISBN 3 937954 07 4. Glowing cover blurbs by Kenneth G. Masden II, Duncan G. Stroik, Michael Blowhard [ [… …   Wikipedia

  • Organic architecture — Fallingwater by Frank Lloyd Wright Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated with its site that… …   Wikipedia

  • Naval architecture — Tahitian Princess in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, August 2009 Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures.[1] …   Wikipedia

  • PROMOTER BASED GENETIC ALGORITHM (PBGA) — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El Promoter Based Genetic Algorithm (PBGA) es un algoritmo genético para neuroevolución desarrollado por F. Bellas y R.J. Duro en la Universidade da Coruña. El PBGA evoluciona una perceptrón multicapa de tamaño… …   Wikipedia Español

  • OMD Live: Architecture & Morality & More — Live album by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark Released April 7, 2008 …   Wikipedia

  • Promoter Based Genetic Algorithm — El Promoter Based Genetic Algorithm (PBGA) es un algoritmo genético para neuroevolución desarrollado por F. Bellas y R.J. Duro en la Universidade da Coruña. El PBGA evoluciona una perceptrón multicapa de tamaño variable que se codifica en… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Medical genetics — Clinical genetics redirects here. For the journal, see Clinical Genetics (journal). For a non technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. Part of a series on Genetics Key components Chromosome …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.