- War on Terrorism
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=War on Terrorism
caption=U.S. Soldiers boarding a
CH-47 Chinookhelicopter in Afghanistan during Operation Anacondain the Shahi-Kot Valleyand Arma Mountains southeast of Zormat.
October 7 2001cite web |url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/10/20011007-8.html |title=Presidential Address to the Nation, October 7, 2001 |accessdate=2008-04-14 |format= |work=whitehouse.gov ] -"present"
Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Horn of Africa, United States, United Kingdom, Europe, more...
September 11 attacks
combatant1=flagcountry|United Statescite web |url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/enduring-freedom_deploy.htm |title=Operation Enduring Freedom - Deployments |accessdate=2008-04-14 |format= |work=globalsecurity.org ]
commander1=Flagicon|United States Gen.
Tommy FranksSmall|(CENTCOM commander 2000 – 2003),
flagicon|United States Gen.
John AbizaidSmall|(CENTCOM commander 2003 – 2007),
flagicon|United States Adm.
William J. FallonSmall|(CENTCOM commander 2007 – 2008),
flagicon|United States Ltg.
Martin DempseySmall|(acting CENTCOM commander),
David Petraeussmall|(incoming CENTCOM commander).
Flagicon|United Kingdom Adm. Sir Michael Boyce small|(Chief of the Defence Staff 2001 – 2003),
Flagicon|United Kingdom Gen. Sir Michael Walker small|(Chief of the Defence Staff 2003 – 2006),
Flagicon|United Kingdom ACM Sir Jock Stirrup small|(Chief of the Defence Staff 2006 –
~54,114 to 58,864+ dead
Exact number unclear. The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military, political and legal , and ideological conflict, and specifically for U.S. operations in response to the
September 11 attacks.
The objectives of the 2001 War on Terrorism are to secure the American Homeland, break up terror cells within the country, and disrupt the activities of the international network of terrorist organizations made up of a number of terrorist groups under the umbrella of
al-Qaeda.cite web |url=http://www.fbi.gov/terrorinfo/counterrorism/waronterrorhome.htm |title= Counterterrorism and Terrorism |accessdate=2008-04-14 |format= |work=Federal Bureau of Investigation ]
On September 19, 2008, the "
RAND" Corporation presented the results of a comprehensive study for "Defeating Terrorist Groups" before the United States House Armed Services Committees. RAND's testimony began with the thesis statement "the United States cannot continue conducting an effective counter-terrorism campaign against al Qa’ida without understanding how terrorist groups end." Their conclusions included strong proposals for strategic policy changes. " [The U.S. military] should generally resist being drawn into combat operations in Muslim countries where its presence is likely to increase terrorist recruitment." and recommended, "ending the notion of a 'war' on terrorism" and "Moving away from military references would indicate that there was no battlefield solution to countering terrorism." In conclusion the RAND study advised: "By far the most effective strategy against religious groups has been the use of local police and intelligence services, which were responsible for the end of 73 percent of [terrorist] groups since 1968."http://www.rand.org/pubs/testimonies/CT314/]
War on Terrorism
Terrorist organizations -- chiefly
al-Qaeda-- carried out attacks on the U.S. and its allies throughout the last few years of the twentieth century. The 1993 World Trade Center bombingby Al-Qaida was the first of many terrorist attacks upon Americans during this period. Later that year in the Battle of Mogadishu (1993), Al-Qaida militants took part in an assault upon US forces in Somalia,Fact|date=October 2008 killing 19 soldiers. President Clinton subsequently withdrew US combat forces from Somalia (there originally to support UN relief efforts), a move described by Al-Qaida leader Osama bin Ladenas evidence of American weakness.Fact|date=October 2008 These attacks were followed by others including the 1996 Khobar Towers bombingin Saudi Arabia, and the 1998 United States embassy bombingsin Tanzania and Kenya. Also in 1998 came the World Islamic Frontdeclaration of 23 February 1998, entitled "Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders", which described the actions of Americans as conflicting with "Allah's order", and stated the Front's "ruling to kill the Americans and their allies—civilians and military—is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it."Fact|date=October 2008 Led by Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaida formed a large base of operations in Afghanistan, which had been ruled by the Islamic extremist regime of the Talibansince 1996.
Following the 1998 embassy bombings in
Kenyaand Tanzania, [cite news|title=Report of the Accountability Review Boards |publisher=U.S. Department of State |date=1998-08-07 |url=http://www.state.gov/www/regions/africa/board_introduction.html] President Bill Clintonlaunched Operation Infinite Reach, a bombing campaign in Sudanand Afghanistanagainst targets associated with al-Qaeda. [cite news|title=U.S. strikes terrorist targets in Afghanistan, Sudan |publisher=CNN |date=1998-08-20 |url=http://www.cnn.com/US/9808/20/clinton.02/index.html?eref=sitesearch] [cite news|title=U.S. retaliates for Africa bombings |publisher=CNN |date=08.20.98 |url=http://www.cnn.com/US/9808/20/clinton.01/index.html?eref=sitesearch] The strikes failed to kill al-Qaeda'a leaders or their Taliban supporters (targets included a civilian pharmaceutical plant in Sudan that produced 90% of the region's malaria drugs). Next came the 2000 millennium attack plotswhich included an attempted bombing of Los Angeles International Airport. In October of 2000 the USS Cole bombingoccurred, [cite news|title=U.S. sailors killed in attack on Navy vessel in Yemen |publisher=CNN |date=2000-10-12
url=http://www.cnn.com/2000/US/10/12/ship.rammed.03/index.html?eref=sitesearch] followed by the
September 11 attacks. [cite news|title=What proof of bin Laden's involvement |publisher= CNN|date=2001-09-13 |url=http://cnn.com/2001/US/09/13/binladen.evidence/index.html?eref=sitesearch] The attacks of 9/11 created an immediate demand throughout the United States for a decisive response, leading to an invasion of Afghanistan dubbed Operation Enduring Freedomwhich removed the Taliban from power and ended al-Qaeda's use of the country as a terrorist base.
In 2001 the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1373 which obliges all States to criminalize assistance for terrorist activities, deny financial support and safe haven to terrorists and share information about groups planning terrorist attacks. In 2005 the Security Council also adopted resolution 1624 concerning incitement to commit acts of terrorism and the obligations of countries to comply with international human rights laws [ [http://www.un.org/sc/ctc/ U.N. Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee] ] . Although both resolutions require mandatory annual reports on counter terrorism activities by adopting nations the
United Statesand Israelhave both declined to submit reports.
Historical usage of phrase
The phrase "War on Terrorism" was first widely used by the Western press to refer to the attempts by Russian and European governments, and eventually the U.S. government, to stop attacks by
anarchists against international political leaders. (See, for example, "New York Times", April 2 1881.) Many of the anarchists described themselves as "terrorists," and the term had a positive valence for them at the time. When Russian Marxist Vera Zasulichshot and wounded a Russian police commander who was known to torture suspects on 24 January 1878, for example, she threw down her weapon without killing him, announcing, "I am a terrorist, not a killer." [cite web|url=http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/terror.htm#n16|title=The Four Waves of Rebel Terror and September 11|date=Summer 2004|publisher=Department of Political Science University of California at Los Angeles|accessdate= 2006-08-09]
The next time the phrase gained currency was when it was used to describe the efforts by the British colonial government to end a spate of Jewish attacks in the
British Mandate of Palestinein the late 1940s. The British proclaimed a "War on Terrorism" and attempted to crack down on Irgun, Lehi, and anyone perceived to be cooperating with them. The Jewish attacks, Arab attacks and revolts, and the subsequent British crackdown hastened the British evacuation from Palestine. The phrase was also used frequently by U.S. President Ronald Reaganin the 1980s. [cite news|title=War on Terrorism |publisher=Aljazeera.Com |date=2003-01-01 |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/me.asp?service_ID=10248]
On September 20th, 2001, during an address to a joint session of congress and the American people, President George W. Bush formally declared war on terror when he said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated."
Operative definition in U.S. foreign policy
The United States has defined terrorism under the Federal Criminal Code. Chapter 113B of Part I of Title 18 of the Code defines terrorism and lists the crimes associated with it. [CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/casecode/uscodes/18/parts/i/chapters/113b/toc.html] ] In Section 2331 of Chapter 113b, terrorism is defined as::"...activities that involve violent...
... that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State and... appear to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and ... ...(C) occur primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States... ...(C) occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States..."With respect to defining his policy known as the War on Terror, President Bush has stated that::"...today's war on terror is like the Cold War. It is an ideological struggle with an enemy that despises freedom and pursues totalitarian aims....I vowed then that I would use all assets of our power of Shock and Awe to win the war on terror. And so I said we were going to stay on the offense two ways: one, hunt down the enemy and bring them to justice, and take threats seriously; and two, spread freedom." [Remarks by President Bush on the Global War on Terror [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/wh/rem/64287.htm] ]
British objections to the phrase "war on terrorism"
Director of Public Prosecutionsand head of the Crown Prosecution Servicein the UK, Ken McDonald — Britain's most senior criminal prosecutor — has stated that those responsible for acts of terror such as the 7 July 2005 London bombingsare not "soldiers" in a war, but "inadequates" who should be dealt with by the criminal justice system. He added that a "culture of legislative restraint" was needed in passing anti-terrorism laws, and that a "primary purpose" of the violent attacks was to tempt countries such as Britain to "abandon our values." He stated that in the eyes of the UK criminal justice system, the response to terrorism had to be "proportionate, and grounded in due process and the rule of law"::" Londonis not a battlefield. Those innocents who were murdered...were not victims of war. And the men who killed them were not, as in their vanity they claimed on their ludicrous videos, 'soldiers'. They were deluded, narcissistic inadequates. They were criminals. They were fantasists. We need to be very clear about this. On the streets of London there is no such thing as a war on terror. The fight against terrorism on the streets of Britain is not a war. It is the prevention of crime, the enforcement of our laws, and the winning of justice for those damaged by their infringement." ["There is no war on terror in the UK, says DPP", The Times, January 24, 2007, p.12, [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-2563401,00.html] ]
tated U.S. objectives and strategies
The Bush Administration has defined the following objectives in the War on Terrorism: [NATIONALSTRATEGY FOR COMBATING TERRORISM [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/counter_terrorism/counter_terrorism_strategy.pdf] ]
# Defeat terrorists and their organizations.
# Identify, locate and destroy terrorists along with their organizations.
# Deny sponsorship, support and sanctuary to terrorists.
## End the state sponsorship of terrorism.
## Establish and maintain an international standard of accountability with regard to combating terrorism.
## Strengthen and sustain the international effort to fight terrorism.
## Working with willing and able states.
## Enabling weak states.
## Persuading reluctant states.
## Compelling unwilling states.
## Interdict and disrupt material support for terrorists.
## Eliminate terrorist sanctuaries and havens.
# Diminishing the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit.
## Partner with the international community to strengthen weak states and prevent (re)emergence of terrorism.
## Win the war of ideals.
# Defend U.S. citizens and interests at home and abroad.
## Implement the Nation Strategy for Homeland Security.
## Attain domain awareness.
## Enhance measures to ensure the integrity, reliability, and availability of critical physical and information-based infrastructures at home and abroad.
## Integrate measures to protect U.S. citizens abroad.
## Ensure an integrated incident management capability.
Campaigns and theaters of operation
Horn of Africa
This extension of Operation Enduring Freedom, titled OEF-HOA, was initiated in response to the
September 11 attackson the United States. Unlike other operations contained in Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF-HOA does not have a specific terrorist organization as a target. OEF-HOA instead focuses its efforts to disrupt and detect terrorist activities in the region and to work with host nations to prevent the reemergence of terrorist cells and activities.
In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force, Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was established in
Djiboutiat Camp Le Monier. It contains approximately 2,000 personnel including U.S. military and Special Operations Forces (SOF) and coalition force members, Coalition Task Force 150 (CTF-150). The coalition force members consist of ships from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, New Zealand, Spainand the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the coalition forces is to monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region and areas of Operation Iraqi Freedom.CRS Report for Congress [http://www.senate.gov/member/al/shelby/general/legislation/Terrorism.pdf] ] Included in the operation is the training of selected armed forces units of the countries of Djibouti, Kenyaand Ethiopiain counterterrorism and counterinsurgency tactics. Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA include rebuilding of schools and medical clinics as well as providing medical services to those countries whose forces are being trained. The program expands as part of the Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative as CJTF personnel also assist in training the forces of Chad, Niger, Mauritaniaand Mali. However, the War on Terror does not include Sudan, where over 400,000 have died due to state-sponsored terrorism. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/09/21/america/NA_GEN_US_Natsios_Interview.php AP report on Sudan] ]
July 1, 2006, a Web-posted message purportedly written by Osama bin Ladenurged Somalis to build an Islamic state in the country and warned western states that his al-Qaedanetwork would fight against them if they intervened there. [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-07-01-bin-laden-plans-message_x.htm Bin Laden releases Web message on Iraq, Somalia] USA Today]
Somalia has been considered a "failed state" because its official central government was weak, dominated by warlords and unable to exert effective control over the country. Beginning in mid-2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an
Islamistfaction campaigning on a restoration of "law and order" through Sharia Law, had rapidly taken control of much of southern Somalia. On December 14, 2006, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Jendayi Frazerclaimed al-Qaedacell operatives were controlling the Islamic Courts Union, a claim denied by the ICU. [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L14556061.htm U.S. says al Qaeda behind Somali Islamists] Reuters]
By late 2006, the UN-backed
Transitional Federal Government(TFG) of Somalia had seen its power effectively limited to Baidoa, while the Islamic Courts Unioncontrolled the majority of Southern Somalia, including the capital of Mogadishu. On December 20, the Islamic Courts Union launched an offensive on the government stronghold of Baidoa, and saw early gains before Ethiopiaintervened in favor of the government. By December 26, the Islamic Courts Union went into a "tactical retreat" towards Mogadishu, before again retreating as TFG/Ethiopian troops neared, leading them to take Mogadishu with no resistance. The ICU then fled to Kismayo, where they are currently fighting Ethiopian/TFG forces in the Battle of Jilib. The Prime Minister of Somalia claims that 3 terror suspects from the 1998 Embassy Bombings are being sheltered in Kismayo. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1980824,00.html] On 30 December, 2006, al-Qaeda deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiricalled upon Muslims worldwide to fight against Ethiopia and the TFG in Somalia. [http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/africa/01/01/mogadishu.somalia.ap/index.html Somali, Ethiopian troops take Islamist stronghold] CNN]
On January 8, 2007, the U.S. launched a strike in Somalia against the suspects using
Beginning in October 2001, Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of NATO started in response to the 9/11 attacks. It operates in the
Mediterranean Seaand is designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destructionas well as to enhance the security of shippingin general. The operation has also assisted Greecewith the prevention of illegal immigration.
Iraqhad been listed as a State Sponsor of Terror by the United States since 1990, [cite news|title=Iraq accuses U.S., Turkey of 'illegally' meeting with Kurds |publisher=CNN |date=2000-03-09 |url=http://archives.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/meast/03/09/un.iraq/index.html] and maintained poor relations with the United States since the Gulf War. The regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq proved a continuing problem for the UN and Iraq’s neighbors in its refusal to account for previously known stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons, its violations of UN resolutions, and its support for terrorism against Israel and other countries. After the 1991 Gulf War, the US, French and British militaries began patrolling the Iraqi no-fly zonesto protect Iraq’s Kurdish minority and Shi’ite Arab population – both of which suffered attacks from the Hussein regime before and after the 1991 Gulf War – in Iraq’s northern and southern regions, respectively.
Tensions were high throughout the 1990s, with the
United Stateslaunching Operation Desert Foxagainst Iraq in 1998 after it failed to meet demands of "unconditional cooperation" in weapons inspections. [cite news|title=Clinton: Iraq has abused its final chance |publisher=CNN |date=1998-12-16 |url=http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1998/12/16/clinton/index.html?eref=sitesearch] In the aftermath of Operation Desert Fox during December 1998, Iraq announced that it would no longer respect the no-fly zones and resumed its efforts in shooting down Allied aircraft. Air strikes by the British and Americans against Iraqi anti-aircraft and military targets continued over the next few years. Also in 1998, President Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Actwhich called for regime change in Iraq on the basis of Saddam Hussein’s possession of weapons of mass destruction, oppression of Iraqi citizens and attacks upon other Middle Eastern countries.
After the September 11 attacks, the U.S. government claimed that Iraq was a threat to the United States because Iraq could begin to use its previously known Weapons of Mass Destruction to aid terrorist groups.
George W. Bushadministration called for the United Nations Security Council to send weapons inspectors to Iraq to find and destroy alleged weapons of mass destruction and for a UNSC resolution. [cite news|title=Iraq weighs U.N. resolution |publisher=CNN |date=2002-11-09 |url=http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/11/09/iraq.resolution/index.html] [cite news|title=Bush's remarks after U.N. passes Iraq resolution |publisher=CNN |date=2002-11-08 |url=http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/11/08/bush.transcript/] UNSC Resolution 1441 was passed unanimously, which offered Iraq "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" or face "serious consequences." Resolution 1441 did not authorize the use of force by member states, thus Resolution 1441 had no effect on the UN Charter's prohibition on the use of force by member states against fellow member states. Saddam Hussein subsequently allowed UN inspectors to access Iraqi sites, while the U.S. government continued to assert that Iraq was being obstructionist. [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/iraq/resolution2_2-24-03.html] In October 2002, a large bipartisan majority in the United States Congress authorized the president to use force if necessary to disarm Iraq in order to "prosecute the war on terrorism." [cite news|title=Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq |date= 2002-10-02|publisher= White House|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021002-2.html] After failing to overcome opposition from France, Russia, and Chinaagainst a UNSC resolution that would sanction the use of force against Iraq, and before the UN weapons inspectors had completed their inspections which were deemed to be fruitless by the U.S. because of Iraq's alleged deception, the United States assembled a " Coalition of the Willing" composed of nations who pledged support for regime change in Iraq. On March 20, 2003, the invasion of Iraq was launched in what the Bush Administration said were the "serious consequences" spoken of in UNSC Resolution 1441. Saddam Hussein's regime was quickly toppled and on May 1, 2003, George W. Bushstated that major combat operations in Iraq had ended. [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/05/20030501-15.html] However, an insurgency arose against the U.S.-led coalition and the newly developing Iraqi military and post-Saddam government. Elements of the insurgency were led by fugitive members of Saddam's Ba'athregime, who included Iraqi nationalists and pan-Arabists. Most insurgency leaders are violent Islamistsand claim to be fighting a religious war to reestablish the Arab Islamic Caliphateof centuries past. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101040705-658290,00.html]
After months of brutal violence against Iraqi civilians by Sunni and Shi’ite terrorist groups and militias -- including
Al-Qaeda in Iraq–- in January 2007 President Bush presented a new strategy for Operation Iraqi Freedombased upon Counter-insurgencytheories and tactics developed by General David Petraeus. The Iraq War troop surge of 2007was part of this "new way forward" and has been credited with a dramatic decrease in violence by up to 80% and an increase in political and communal reconciliation in Iraq.
In July 2006, following the killing of three Israeli soldiers and the taking prisoner of two more by
Hezbollah, Israelinvaded southern Lebanon, intent on the destruction of Hezbollah. The conflict lasted over a month and caused the deaths of between 845 [cite news | url=http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060818/NEWS06/608180438/-1/ZONES01 | title=Lebanese army greeted in south | publisher=Indianapolis Star | author=Lauren Frayer |date= 2006-08-18] and 1300 [cite news | url=http://news.independent.co.uk/world/fisk/article1219684.ece | title= Robert Fisk: Lebanon's pain grows by the hour as death toll hits 1,300 | publisher=The Independent | author=Robert Fisk |date= 2006-08-17] Lebanese and 163 Israelis (119 military and 44 civilian) and wounding thousands more Israelis and Lebanese. [ cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/08/14/mideast.main/index.html | title= Refugees stream back to southern Lebanon | publisher=CNN | author= Ben Wedeman | coauthors=Brent Sadler |date= 2006-08-14] Both the Lebanese government (including Hezbollah) and the Israeli government have agreed to the terms of the ceasefire agreement created by the United Nations that began at 0500 on August 14, 2006. While the conflict is associated with the longer running Arab-Israeli conflict, prior to the declaration of the ceasefire, Israel stated it was fighting a war against terror, [cite news|title=Israel needs int'l support for war against terror: DM |publisher=People's Daily Online |date= August 10, 2006|url=http://english.people.com.cn/200608/10/eng20060810_291519.html "Israeli Defense Minister Amir Peretz said Wednesday morning that Israel is fighting a war of the free world against terror"] the U.S. government stated the conflict was also a front in the "War on Terror" [cite news|title=Lebanon part of 'war on terror', says Bush |publisher=ABC News |date= July 30, 2006|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200607/s1700569.htm] and President Bush reiterated it in a speech the day the ceasefire came into effect. [cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/08/14/bush/index.html|title= Bush: 'Hezbollah suffered a defeat' | publisher=CNN |date= 2006-08-14]
In 2007 a conflict began in northern Lebanon after fighting broke out between
Fatah al-Islam, an Islamist militant organization, and the Lebanese Armed Forceson May 20, 2007in Nahr al-Bared, a Palestinianrefugee camp near Tripoli. The conflict evolved mostly around the Siege of Nahr el-Bared, but minor clashes had also occurred in the Ain al-Hilwehrefugee camp in southern Lebanon and several terrorist bombings took place in and around Lebanon's capital Beirut. The terrorist group has been described as a militant jihadistLe Figaro (April 16, 2007). [http://www.lefigaro.fr/english/20070416.WWW000000477_fatah_al_islam_the_new_terrorist_threat_hanging_over_lebanon.html "Fatah Al-Islam: the new terrorist threat hanging over Lebanon"] . Retrieved May 20, 2007.] movement that draws inspiration from al-Qaeda. The U.S. provided military aid to Lebanon during the conflict. On September 7, 2007Lebanese Forces captured the camp and then declared victory.
In May 2008,
Lebanon's 17-month long political crisis spiralled out of control. The unrest saw fighters from Shi'a movements Hezbollahand Amal opposing pro-government gunmen, including fighters loyal to the Sunni Future Movement Party, in several areas of the capital. The government was U.S.-backed while the Shiite militants were armed and financed by Syria and Iran. The fighting led to the fall of Beirut and the eastern Aley area to opposition forces.
The latest wave of attacks in Saudi Arabia started with the bombing in
Riyadhon 12 May 2003by al-Qaedaterrorists. The attacks are targeting the Saudi security forces, the foreign workers, and tourists (mostly Western).
Gaza Strip/ West Bank
Fatah- Hamasconflict began in 2006 and has continued, in one form or another, into the middle of 2007. The conflict is between the two main Palestinianfactions, Fatah and Hamas, with each vying to assume political control of the Palestinian Territories. The majority of the fighting is occurring in the Gaza Strip, which was taken over by Hamas in June 2007. Fatah is United Statesbacked and, although it won the first free and democratic elections held in the Palestinian territories, Hamas is considered a terrorist organizationby the United States, United Nationsand the European Union.
Central Asia/South Asia
India has had to deal with a slow but steady rise in
Islamistterrorism over the course of the 1990s and the 21st century. The recent rise in prominence of several Pakistan and Kashmir-based terror groups, such as Lashkar-e-Toiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Hizbul Mujahideenand others in Kashmirhas created grave problems for the country. Major terrorist incidents in India carried out by Islamic groups include the 1993 Mumbai bombings, as well as terrorism in Kashmirsuch as Wandhama massacre, Kaluchak massacre, Chittisinghpura massacreand others. Other deadly terrorist attacks in the rest of the country include the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, Akshardham Temple attack, 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings, 2005 Ram Janmabhoomi attack in Ayodhya, 2005 Jaunpur train bombing, 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings, 2006 Malegaon blasts, 2006 Varanasi bombings, and the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings. In the aftermath of the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, tensions between India and Pakistan increased as India blamed Pakistan for not doing enough to contain anti-India terrorist groups based there. This resulted in massive troop build-ups along the Indo-Pakistani international border by both India and Pakistan resulting in fears of a nuclear war. However, international diplomacy helped decline tensions between the two nuclear weapons-armed states. Pakistan was also suspected to be behind the 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul. [http://www.argentinanews.net/story/379630] [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/c122796c-4c88-11dd-96bb-000077b07658.html?nclick_check=1]
Kashmiri insurgents, who initially started their movement as a pro-Kashmiri independence movement, have gone through a radical change in their ideology. They now portray their struggle as a religious one. [http://www.jammu-kashmir.com/insights/insight20010301a.html]
Research and Analysis Wing, India's premier external intelligence agency, observed the growing link between Islamic terrorist groups based in Afghanistan and Kashmiri insurgents. [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/HH22Df02.html] Al-Qaedaalso lends ideological and financial support to terrorism in Kashmir, with Osama bin Ladenconstantly demanding that jihadbe waged against India [ [http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/usa/Osama.htm] ] and Islamic fundamentalistgroups disseminating propaganda in many countries against India with rhetoric like "idol worshipers and Hindus" who "occupy Kashmir". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/panorama/4171950.stm] ] The government and military of Indiahave taken numerous counter-terrorist measures to combat rising terrorism in the country. [ [http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/apr/05spec.htm] ] Some of these measures have been criticized by human rights groups as being too draconian, particularly in Kashmir. [ [http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/businessline/2001/03/08/stories/040855ks.htm] ] However, increased vigilance by Indian security forces has had a positive impact with the number of terrorist attacks declining sharply in 2007. [http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/index.html] Despite counter-terrorism efforts, India continues to remain one of the countries worst affected by terrorism. [http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/India-among-worst-hit-by-terrorism-US/304094/] India is considered to be one of main allies in the war on terrorism [http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/07/news/air.php] and has worked closely on counter-terrorism activities and training with several countries such as United States, [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454.htm] Australia, [http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/news/stories/200806/s2283403.htm] Israel, [http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/swamy300806.html] United Kingdom, [http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/UK-wants-more-India-cooperation-on-terrorism/263568/] Russia, [http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2003/09/18/stories/2003091803921200.htm] Japan, [http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/koizumispeech/2001/1210india_e.html] and China. [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/6328784.html]
In October 2001, in the wake of the
September 11 attackson the United States, NATOinvaded Afghanistanto remove al-Qaeda forces and oust the Talibanregime which had control of the country. On September 20, 2001George W. Bush delivered an ultimatum to the Taliban regime to turn over Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda leaders operating in the country. [cite news|title=Transcript of President Bush's address |publisher=CNN |date= 2001-09-20 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/20/gen.bush.transcript/] The Taliban demanded evidence of bin Laden's link to the September 11 attacks and, if such evidence warranted a trial, they offered to handle such a trial in an Islamic Court. [cite news|title=Taliban rejects president Bush's demands |publisher=PBS |date= 2001-09-21 |url=http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/september01/taliban_9-21.html] On October 7, 2001 the official invasion began with British and American forces conducting aerial bombing campaigns. [cite web|url=http://www.defenselink.mil/home/features/1092004a.html|title=Into Afghanistan: Rooting out the Taliban |date= August 9, 2006|publisher=United States Department of Defense|accessdate= 2006-08-10]
Waging war in Afghanistan has been of a lower priority for the U.S. government than the war in Iraq. Admiral Mike Mullen, Staff Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said that while the situation in Afghanistan is "precarious and urgent," the 10,000 additional troops needed there would be unavailable "in any significant manner" unless withdrawals from Iraq are made. However, Admiral Mullen stated that "my priorities . . . given to me by the commander in chief are: Focus on Iraq first. It's been that way for some time. Focus on Afghanistan second." [Washington Post, July 23, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/22/AR2008072202942_2.html?nav=hcmodule&sid=ST2008072203343&pos= citing PBS Newshour interview of July 22, 2008]
The Saudi born Zayn al-Abidn Muhammed Hasayn Abu Zubaydah was arrested by Pakistani officials during a series of joint U.S. and Pakistan raids during the week of
March 23, 2002. During the raid the suspect was shot three times while trying to escape capture by military personnel. Zubaydah is said to be a high-ranking al-Qaeda official with the title of operations chief and in charge of running al-Qaeda training camps. [http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/south/04/01/pakistan.alqaeda/] Later that year on September 14, 2002, Ramzi Binalshibhwas arrested in Pakistan after a three-hour gunfight with police forces. Binalshibh is known to have shared a room with Mohammad Attain Hamburg, Germanyand to be a financial backer of al-Qaeda operations. It is said Binalshibh was supposed to be another hijacker, however the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Servicesrejected his visa application three times, leaving him to the role of financier. The trail of money transferred by Binalshibh from Germany to the United States links both Mohammad Atta and Zacarias Moussaoui. [http://english.pravda.ru/main/2002/09/14/36623.html]
March 1, 2003, Khalid Shaikh Mohammedwas arrested during CIA-led raids on the suburb of Rawalpindi, nine miles outside of the Pakistani capital of Islamabad. Mohammed at the time of his capture was the third highest ranking official in al-Qaeda and had been directly in charge of the planning for the September 11 attacks. Escaping capture the week before during a previous raid, the Pakistani government was able to use information gathered from other suspects captured to locate and detain Mohammed. Mohammed was indicted in 1996 by the United States government for links to the Oplan Bojinka, a plot to bomb a series of U.S. civilian airliners. Other events Mohammed has been linked to include: ordering the killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl, the USS Cole bombing, Richard Reid's attempt to blow up a civilian airliner with a shoe bomb, and the terrorist attack at the El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia. Khalid Shaikh Mohammed has described himself as the head of the al-Qaeda military committee. [http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/south/03/01/pakistan.arrests/]
Amidst all this, in 2006, Pakistan was accused by NATO commanding officers of aiding and abetting the Taliban in Afghanistan; [ [http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/3231 NATO faces defeat in Afghanistan] ] but NATO later admitted that there was no known evidence against the ISI or Pakistani government of sponsoring terrorism. [cite news|url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/11/stories/2006101107441600.htm|title=No evidence against Pakistan: NATO|author=The Hindu|date=
2006-10-11|accessdate=2007-06-04|publisher= The Hindu] However in 2007, allegations of ISI secretly making bounty payments up to CDN$ 1,900 ( Pakistani rupees. 1 lakh) for each NATO personnel killed surfaced. [ [http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=d60787c1-6490-4476-b681-2ac4844da586&k=15441 Pakistan accused of placing bounty on NATO soldiers] April 05, 2007, The Vancouver Sun] The Afghan government also accuses the ISI of providing help to militants including protection to the recently killed Mullah Dadullah, Taliban's senior military commander, a charge denied by the Pakistani government. [ [http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/world-news/article2540127.ece Taliban military leader killed by Nato forces] Belfast Telegraph, May 14, 2007] India, meanwhile continues to accuse Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligenceof planning several terrorist attacks in Kashmir and elsewhere in the Indian repubic, including the 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings, which Pakistan attributes it to "homegrown" insurgencies. [cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/09/30/india.bombs/index.html?section=cnn_world#|title=Pakistan spy agency behind Mumbai bombings|author=CNN|date= 2006-09-30|accessdate=2006-09-30|publisher= CNN] Many other countries like Afghanistan and the UK have also accused Pakistan of State-sponsored terrorism and financing terrorism. The upswing in American military activity in Pakistanand neighboring Afghanistancorresponded with a drastic increase in American military aid to the Pakistan government. In the three years before the attacks of September 11, Pakistan received approximately $9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to $4.2 billion, making it the country with the maximum funding post 9/11. [cite news
coauthors = Nathaniel Heller, Sarah Fort, Marina Walker Guevara, Ben Welsh
title = Pakistan's $4.2 Billion 'Blank Check' for U.S. Military Aid, After 9/11, funding to country soars with little oversight
Center for Public Integrity
March 27 2007
language = English
url = http://www.publicintegrity.org/icij/default.aspx] Such a huge inflow of funds has raised concerns that these funds were given without any accountability, as the end uses not being documented, and that large portions were used to suppress civilians' human rights and to purchase weapons to contain domestic problems like the Balochistan unrest. [ [http://www.publicintegrity.org/militaryaid/report.aspx?aid=877 Billions in Aid, With No Accountability]
Center for Public IntegrityPosted: 5/31/2007] [ [http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=59395 An alliance of convenience By Burhanuddin Hasan] The News International, Pakistan]
In 2004 the
Pakistani Armylaunched a campaign in the Federally Administered Tribal Areasof Pakistan's Waziristanregion, sending in 80,000 troops. The goal of the conflict was to remove the al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the region. After the fall of the Taliban regime many members of the Taliban resistance fled to the Northern border region of Afghanistan and Pakistan where the Pakistani army had previously little control. With the logistics and air support of the United States, the Pakistani Army captured or killed numerous al-Qaeda operatives such as Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, wanted for his involvement in the USS Cole bombing, Oplan Bojinkaplot and the killing of Wall Street Journalreporter Daniel Pearl. However, the Taliban resistance still operates in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas under the control of Haji Omar. [cite news|title=Top al Qaeda operative caught in Pakistan |publisher= CNN|date=2003-03-01 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/south/03/01/pakistan.arrests/]
In 2002 and again in 2005, the Indonesian island of
Balihas been struck by suicide and car bombings that killed over 200 people and injured over 300. The 2002 attack consisted of a bomb hidden in a backpack exploding inside of "Padds's Bar," a remote controlled car bomb exploding in front of the "Sari Club" and a third explosion in front of the American consulate in Bali. The 2005 attack consisted of 2 suicide bombings, the first near a food court in Jimbaran, the second in the main square of Kuta. The group Jemaah Islamiyah is suspected by Indonesian authorities of carrying out both attacks.
September 9, 2004, a car bomb exploded outside of the Australian embassy in Jakarta, killing 10 Indonesians and injuring over 140 others; despite conflicting initial reports there were no Australian casualties. [cite news|title=JI 'claims Jakarta car bombing' |publisher=CNN |date=2004-09-09 |url=http://cnn.com/2004/WORLD/asiapcf/09/09/indonesia.blast/index.html?eref=sitesearch] Foreign Minister Alexander Downerreported that a mobile phone text messagewas sent to Indonesian authorities before the bombing warning of attacks if Abu Bakar Bashirwas not released from prison. [cite news|title=Text 'warned of Jakarta bomb' |publisher= CNN|date=09.10.04 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/asiapcf/09/10/indonesia.blast/index.html] Abu Bakar Ba'asyir was imprisoned on charged of treasonfor his support of the 2002 and 2005 Bali bombings. [cite news|title=Jihad warning over Indonesian cleric arrest |publisher=CNN |date=2002-10-10 |url=http://cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/10/10/indo.baasyir/index.html?eref=sitesearch] Currently Jemaah Islamiyah is suspected of carrying out the attacks and Noordin Mohammed Top is a prime suspect. Top is a bomb maker and explosions expert for Jemaah Islamiyah. [cite news|title='Walking bombs' are desperate |publisher=CNN |date=2003-11-01 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/11/01/indon.walkbomb/index.html]
In January 2002 the United States Special Operations Command, Pacific deployed to the Philippines to advise and assist the
Armed Forces of the Philippinesin combating terrorism. The operations were mainly focused on removing the Abu Sayyaf Group(ASG) and Jemaah Islamiyah(JI) from their stronghold on the island of Basilan. The United States military has reported that they have removed over 80% of the Abu Sayyaf Group members from the region. The second portion of the operation was conducted as a humanitarian program called "Operation Smiles." The goal of the program was to provide medical care and services to the region of Basilan to prevent the ability for members of the terrorist groups to reestablish themselves.
United States of America
A $40 billion emergency spending bill was passed by the United States Congress, and an additional $20 billion bail-out of the airline industry was also passed.
The Justice Department launched a
Special Registrationprocedure for certain male non-citizens in the U.S., requiring them to register in person at offices of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
In addition to military efforts abroad, in the aftermath of 9/11 the Bush Administration increased domestic efforts to prevent future attacks. A new cabinet level agency called the
United States Department of Homeland Securitywas created to lead and coordinate federal counterterrorism activities. The USA PATRIOT Actremoved legal restrictions on information sharing between federal law enforcement and intelligence services and allowed for the investigation of suspected terrorists using means similar to those in place for other types of criminals. A new Terrorist Finance Tracking Programmonitored the movements of terrorists' financial resources (discontinued after being revealed by The New York Timesnewspaper). Telecommunication usage by known and suspected terrorists was studied through the NSA electronic surveillance program.
Political interest groups have alleged that these laws remove important restrictions on governmental authority, and are a dangerous encroachment on civil liberties, possible unconstitutional violations of the Fourth Amendment. On July 30th, 2003, the ACLU filed the first legal challenge against Section 215 of the Patriot Act, claiming that it allows the FBI to violate a citizen's 1st Amendment rights, 4th Amendment Rights, and right to due process, by having the ability to search business, bookstore, and library records in a terrorist investigation - without disclosing to the individual that records were being searched. [http://www.ala.org/ala/alonline/currentnews/newsarchive/2003/august2003/firstpatriot.cfm] Also, governing bodies in a number of communities have passed symbolic resolutions against the act.
In a speech on
June 9, 2005, Bush said that the USA PATRIOT Act had been used to bring charges against more than 400 suspects, more than half of whom had been convicted. Meanwhile the American Civil Liberties Union(ACLU) quoted Justice Department figures showing that 7,000 people have complained of abuse of the Act. DARPAbegan an initiative in early 2002 with the creation of the Total Information Awarenessprogram, designed to promote information technologies that could be used in counterterrorism. This program, facing criticism, has since been defunded by Congress.
Various government bureaucracies which handled security and military functions were reorganized. Most notably, the
Department of Homeland Securitywas created to coordinate "homeland security" efforts in the largest reorganization of the U.S. federal government since the consolidation of the armed forces into the Department of Defense. The Office of Strategic Influencewas secretly created after 9/11 for the purpose of coordinating propaganda efforts, but was closed soon after being discovered. The Bush administration implemented the Continuity of Operations Plan(or Continuity of Government) to ensure that U.S. government would be able to continue in catastrophic circumstances.
Since 9/11, Islamic extremists made various attempts to attack the US homeland, with varying levels of organization and skill. For example, in 2001 vigilant passengers aboard a transatlantic flight to
Miamiprevented Richard Reid (shoe bomber)from detonating an explosive device. Other terrorist plots have been stopped by federal agencies using new legal powers and investigative tools, sometimes in cooperation with foreign governments. Such thwarted attacks include a plan to crash airplanes into the U.S. Bank Tower(aka Library Tower) in Los Angeles; the 2003 plot by Iyman Faristo blow up the Brooklyn Bridgein New York City; the 2004 Financial buildings plotwhich targeted the International Monetary Fundand World Bankbuildings in Washington, DC, the New York Stock Exchangeand other financial institutions; the 2004 Columbus Shopping Mall Bombing Plot; the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plotwhich was to involve liquid explosives; the 2006 Sears Tower plot; the 2007 Fort Dix attack plot; and the 2007 John F. Kennedy International Airport attack plot. To date, no attacks by Islamic terrorists on the US homeland have been successful since September 11, 2001.
Recently the House of Representatives passed a bill enacting many of the recommendations of the 9/11 Commission, something the Democrats campaigned on as part of their "100 hour plan." The bill passed in the House 299-128 and is currently still being considered in the U.S. Senate. So far funding has not been appropriated for the enactments. [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16549599/]
Following the September 11 attacks the United States government increased military aid to
Colombia. In 2003, 98 million dollars were spent for new Pentagon training and equipment for the Colombian military. The purpose of which was to help the Colombia government fight the FARC rebel group which is regarded by the U.S. as a terrorist group. It has also been alleged that the Communist rebel group has connections to the drug cartels of South America. [http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2002/0202colombia.html] [http://www.colombiajournal.org/colombia229.htm] [http://www.cpusa.org/article/articleview/316/1/3/] [http://www.worldpress.org/americas/0102colombia.htm]
International military support
:main|Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan: Allies:main|Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2006 :main|Afghanistan War order of battle
The first wave of attacks were carried out solely by American and British forces. Since the initial invasion period, these forces were augmented by troops and aircraft from
Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealandand Norwayamongst others. In 2006, there were about 33,000 troops in Afghanistan.
September 12, 2001, less than 24 hours after the attacks in New York Cityand Washington, NATOinvoked Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treatyand declared the attacks to be an attack against all 19 NATO member countries. Australian Prime Minister John Howardalso declared that Australia would invoke the ANZUSTreaty along similar lines.
In the following months, NATO took a wide range of measures to respond to the threat of terrorism. On
November 22, 2002, the member states of the EAPC decided on a Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism which explicitly states that "EAPC States are committed to the protection and promotion of fundamental freedoms and human rights, as well as the rule of law, in combating terrorism." [cite web|url=http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Newsroom/view_news_e.asp?id=1703|title=Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism|date= November 22, 2002|publisher=NATO|accessdate= 2006-08-09] NATO started naval operations in the Mediterranean Seadesigned to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destructionas well as to enhance the security of shippingin general called Operation Active Endeavour.
The invasion of Afghanistan is seen as the first action of this war, and initially involved forces from the
United States, the United Kingdom, and the Afghan Northern Alliance.
Support for the United States cooled when America made clear its determination to invade Iraq in late 2002. Even so, many of the "
coalition of the willing" countries that unconditionally supported the U.S.-led military action have sent troops to Afghanistan, particular neighbouring Pakistan, which has disowned its earlier support for the Taliban and contributed tens of thousands of soldiers to the conflict. Pakistan was also engaged in the Waziristan War. Supported by U.S. intelligence, Pakistan was attempting to remove the Taliban insurgency and al-Qaeda element from the northern tribal areas. [cite news|title=New frontline in the war on terror |publisher=The Guardian |date=05.04.06 |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/pakistan/Story/0,,1767031,00.html]
The International Security Assistance Force
:main|International Security Assistance Force
December 2001 saw the creation of the NATO led
International Security Assistance Force(ISAF) to assist the Afghan Transitional Administrationand the first post-Taliban elected government. With a renewed Taliban insurgency, it was announced in 2006 that ISAF would replace the U.S troops in the province as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. The British 16th Air Assault Brigade(latter reinforced by Royal Marines) formed the core of the force in Southern Afghanistan, along with troops and helicopters from Australia, Canada and the Netherlands. The initial force consisted of roughly 3,300 British, 2,000 Canadian, 1,400 from the Netherlands and 240 from Australia, along with special forces from Denmark and Estonia(and small contingents from other nations). [cite news|title=UK troops take over Afghan duties|date= 2006-06-01|publisher= BBC|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4961368.stm] [cite news|title=Canada set for longer Afghan stay |date= 2006-06-16|publisher= BBC|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4984880.stm] [cite news|title=Australia outlines Afghan force|date= 2006-05-08|publisher= BBC|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4983540.stm] [cite news|title=More Dutch troops for Afghanistan |date= 2006-02-03|publisher= BBC|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4673026.stm]
Summary of major troop contributions (over 500,
10 June 2008): [ [http://www.nato.int/ISAF/docu/epub/pdf/isaf_placemat.pdf - International Security Assistance Force Factsheet - NATO, 10 June2008] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7228649.stm Isaf troops in Afghanistan - BBC 6 February2008] ]
* US - 32,500 (23,550 - ISAF)
* UK - 8,530
* Germany - 3,370
* France 2,660
* Canada - 2,500
* Italy - 2,350
* Netherlands - 1,770
* Poland - 1,140
* Australia - 1,100
* Spain - 800
* Turkey - 760
* Denmark - 750
* Norway - 580
* Romania - 570
Criticisms of U.S. objectives and strategies
The War on Terrorism as indefinite and indeterminate
Policy experts have criticized the “War on Terrorism” as an irresponsible
metaphor, arguing that “war” must by definition be waged against nations—not against broad and controversial categories of activity such as “terrorism.” Cognitive linguist George Lakoffwrites::"Literal—not metaphorical—wars are conducted against armies of other nations. They end when the armies are defeated militarily and a peace treaty is signed. Terror is an emotional state. It is in us. It is not an army. And you can’t defeat it militarily and you can’t sign a peace treaty with it." [ [http://www.rockridgeinstitute.org/research/rockridge/fiveyearsafter911 Five Years After 9/11: Drop the War Metaphor — Rockridge Institute ] ]
Dr. David Kilcullen, a
counterinsurgencyand counterterrorismadvisor to Gen. David Petraeus and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, has asserted that::"We must distinguish Al Qa'eda and the broader militant movements it symbolises – entities that "use" terrorism – from the tactic of terrorism itself. In practice, as will be demonstrated, the 'War on Terrorism' is a defensive war against a world-wide Islamist" jihad", a diverse confederation of movements that uses terrorism as its principal, but not its sole tactic." [ [http://www.smallwarsjournal.com/documents/kilcullen.pdf "Countering Global Insurgency"] ] Francis Fukuyama, a prominent former neoconservative, has made the similar point that "The term “war on terrorism” is a misnomer, resulting in distorted ideas of the main threat facingAmericans today. Terrorism is only a means to an end; in this respect, a “war on terror” makesno more sense than a war on submarines." [ [http://www.brook.edu/comm/events/summary20030514.pdf "Phase III in the War on Terrorism?" (Brookings Institution)] ]
The term "terrorism" has been also been characterized as unacceptably vague. The
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimeobserves::"The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures. Cynics have often commented that one state's "terrorist" is another state's "freedom fighter." [ [http://www.unodc.org/unodc/terrorism_definitions.html United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime] ] Opponents critical of this inherent subjectivity point out that governments such as Iran, Lebanon, and Venezuelaconsistently use the term "terrorism" to describe actions taken by the United States. [ [http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_ID=1&article_ID=74444&categ_id=5 "An open letter to the American president" Lebanon "Daily Star"] ]
Further criticism maintains that the War on Terrorism provides a framework for
perpetual war; that the announcement of such open-ended goals produces a state of endless conflict, since "terrorist groups" can continue to arise indefinitely. [Richissin, Todd. " [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2002023596_russanal02.html 'War on terror' difficult to define] " The Baltimore Sun, 2 September 2004.] . President Bush has pledged that the War on Terrorism “will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, and defeated.” [ [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html "Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People"] ] During a July 2007 visit to the United States, newly appointed British Prime Minister Gordon Browndefined the War on Terror, specifically the element involving conflict with Al Qaeda, as "a generational battle". [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/07/30/bush.brown/index.html "CNN: Britain's Brown: Al Qaeda fight a 'generation-long' battle"] ]
The War on Terrorism as counterproductive
A number of security experts, politicians, and policy organizations have claimed that the War on Terrorism has been counterproductive: that it has consolidated opposition to the U.S., aided terrorist recruitment, and increased the likelihood of attacks against the U.S. and its allies. In a 2005 briefing paper, the
Oxford Research Groupreported that :"Al-Qaida and its affiliates remain active and effective, with a stronger support base and a higher intensity of attacks than before 9/11. ...Far from winning the 'war on terror', the second George W. Bush administrationis maintaining policies that are not curbing paramilitary movements and are actually increasing violent anti-Americanism." [ [http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers/endlesswar.php "Endless War: The global war on terrorand the new Bush Administration"] ] The South African " Mail & Guardian" describes research commissioned by the British Ministry of Defencewhich concluded:
*"The war in Iraq ... has acted as a recruiting sergeant for extremists across the Muslim world ... Iraq has served to radicalise an already disillusioned youth and al-Qaeda has given them the will, intent, purpose and ideology to act." [ [http://www.mg.co.za/articledirect.aspx?articleid=285202&area=%2fbreaking_news%2fbreaking "Iraq war was terrorism 'recruiting sergeant'" Mail & Guardian 28 Sep 2006] ]
Peter Bergenand Paul Cruickshank, research fellows at the Center on Law and Security at the NYU School of Law, have argued that the "globalization of martyrdom" potentiated by the Iraq War “has generated a stunning sevenfold increase in the yearly rate of fatal jihadist attacks, amounting to literally hundreds of additional terrorist attacks and thousands of civilian lives lost.” [ [http://www.motherjones.com/news/featurex/2007/03/iraq_effect_1.html "The Iraq Effect." "Mother Jones," 1 March 2007] ]
National Intelligence Estimateissued the following among its "key judgments":
*"The Iraq conflict has become the —cause celebre“ for jihadists, breeding a deep resentment of US involvement in the Muslim world and cultivating supporters for the global jihadist movement. Should jihadists leaving Iraq perceive themselves, and be perceived, to have failed, we judge fewer fighters will be inspired to carry on the fight." [ [http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20070202_release.pdf Iraq National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) - "Prospects for Iraq's Stability: A Challenging Road Ahead" Unclassified Key Judgments] - Released on Friday, February 2, 2007.]
Others have criticized the U.S. for
double standards in its dealings with key allies that are also known to support terrorist groups, such as Pakistan. AfghanPresident Hamid Karzaihas repeatedly stated that in the "war against terrorism," “the central front is Pakistan"; Pakistan has also been alleged to provide Talibanoperatives with covert support via the ISI. [ [http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006%5C11%5C16%5Cstory_16-11-2006_pg7_23 ‘Pakistan must not harbour Taliban’ By Khalid Hasan] ] These accusations of double dealing regard civil liberties[ [http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2003/12/08/031208ta_talk_lemann "Democracy Hypocrisy"; "The New Yorker" 8 Dec 2001] ] and human rights as well as terrorism. According to the Federation of American Scientists, " [i] n its haste to strengthen the "frontline" states' ability to confront transnational terrorist threats on their soil, and to gain the cooperation of regimes of geostrategic significance to the next phases of the "War on Terrorism", the administration is disregarding normative restrictions on U.S. aid to human rights abusers." [ [http://www.fas.org/terrorism/at/docs/Aid&Humanrights.html "The War on Terrorism" and Human Rights: Aid to Abusers ] ] Amnesty Internationalhas argued that the Patriot Actgives the U.S. government free reign to violate the constitutional rights of citizens. [ [http://www.amnestyusa.org/War_on_Terror/Civil_Rights/page.do?id=1108209&n1=3&n2=821&n3=838 Amnesty International] ] The Bush administration's alleged use of extraordinary rendition, secret prisons, and torturehave all fueled opposition to the War on Terrorism. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/01/AR2005110101644.html "Washington Post"] ] [ [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5776968 NPR] ] [ [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,1237589,00.html "Guardian"] ]
Decreasing international support
In 2002, strong majorities supported the U.S.-led War on Terrorism in Britain,
France, Germany, Japan, India, and Russia. By 2006, supporters of the effort were in the minority in Britain (49%), France (43%), Germany (47%), and Japan (26%). Although a majority of Russians still supported the War on Terrorism, that majority had decreased by 21%. Whereas 63% of the Spanish population supported the War on Terrorism in 2003, only 19% of the population indicated support in 2006. 19% of the Chinese population supports the War on Terrorism, and less than a fifth of the populations of Turkey, Egypt, and Jordansupport the effort. Indian support for the War on Terrorism has been stable. [ [http://pewglobal.org/commentary/display.php?AnalysisID=1019 Pew Global Attitudes Project: America’s Image in the World: Findings from the Pew Global Attitudes Project ] ] Andrew Kohut, speaking to the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, noted that, according to the Pew Research Centerpolls conducted in 2004, "majorities or pluralities in seven of the nine countries surveyed said the U.S.-led war on terrorism was not really a sincere effort to reduce international terrorism. This was true not only in Muslim countries such as Morocco and Turkey, but in France and Germany as well. The true purpose of the war on terrorism, according to these skeptics, is American control of Middle East oil and U.S. domination of the world." [www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/congress/koh111005.pdf]
Persecution of Christian
Role of U.S. media
Researchers in the area of communication studies and political science have found that American understanding of the war on terror is directly shaped by how the mainstream news media reports events associated with the war on terror. In "Bush’s War: Media Bias and Justifications for War in a Terrorist Age" [cite book
first =Jim A.
title =Bush’s War: Media Bias and Justifications for War in a Terrorist Age
publisher =Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
isbn =0-7425-3653-X ] political communication researcher
Jim A. Kuypersillustrated “how the press failed America in its coverage on the War on Terror.” In each comparison, Kuypers “detected massive bias on the part of the press.” This researcher called the mainstream news media an “anti-democratic institution” in his conclusion. “What has essentially happened since 9/11 has been that Bush has repeated the same themes, and framed those themes the same whenever discussing the War on Terror,” said Kuypers. “Immediately following 9/11, the mainstream news media (represented by CBS, ABC, NBC, USA Today, New York Times, and Washington Post) did echo Bush, but within eight weeks it began to intentionally ignore certain information the president was sharing, and instead reframed the president's themes or intentionally introduced new material to shift the focus.”
This goes beyond reporting alternate points of view, which is an important function of the press. “In short,” Kuypers explained, “if someone were relying only on the mainstream media for information, they would have no idea what the president actually said. It was as if the press were reporting on a different speech.” The study is essentially a “comparative framing analysis.” Overall, Kuypers examined themes about 9-11 and the War on Terror that the President used, and compared them to the themes that the press used when reporting on what the president said.
“Framing is a process whereby communicators, consciously or unconsciously, act to construct a point of view that encourages the facts of a given situation to be interpreted by others in a particular manner,” wrote Kuypers. These findings suggest that the public is misinformed about government justification and plans concerning the war on terror.
Others have also suggested that press coverage has contributed to a public confused and misinformed on both the nature and level of the threat to the U.S. posed by terrorism. In his book, "Trapped in the War on Terror" [ cite book
first =Ian S.
title =Trapped in the War on Terror
publisher =University of Pennsylvania Press
isbn =0-8122-3983-0 ] political scientist Ian S. Lustick, claimed, “The media have given constant attention to possible terrorist-initiated catastrophes and to the failures and weaknesses of the government's response.” Lustick alleged that the War on Terror is disconnected from the real but remote threat terrorism poses, and that the generalized War on Terror began as part of the justification for invading Iraq, but then took on a life of its own, fueled by media coverage.
Media researcher Stephen D. Cooper’s analysis of media criticism "Watching the Watchdog: Bloggers As the Fifth Estate" [ cite book
first =Stephen D.
title =Watching the Watchdog: Bloggers As the Fifth Estate
publisher =Marquette Books
isbn =0-9229-9347-5 ] contains many examples of controversies concerning mainstream reporting of the War on Terror. Cooper found that bloggers’ criticisms of factual inaccuracies in news stories or bloggers’ discovery of the mainstream press’s failure to adequately check facts before publication caused many news organizations to retrack or change news stories.
Cooper found that bloggers specializing in criticism of media coverage advanced four key points: 1. Mainstream reporting of the war on terror has frequently contained factual inaccuracies. In some cases, the errors go uncorrected; moreover, when corrections are issued they usually are given far less prominence than the initial coverage containing the errors. 2. The mainstream press has sometimes failed to check the provenance of information or visual images supplied by Iraqi “stringers” (local Iraqis hired to relay local news). 3. Story framing is often problematic; in particular, “man-in-the-street” interviews have often been used as a representation of public sentiment in Iraq, in place of methodologically sound survey data. 4. Mainstream reporting has tended to concentrate on the more violent areas of Iraq, with little or no reporting of the calm areas.
Since 2002, the
United States military, has created several military awards and decorations related to the "War on Terrorism" including:
Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal"
Afghanistan Campaign Medal"
Iraq Campaign Medal"
Global War on Terrorism Service Medal"
U.S. Department of Transportationcreated two awards related to the "War on Terrorism" which are authorized to be worn on U.S. military uniforms:
9-11 Ribbon" NATOhas also created military decorations related to the "War on Terrorism":
* Article 5
* Non-Article 5 ISAF
There is no widely agreed on figure for the number of people that have been killed so far in the "War on Terrorism" as it has been defined by the Bush Administration to include the war in Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, and operations elsewhere. Some estimates include the following:
* Iraq — 62,570 to 1,124,000:*Opinion Research Business (ORB) poll conducted August 12-19, 2007 estimated 1,033,000 violent deaths due to the Iraq War. The range given was 946,000 to 1,120,000 deaths. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2000 Iraqi adults answered whether any members of their household (living under their roof) were killed due to the Iraq War. 22% of the respondents had lost one or more household members. ORB reported that "48% died from a gunshot wound, 20% from the impact of a car bomb, 9% from aerial bombardment, 6% as a result of an accident and 6% from another blast/ordnance." [http://www.opinion.co.uk/Newsroom_details.aspx?NewsId=78 "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered"] . September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: [http://www.opinion.co.uk/Documents/TABLES.pdf] ] [http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/09/14/3839/ "Poll: Civilian Death Toll in Iraq May Top 1 Million"] . By Tina Susman. Sept. 14, 2007. "
Los Angeles Times."] [http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/09/16/3879/ "Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million"] . By Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters. Sept. 16, 2007. "The Observer (UK)."] [http://www.medialens.org/alerts/07/070918_the_media_ignore.php "The Media Ignore Credible Poll Revealing 1.2 Million Violent Deaths In Iraq"] . Sept. 18, 2007. " MediaLens."] :* Between 392,979 and 942,636 estimated Iraqi (655,000 with a confidence interval of 95%), civilian and combatant, according to the second Lancet survey of mortality. [" [http://www.thelancet.com/webfiles/images/journals/lancet/s0140673606694919.pdf] ." " The Lancet".] :* A minimum of 62,570 civilian deaths reported in the mass media up to 28 April 2007according to [http://www.IraqBodyCount.net IraqBodyCount] .:* 4000 U.S. military dead (2008 26 March). 22,401 wounded in action, of which 10,050 were unable to return to duty within 72 hours. 6,640 non-hostile injuries and 18,183 diseases (both requiring medical air transport). ["http://icasualties.org/oif/." Iraq Coalition Casualties]
* Afghanistan — between 1,300 and 49,600:* According to Marc W. Herold, ["http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mwherold/." Dossier on Civilian Victims of United States' Aerial Bombing] up to 3,600 civilians were killed as a result of U.S. bombing. :*
Joshua Muravchikof the American Enterprise Instituteand Carl Conettaof the Project on Defense Alternativesquestion Herold's heavy use of the Afghan Islamic Press, "suspicious" tallies of other news agencies, and statistical errors in Herold's study. [ [http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/001/565otmps.asp?pg=1 The Prof Who Can't Count Straight ] ] Conetta's study puts total civilian casualties between 1000 and 1300. ["http://www.comw.org/pda/0201oef.html." Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties] :* A Los Angeles Timesstudy put the number of collateral dead between 1,067 and 1,201.:* According to Jonathan Steeleof " The Guardian" between 20,000 and 49,600 people may have died of the consequences of the invasion. ["http://www.guardian.co.uk/afghanistan/comment/story/0,11447,718647,00.html." The Guardian]
*Somalia - 7,000+:*In December 2007, The Elman Peace and Human Rights Organisation said it had verified 6,500 civilian deaths, 8,516 people wounded, and 1.5 million displaced from homes in Mogadishu alone during the year 2007. [ [http://www.nationalpost.com/story.html?id=208509 Mogadishu violence kills 6,500 in past year: rights group ] ]
War on Terra
List of military strikes against presumed terrorist targets
Airport security repercussions due to the September 11 attacks
Axis of evil
* Allegations of state terrorism by the U.S.
Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005
Black sites (CIA secret detention centers)
Persecution of Muslims
Islam by country
List of wars in the Muslim world
Criticisms of the "War on Terrorism"
Department of Anti-terrorism Strategic Studies, an Italian "parallel police" under investigations since July 2005
Executive Order 12333
Foreign policy of the United States
Long War (21st century)
Manhunt (law enforcement)
Operation Eagle Assist
NSA warrantless surveillance controversy
Proactive and Preemptive Operations Group
Terrorist surveillance program
* U.S. anti-terror legislation:
USA Patriot Act
Ohio Patriot Act
* UK anti-terror legislation:
Terrorism Act 2006
Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 (UK)
Algerian Civil War
* War in Afghanistan
War on Islam
* List of wars by death toll
War on Terror (game)
* Müller, Sebastian R. "Hawala. An Informal Payment System and Its Use to Finance Terrorism", Dec. 2006, ISBN 3-8655-0656-9
* Kuypers, Jim A. "Bush’s War: Media Bias and Justifications for War in a Terrorist Age", ISBN 0-7425-3653-X
Brian Michael Jenkins, " Unconquerable Nation", RAND Corporation, Fall 2006, ISBN 0-8330-3893-1 and ISBN 0-8330-3891-5
Igmade(Stephan Trüby et al., eds.), "5 Codes: Architecture, Paranoia and Risk in Times of Terror", Birkhäuser; 2006, ISBN 3-7643-7598-1
* Richard Clarke, "Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror", Free Press; 2004, ISBN 0-7432-6024-4
* Ira Chernus. "Monsters To Destroy: The Neoconservative War on Terror and Sin". Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2006 ISBN 1-59451-276-0
Michael Scheuer, "Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror", ISBN 1-57488-849-8
Michelle Malkin, "In Defense Of Internment: The Case for Racial Profiling in World War II and the War on terror", September, 2004, National Book Network, hardcover, 416 pages, ISBN 0-89526-051-4
Steven Emerson(2002), "American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us", Free Press; 2003 paperback edition, ISBN 0-7432-3435-9
Lyal S. Sunga, (2002) "US Anti-Terrorism Policy and Asia’s Options", in Johannen, Smith and Gomez, (eds.) September 11 & Political Freedoms: Asian Perspectives (Select) 242–264, ISBN 981-4022-24-1
* Marina Ottoway, et al., "Democratic Mirage in the Middle East," Carnegie Endowment for Ethics and International Peace, Policy Brief 20, (
October 20 2002). [http://www.ceip.org/files/publications/HTMLBriefs-WP/20_October_2002_Policy_Brief/20009536v01.html Available online]
* Marina Ottoway and Thomas Carothers, "Think Again: Middle East Democracy,"Foreign Policy (Nov./Dec. 2004). [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2705&print=1 Available online]
* Chris Zambelis, "The Strategic Implications of Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Middle East," Parameters, (Autumn 2005). [http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/05autumn/zambelis.htm Available online]
* Adnan M. Hayajneh, "The U.S. Strategy: Democracy and Internal Stability in the Arab World,"Alternatives (Volume 3, No. 2 & 3, Summer/Fall 2004). [http://www.alternativesjournal.net/volume3/number2/adnan.htm Available online]
* Gary Gambill, "Jumpstarting Arab Reform: The Bush Administration's Greater Middle East Initiative," Middle East Intelligence Bulletin (Vol. 6, No. 6–7, June/July 2004). [http://www.meib.org/articles/0407_me2.htm Available online]
* Remarks by the President at the 20th Anniversary of the National Endowment for Democracy, United States Chamber of Commerce, Washington, D.C., "President Bush Discusses Freedom in Iraq and Middle East," (
November 6 2003). [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/11/20031106-2.html Available online]
Hans Köchler, "Terrorism and National Liberation. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Question of Terrorism". Frankfurt a. M:/Bern/New York: Peter Lang, 1988, ISBN 3-8204-1217-4
Hans Köchler, "Manila Lectures 2002. Terrorism and the Quest for a Just World Order". Quezon City (Manila): FSJ Book World, 2002, ISBN 3-211-83091-X
Hans Köchler, [http://hanskoechler.com/koechler-war-on-terror-paper-manila.pdf "The War on Terror, its Impact on the Sovereignty of Nations, and its Implications on Human Rights and Civil Liberties"] , Manila, September 2002
Hans Köchler, [http://i-p-o.org/koechler-terrorism-collective-security.htm "The United Nations and International Terrorism : Challenges to Collective Security"] , Shanghai, November 2002
Hans Köchler(ed.), "The 'Global War on Terror' and the Question of World Order". Vienna: International Progress Organization, 2008. ISBN 9783900704247
* Robert Blecher, "Free People Will Set the Course of History: Intellectuals, Democracy and American Empire," Middle East Report (March 2003). [http://www.merip.org/mero/interventions/blecher_interv.html Available online]
* Robert Fisk, "What Does Democracy Really Mean In The Middle East? Whatever The West Decides," The London Independent (
August 8 2005). [http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article9888.htm Available online]
* Fawaz Gergez, "Is Democracy in the Middle East a Pipedream?,"Yale Global Online (
April 25 2005). [http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=5622 Available online]
* Donald Rumsfeld, "Bureaucracy to Battlefield Speech," (
September 10 2001) [http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2001/s20010910-secdef.html Available online]
* Leon Hadar, "The Green Peril: Creating the Islamic Fundamentalist Threat," (
August 27 1992) [http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-177.html Available online]
* George W. Bush, "A Period of Consequences," (
September 23 1999) [http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/program/news99/92399_defense.htm Available online]
* George W. Bush, "A Distinctly American Internationalism," (
November 19 1999) [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/wspeech.htm Available online]
* Nicholas Lemann, "Dreaming About War," (
July 16 2001) "The New Yorker". [http://www.comw.org/qdr/0107lemann.html Available online]
* James Der Derian, "The Illusion of a Grand Strategy, " (
May 25 2001) "The New York Times" [http://www.comw.org/qdr/0105DerDerian1.html Available online]
* Paul Wolfowitz, "Briefing on the Defense Planning Guidance, " (
August 16 2001). [http://www.comw.org/qdr/fulltext/010816Wolfowitz.html Available online]
* Henry Shelton, "Change, Troops and Transformation, " (
August 28 2001). [http://www.hqusareur.army.mil/htmlinks/Press_Releases/2001/Aug/20010828-1.htm Available online]
* Project for the New American Century, "Rebuilding America's Defenses, " (September 2000). [http://www.newamericancentury.org/RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf Available online]
* Foreign Policy in Focus, "The Bush Administration's Strategic Defense Review, "(May 2001). [http://www.fpif.org/presentations/0105briefingbook/index_body.html Available online]
* Col. Daniel Smith and others, "Reforging the Sword: Forces for the 21st Century Security Strategy, " Center for Defense Information, (September 2001), [http://www.cdi.org/mrp/reforging-full.pdf Available online]
* BBC News, "Stumbling towards Pentagon reform: Ambitious agenda, " (
August 16 2001). [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1495340.stm Available online]
* Philip Gold, "Savaging Donald Rumsfeld, " The Washington Times, (
August 28 2001). [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&program=Defense&id=1045 Available online]
* Condoleezza Rice, "Life after the Cold War, " Council on Foreign Relations, (September 2000). [http://web.archive.org/web/20021007230637/www.foreignpolicy2000.org/library/issuebriefs/readingnotes/fa_rice.html web.archive.org]
* Ashton Carter and William Perry, "Preventive Defense, A New Security Strategy for America, " Brooking Institution, (1999). [http://brookings.nap.edu/books/081571307X/html/R1.html Available online]
* Steven Metz, "Asymmetry and U.S. Military Strategy: Definition, Background, and Strategic Concepts, " U.S. Army War College, (January 2001). [http://web.archive.org/web/20020919144100/http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usassi/ssipubs/pubs2001/asymetry/asymetry.htm web.archive.org]
* Kenneth McKenzie, "The Revenge of the Melians: Asymmetric Threats and the next QDR, " National Defense University, (November 2000). [http://www.ndu.edu/inss/McNair/mcnair62/m62cvr.html Available online]
* L. Ali Khan, "A Theory of International Terrorism" (2006) and [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=935319 The Essentialist Terrorist (2006)]
Mohsin Hamid, " The Reluctant Fundamentalist"; 2007, ISBN 978-0241143650
;Official sites by governments and international organizations
* [https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-on-terrorism/index.html CIA and the War on Terror]
* [http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/terrorists/fugitives.htm FBI Most Wanted Terrorists]
* [http://www.rewardsforjustice.net Rewards for Justice — Most Wanted Terrorists]
* [http://www.whitehouse.gov/response/faq-what.html Whitehouse FAQ about the "War on Terrorism"]
* [http://www.defendamerica.mil/ U.S. Dept. of Defense News on the "War on Terrorism"]
* [http://www.nato.int/terrorism/ NATO and the scourge of terrorism]
* [http://www.un.org/terrorism/ UN action against terrorism]
* [http://www.interpol.com/Public/Wanted/Fugitives/Default.asp INTERPOL and fugitives]
* [http://www.usmarshals.gov/investigations/index.html US Marshals Service]
;General "war on terrorism" news
* [http://www.longwarjournal.org/ Long War Journal] - The Long War Journal is dedicated to providing original and accurate reporting and analysis of the Long War (also known as the Global War on Terror). This is accomplished through its programs of embedded reporters, news and news aggregation, podcasts, and other multimedia formats.
* [http://iraqstatusreport.com/ Iraq Status Report] - The IraqStatusReport.com Web site provides the only “one-stop-shop” on the Internet for news, commentary and analysis related to the U.S. Mission in Iraq.
* [http://insurgencyresearchgroup.wordpress.com/ Insurgency Research Group] - Multi-expert blog dedicated to the study of insurgency and the development of counter-insurgency policy.
Zbigniew Brzezinski, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/23/AR2007032301613_pf.html Terrorized by 'War on Terror' -- How a Three-Word Mantra Has Undermined America] (The Washington Post, Sunday, March 25, 2007)
* [http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/misc/janes070112_1_n.shtml UK faces a long war] Janes.com, January 2007
* [http://web1.foreignpolicy.com/issue_julyaug_2006/TI-index/index.html The Terrorism Index] — The first comprehensive and regularly updated report card on the war on terrorism. Developed by "Foreign Policy Magazine" and the Center for American Progress
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1212120,00.html The Guardian] — Gunned down to impress America
* [http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/may2004-daily/03-05-2004/metro/k2.htm Killed in the name of Terror] — Ansar Burney to sue Macedonian govt for killing 6 Pakistanis
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/world/2001/war_on_terror/ BBC News In Depth: Investigating al-Qaeda]
* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/nation/specials/attacked/ The Washington Post "War on terrorism" coverage]
* [http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/comment/0,12956,1036687,00.html This war on terrorism is bogus] by
* [http://www.ipsnews.net/new_focus/warII/index.asp Bush at War Part II] Independent news reports by
Inter Press Service
;Primary legal documents
* [http://news.findlaw.com/legalnews/us/terrorism/cases/index.html Findlaw Special Coverage "War on Terrorism"] (court documents in .pdf)
* [http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode50/usc_sec_50_00001541----000-notes.html Authorization For Use of Military Force Against
September 11terrorists (AUMF)] US Public Law 107-40, September 18 2001, 115 Stat. 224
* [http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/2004-09-Strategic_Communication.pdf Report on Strategic Communication] (pdf) Defense Science Board Task Force, September 2004
* [http://www.counter-terrorism-law.org/ counter-terrorism-law.org]
* [http://legalnews.tv/commentary/counteracting_terrorism.html Counteracting Terrorism] , "LNTV",
August 13 2006
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/02/international/asia/02STAN.html "Pakistanis Arrest Qaeda Figure Seen as Planner of 9/11"] , "The New York Times",
March 2 2003
* [http://tortureprotest.org/ Documenting and fighting] torture used in the "War on Terror."
* [http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/search.tkl?q=%22war+on+terrorism%22&search_crit=fulltext&search=Search&date1=Anytime&date2=Anytime&type=form Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding the "War on Terrorism"]
* [http://www.globalcriminalmedia.com/gloves.pdf And the Gloves Came Off] Douglas C. McNabb and Matthew R. McNabb,"The European Lawyer", October 2005.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/3755686.stm The Power of Nightmares] ; A three-part BBC documentary
* [http://users.skynet.be/diab/Reflections/Renditions.htm Extraordinary renditions: the playwright and the president] ; Jeff Sommers, Khaled Diab and Charles Woolfson explore the dynamics between playwright and president as America's 'war on terror' stands in the dock.
* [http://www.cgs.uiuc.edu/resources/webvideo/racvideo.html Richard Clarke Speech on Streaming Video] ; Speech by Richard Clarke, a former member of the
National Security Council, US Department of State official, March 8 2005
* [http://www.milum.net/global_war_on_terrorism.htm Seminar on the Global "War On Terrorism"] by the Chairman of the Cold War Veterans Association — Vince Milum
* [http://www.comw.org/qdr/01qdr.html The Quadrennial Defense Review of 2001] by the Project for Defense Alternatives
* [http://www.waronterrorboardgame.com/ The War on Terror Board Game]
* [http://www.independent.org/publications/policy_reports/detail.asp?type=full&id=28 Ian S. Lustick, "Our Own Strength Against Us: The War on Terror as a Self-Inflicted Disaster"] April 4, 2008
Independent InstitutePolicy report
* " [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/darkside/ The Dark Side] " — After 9/11 Vice President Cheney initiated an expansion of executive power, took on George Tenet's CIA for control over intelligence and brought the War on Terrorism to Iraq.
* [http://www.ansarburney.org/videolinks/video-macedonia_killings.html Macedonia Killings Video] — 2002 confrontation at the US embassy in Macedonia
* [http://movies.crooksandliars.com/TCR-Long-War-3-9-06.wmv The Long War] — Colbert highlights the new name for "war on terror" that the pentagon is now using.
* [http://www.archive.org/details/ThePowerOfNightmares The Power of Nightmares]
* [http://www.obsessionthemovie.com/index.php] Documentary on Radical Islam's War against the West
* [http://www.npr.org/dmg/dmg.php?prgCode=ATC&showDate=13-Feb-2006&segNum=2&NPRMediaPref=WM&getAd=1 NPR Coverage]
* [http://www.islamonline.com/cgi-bin/news_service/middle_east_full_story.asp?service_id=10561 Newspaper Article describing video and photographs]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
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