- Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act
The Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act (1933) was the first US law passed for the decolonization of the
By 1932, forces for the creation of this law coalesced around US farmers who were hit by the
Great Depressionand feared Filipino imports of sugar and coconut oil that were not subject to US tariff law; and Filipinos (such as Manuel L. Quezon) who were seeking Philippine independence. The Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act was passed by the United States Congressin December 1932, but was vetoed by U.S. President Herbert Hoover. Congress then overrode the veto on January 17, 1933.
The law promised Philippine independence after 10 years, but reserved several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports. It also required the
Philippine Senateto ratify the law.
Quezon urged the Philippine Senate to reject the bill, which it did, and the
Philippine Senateadvocated a new bill that won the support of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The result was the Tydings-McDuffie Actof 1934which was very similar to the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act except in minor details. The Tydings-McDuffie Act was ratified by the Philippine Senate.
The Philippines was granted independence on
July 4, 1946.
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