Lima Metro


Lima Metro
Lima Metro
Lima metro train.jpg
Info
Locale Lima
Transit type Metro
Number of lines 1
Number of stations 16
Operation
Began operation April 28th, 1990
Technical
System map

Center

The Lima Metro, regarded by peruvians as Tren Eléctrico is a metropolitan railway currently linking the south of Lima, with the centre of the capital of Peru. The system has one metro line almost in viaduct, covering with more than 20 km the initial constructed section, and crossing almost 10 districts of the city.

Despite the line having 32 cars and 7 stations, it has not operated commercially since the beginning of service in 1990 during the first presidency of Alan García (1985-1990) because the constructed section doesn't have the distance or demand required to make it commercially viable. The construction of the Lima Metro remained paralyzed since that time under accusations of bribes, after an investment of 226 million dollars co-financed by the Italian government.

Thus, the Peruvian Government under the second presidency of Alan García (2006-2011) put the Ministry of Transports and Communications in charge of finalizing Line 1, prolonging its current extension up to Av. Grau in the city center, making it a total of 21 km (13.0 mi) of elevated viaduct with 16 stations and crossing 9 districts in total: Villa El Salvador, Villa María del Triunfo, San Juan de Miraflores, Santiago de Surco, Surquillo, San Borja, San Luis, La Victoria and Lima District.

Contents

History

Beginning

Tren en estación Villa el Salvador

Between 1972 and 1973, the "Metrolima" consortium elaborated the technical-economical feasibility studies and the pre-project of the "Mass Rapid Transit System for Passengers in the Metropolitan Area of Lima and Callao", approved by the Government of Peru in 1974. Unfortunately, the political crisis generated by the sudden illness of the President and the problem of his succession, added to the complexity of the Limean soil located in a highly seismic zone, as well as the international economical crisis of the time, made it impossible to get the necessary financing of US$317'000,000. This way, the "Metrolima" project, contemplating a total of 5 lines of underground train, remained archived permanently.

In 1986, the first presidency of Alan García created the "Autonomous Authority for the Mass Transit Electrical Transport System Special Project" with the Supreme Decree N° 001-86 MIPRE, with degree of Law N° 24565. This entity called for a public contest for the implementation of this system, won by the italian-capital "Consorcio Tralima" consortium. It started promptly the infrastructure work for an elevated viaduct metro.

Construction started by placing the first stone on October 18th, 1986, making its construction the main promise made in 1987 by the newly-elected Major of Lima and member of the government party: Jorge del Castillo.

The work began with a 120 km (74.6 mi)2 shop in the district of Villa El Salvador, south of the city, where the trains were meant to be stored and receive preventive maintenance. Construction advanced at a relatively fast pace, but when Line 1 reached the Atocongo Station the country was immersed in a deep economical and social crisis, which halted construction. It was meant to continue through Av. Aviación up to the Dos de Mayo Hospital in the city center, but the assigned budget had been already spent and this, added to continuous questioning to the transparency of the proper handling of the resources and other factors such as inflation and terrorism (which left the capital without electricity for long periods).

In April 28th, 1990, three months before ending the first government by APRA, Alan García celebrated the opening of the line, despite the fact that the line was incomplete and did not reach areas of higher demand and density. The metro remained nearly useless in practice, given that the required investments for its operation and maintenance were unjustifiable for its ridership. In spite of that, the subsequent governments tried to revive the project because of the significant investment put into the trains and infrastructure. On several occasions, candidates in both federal and municipal elections used it politically with the promise of finishing the project, although it never materialized.

The municipalities crossed by the metro started to cover the unfinished segments in an attempt to diminish the negative impact on the urban landscape. This way, the centre median of Av. Aviación had pillars with grass in order to avoid the invasion of ambulatory commerce (which represented a large problem in Lima at the time). Vegetation was planted in order to cover the uncovered pieces of steel and concrete of the unfinished project. Some districts also painted the columns and walls with images of Peruvian landscapes and nature, deeming the project as definitively cancelled.

In August 5th, 2001, the AATE (Electrical Train Autonomous Authority) was passed on to the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima through the Urgency Decree N° 058-2001. Since then, the Lima Metro only made trips to give preventive maintenance to the trains.

The columns and rights-of-way of the train remained, for more than two decades, as a living example of the bad management of the first APRA government between 1985 and 1990. Throughout time, several artistic and musical groups took advantage of the situation to satirize the project. The "El Tren Eléctrico" song by Juan Luis Dammert[1] and the imaginary launch campaign denominated "Lima 2427" (calculated finishing year given the progress rate the project had thus far), launched by artist Camila Bustamante. This campaigned placed stickers in the supposed future stations and gave out informative flyers on the streets, allowing the general public to find out that the project didn't have just one line but seven interconnected lines servicing the whole city.

Present Time

Train in Villa el Salvador, 2 days before its inauguration
La Cultura Station

The central government decided in 2009 that the Ministry of Transports and Communications (MTC) retook the administration of the AATE (Electrical Train Autonomous Authority), putting a dependency called Provias Nacional in charge of organizing a public international licitation to select the consortium in charge of the civil works for the remaining section of the train and its electromechanical equipment. Financing comes from a foreign debt operation with the Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) for US$300 million. This credit was approved in August 18th, 2009.

In December 2nd, 2009, the Ministry gave way for the construction to the "Consorcio Tren Eléctrico Lima" consortium, formed by Odebrecht (Brazil) and Graña y Montero (Peru). The project, according to contract, will be delivered in July 5th, 2011, barely days before the second presidency of Alan García ends, thus justifying the need to work in six fronts simultaneously (Angamos, San Borja Sur, Javier Prado, Nicolás Arriola and Grau). Construction started in March 2nd, 2010 and, as of February 2011, the project is complete save for electrification and rebuilding of the current Italian trains.

In parallel, the Ministry of Transports and Communications (MTC) is organizing a new public contest with the Private Investment Promotion Agency (Proinversión) to select the train operator. Whoever wins the contest shall proved the remaining rolling stock, consisting of the acquisition of an additional 7 trains (48 cars) to complement what already exists.[2] The operator will also be in charge of operating the metro for 30 years. In the same way, the Ministry of Transports and Communications (MTC) will start another international public licitation process for the construction of the second phase of Line 1, connecting the Intermodal Grau station with the district of San Juan de Lurigancho, passing through Av. Próceres de la Independencia all the way to Bayóvar. This way, the northeast and south parts of the city will be connected through 33.8 km (21.0 mi) railway, completing the first line of the Lima Metro system.[3]

In December 23rd, 2010, president Alan Garcia established through supreme decree 059-2010-MTC [3] the Basic Metro Network of Lima and Callao, signaling the implementation of a network consisting of 5 lines of metro for Lima, contemplating the construction of segments on floor, elevated and underground segments. [4] The Central Government already has the studies of what will become Line 2 of the system, initially conceived to use the existing path of the Central Railway, but now proposed to join, through an underground railway, Callao (West) with Ate-Vitarte, forming a cross that will integrate the first two lines of the system. In July 11th, 2011 President Alan Garcia inaugurated Line 1 of the Lima Metro, in its second phase from Villa el Salvador to Downtown Lima. It is currently on a testing period, and will be fully functioning between September and October of 2011.

Basic Metro Network of Lima and Callao

Basic Metro Network of Lima and Callao

On December 23, 2010, president Alan García promulgated a supreme decree (DS 059-2010-MTC) establishing the Basic Metro Network of Lima and Callao, also named Massive Electric Transport System of Lima and Callao.

The basic network presented was developed by CESEL Ingenieros [5] and includes 5 lines of metro for the capital city.

  • Line 1: Avenida Separadora Industrial, Avenida Pachacutec, Avenida Tomás Marsano, Avenida Aviación, Avenida Grau, Jirón Locumba, Avenida 9 de Octubre, Avenida Próceres de la Independencia, Avenida Fernando Wiese.
  • Line 2: Avenida Guardia Chalaca, Avenida Venezuela, Avenida Arica, Avenida Guzman Blanco, Avenida 28 de Julio, Avenida Nicolás Ayllón, Avenida Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (Carretera Central).
  • Line 3: Avenida Alfredo Benavides, Avenida Larco, Avenida Arequipa, Avenida Garcilazo de la Vega, Avenida Tacna, Avenida Pizarro, Avenida Túpac Amaru, Avenida Rosa de América, Avenida Universitaria.
  • Line 4: Avenida Elmer Faucett, Avenida La Marina, Avenida Sánchez Carrión, Avenida Salaverry, Avenida Canevaro, Avenida José Pardo de Zela, Avenida Canadá, Avenida Circunvalación, Avenida Javier Prado.
  • Line 5: Avenida Huaylas, Avenida Paseo de la República, Avenida República de Panamá, Avenida Miguel Grau.

This norm has a very high importance, given that it constitutes a legal instrument permitting the development of the necessary studies to establish the definitive traces, location of the stations and start working towards reserving the corresponding right-of-way.

To the same extent, the same norm indicates that the Ministry of Transports and Communications will be able, through a Ministerial Resolution, to modify the Basic Metro Network of Lima and Callao - Massive Electric Transport System of Lima and Callao.

Lima and Callao Urban Transport Master Plan Network

Map of the network proposed in the Master Plan

The network proposed in the Urban Transport Master Plan elaborated in 2005 with financing from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) under request from the Technical Secretary of the Lima and Callao Transport Council (ST-CTLC, adscribed to the Ministry of Transports and Communications) has 7 lines, articulating all districts in the Lima and Callao Metropolitan Area, distributed the following way:

Stations proposed in the Master Plan

Full listing of the stations for the Lima Metro.[4] In bold, connecting stations. In grey, stations under construction or in project.

Línea 1
From Villa El Salvador to San Juan de Lurigancho
Línea 2
From Callao to Lurigancho-Chosica
Línea 3
From Callao to Ate-Vitarte
Línea 4
From San Miguel to Carabayllo
Línea 5
From Ancón to San Juan de Miraflores
Línea 6
From Bellavista to Ate-Vitarte
Línea 7
From Comas to Chorrillos
  • Villa El Salvador
  • El Sol
  • Pumacahua
  • Villa María
  • Miguel Iglesias
  • San Juan
  • Atocongo
  • Jorge Chávez
  • Ayacucho
  • Los Cabitos
  • Primavera
  • San Borja Sur
  • La CulturaL3
  • Nicolás Arriola
  • Gamarra
  • Intermodal Grau L6
  • El Ángel
  • Martinete L2 L5
  • Caja de agua
  • Pirámides del Sol
  • Los Jardines
  • Los Postes
  • San Carlos
  • San Martín
  • Santa Rosa
  • Bayóvar
  • Sáenz Peña
  • Garibaldi
  • Gambeta
  • Ciudad Comercial
  • Carmen de La Legua
  • Mirones Bajo
  • Mirones Alto
  • Cárcamo
  • Monserrate
  • Santa Rosa
  • Ricardo Palma
  • Martinete
  • Huancayo
  • Los Huancas
  • Atarjea
  • Encalada
  • San Francisco
  • Alameda de Ate
  • Ceres
  • Vitarte
  • Las Torres
  • Huaycán
  • Ñaña
  • Los Girasoles
  • Chaclacayo
  • Los Ángeles
  • California
  • La Cantuta
  • Chosica
  • Garibaldi
  • Callao
  • La Chalaca
  • Sabogal
  • La Perla
  • Astete
  • La Macarena
  • Maranga
  • Escardó
  • De Las Leyendas
  • Plaza San Miguel
  • Pando
  • Cueva
  • Bartolomé Herrera
  • Sucre
  • Militar
  • San Felipe
  • Salaverry
  • Los Castaños
  • Prescott
  • Los Robles
  • Camino Real
  • Orrantia
  • Parodi
  • Navarrete
  • San Agustín
  • Arriola
  • Quiñones
  • Guardia Civil
  • De La Cultura
  • San Luis
  • Rosa Toro
  • Circunvalación
  • El Trébol Javier Prado
  • Universidad
  • Los Incas
  • Camacho
  • Los Frutales
  • La Fontana
  • Los Ingenieros
  • Flora Tristán
  • Santa Patricia
  • Monumental
  • Puruchuco
  • Los Ángeles
  • Ceres
  • Maranga
  • Precursores
  • Bellavista
  • Colonial
  • Carmen de La Legua
  • Reynoso
  • Aeronaval
  • Aeropuerto
  • Ciudad Satélite
  • Vipol
  • Mayta Cápac
  • El Pacífico
  • Antunez de Mayolo
  • Covida
  • Las Palmeras
  • Lloque Yupanqui
  • Los Olivos
  • Metropolitana
  • Próceres
  • El Retablo
  • Sinchi Roca
  • Collique
  • San Felipe de Collique
  • Chimpu Ocllo
  • Carabayllo
  • Zapallal
  • Los Portales
  • Gramadal
  • Lecaros
  • Rosa Luz
  • Shangrilá
  • Pro
  • Puerta del Sol
  • Metropolitana
  • Villa del Sol
  • Independencia
  • Sol de Oro
  • Los Jardines
  • San Martín de Porres
  • Caquetá
  • Santa Rosa
  • Ricardo Palma
  • Martinete
  • Huancayo
  • Los Huancas
  • Universal
  • Trébol Santa Anita
  • Grumete Medina
  • Olimpo
  • El Trébol Javier Prado
  • San Borja
  • Valle Hermoso
  • Monterrico
  • Pachacútec
  • Sabogal
  • Ciudad del Pescador
  • Bellavista
  • Ciudad Universitaria
  • Amauta
  • Chacra Ríos
  • Paseo Colón
  • Manco Cápac
  • San Fernando
  • Intermodal Grau
  • El Agustino
  • El Pino
  • Yerbateros
  • San Juan de Dios
  • Trébol Santa Anita
  • Mayorazgo
  • Sol de Vitarte
  • Los Ángeles
  • La Estrella
  • Las Torres
  • Metropolitana
  • Naranjal
  • 9 de Octubre
  • Fiori
  • Palao
  • UNI
  • Pizarro
  • Santa Rosa
  • Quilca
  • Paseo Colón
  • De La Exposición
  • De La Reserva
  • Rebagliati
  • Mariscal Castilla
  • Orrantia
  • El Olivar
  • Marsano
  • Miraflores
  • Larco
  • Armendariz
  • Balta
  • Pedro de Osma
  • Escuela Militar

Structure

The Lima Metro has sixteen passenger stations, located at an average distance of 1.2 km (0.7 mi). It starts its path in the Industrial Park of Villa El Salvador, south of the city, continuing on to Av. Pachacútec in Villa María del Triunfo and then to Av. Los Héroes in San Juan de Miraflores. Afterwards, it continues through Av. Tomás Marsano in Surco to reach Ov. Los Cabitos and then on to Av. Aviación to finish in Av. Grau in the city center.

Construction to extend Line 1 until its final destination, through Av. Próceres de la Independencia en San Juan de Lurigancho, is scheduled to begin shortly.

Lines

Line 1

Currently, Line 1 has a float of trains from the eighties by AnsaldoBreda, put in service through the first seven stations only in special occasions. This float should include an additional 42 trains in order to be able to service with the adequate frequencies. The new project contemplates the integral remodeling of the current stations and the revamping of wagons, including the installation of air conditioning among other facilities.

Map of Line 1 aboard one of the wagons

It's extended throughout 21.48 km (13.3 mi) from Villa El Salvador, where the maintenance shop is located, to the Miguel Grau station in Downtown Lima. In addition to the current 16 stations, the second phase is expected to include 11 more.

Estaciones de la Línea 1 del Metro de Lima


References

  1. ^ Video of the "El Tren Eléctrico" song YouTube.com.
  2. ^ [1] Este mes ProInversión definirá cronograma para concesión de operación del Tren Eléctrico. (Spanish)
  3. ^ [2] Pro-Inversión incluye ruta Av. Grau - San Juan de Lurigancho en concesión para operar Tren Eléctrico. (Spanish)
  4. ^ Autoridad Autónoma del Tren Eléctrico (Spanish)

See also

External links


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