The Goths (, respectively.
Meanwhile close contact with Roman civilization brought about a gradual conversion of the Goths to
Catholicism. One of the most notable early instances of such a conversion was that of the Gothic missionary, Wulfila, who then found it necessary to leave Gothic country for the vicinity of Bulgariawith his congregation, where he translated the Bible into Gothic. Although for a time masters of Italy and Spain, the Goths were defeated by the forces of Justinian Iin a final effort to restore the empire. Subsequently they were struck by the Vandalsand the Lombards. Reccared, late 6th century king of Gothic Spain, became Catholic with the remainder of the yet unconverted Goths. Assimilation of the Goths accelerated when the last of them were defeated by the Moorsin the early 8th century. The language and culture disappeared except for fragments in other cultures. In the 18th century a small remnant of Ostrogoths may have turned up in the Crimea, [Bradley (1899) page 364.] but this identification is not certain.
The Goths have had many names and have acquired population from many ethnic sources. Peoples under similar names were key elements of the
Germanic migrations. Nevertheless they believed, and this belief is supported by the mainstream of scholarship, [Wolfram (1988) pages 19-35.] that the names derived from a single prehistoric ethnonymowned by a uniform culture of south Scandinaviain the mid-first millennium BC, the original "Goths." People of a modern form of that name still live there.
Etymologically the oldest (300 BC) ethnonym for the Goths, "Guton-",cite book|first=Winfred P.|last=Lehmann|authorlink=Winfred P. Lehmann|coauthors=Helen-Jo J. Hewitt|title=A Gothic Etymological Dictionary|publisher=E.J. Brill|year=1986|location=Leiden|id=ISBN 9004081763, 9789004081765|pages=page 164 Guton- is apparent in Gutones, which appears "in
Pytheascited by Pliny."] derives from the same root as that of the Gotlanders ("Gutar"): the Proto-Germanic*"Gutaniz". Related, but not the same, is the Scandinavian tribal name Geat, from the Proto-Germanic *"Gautoz" (plural *"Gautaz"). Both *"Gautoz" and *"Gutaniz" are derived (specifically they are two ablaut grades) from the Proto-Germanic word *"geutan", meaning "to pour." [Compare the modern Swedish "gjuta", modern Dutch "gieten", modern German "gießen", Gothic "giutan", old Scandinavian "giota", old English "geotan" all cognatewith Latin "fondere" "to pour" and old Greek "cheo" "I pour".] The Indo-European root of the "pour" derivation would be [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE165.html *gheu-d-] as it is listed in the American Heritage Dictionary (AHD). *gheu-d- is a centumform. The AHD relies on Julius Pokornyfor the same root. [Page 447.]
Thus, the Gothic tribes may be designated as "pourers of semen", i.e. "men, people". [Andersson (1996).] Another theory connects the people with the name of a river flowing through
Västergötlandin Sweden, the Göta älv, which drains Lake Vänerninto the Kattegat. [Wolfram (1988) page 21.]
Old Norse records do not separate the Goths from the
Gutar(Gotlanders) and both are called "Gotar" in Old West Norse. The Old East Norse term for both Goths and Gotlanders seems to have been "Gutar" (for instance in the Gutasagaand in the runic inscription of the Rökstone). However the Geatsare clearly distinguished from the Goths/Gutar in both Old Norse and Old English literature.
At some time in prehistory, consonant changes according to
Grimm's Lawcreated a *g from the *gh and a *t from the *d. This same law more or less rules out [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE155.html *ghedh-] , The *dh in that case would become a *d instead of a *t.
According to the rules of
Indo-European ablaut, the full grade (containing an *e), *gheud-, might be replaced with the zero-grade (the *e disappears), *ghud-, or the o-grade (the *e changes to an *o), *ghoud-, accounting for the various forms of the name. The zero-grade is preserved in modern times in the Lithuanian ethnonym for Belarusians, "Gudai", and in certain Polish names: Gdynia, Gdansk. The use of all three grades suggests that the name derives from an Indo-European stage; otherwise, it would be from a line descending from one grade. However, when and where the ancestors of the Goths assigned this name to themselves and whether they used it in Indo-european or proto-Germanictimes remain unsolved questions of historical linguistics and prehistoric archaeology.
A compound name, "Gut-þiuda", at root the "Gothic people", appears in the "Gothic Calendar" ("aikklesjons fullaizos ana gutþiudai gabrannidai"). Parallel occurrences indicate that it may mean "country of the Goths": Old Icelandic "Sui-þjòd", "Sweden"; Old English "Angel-þēod", "Anglia"; Old Irish "Cruithen-tuath", "country of the Picts.. Evidently this way of forming a country- or people-name is not unique to Germanic.
Gapt, an early Gothic hero, recorded by Jordanes, is generally regarded as a corruption of "Gaut".
Jordanes, a confessed descendant of the Goths, recounts their early legends (which may be based on history) as they were "told in their early songs, in almost historic fashion." [Jordanes 28.] His description of the songs fits the saga, a form of oral poetryused by the Germanic peoples to recount history, parallel to the epic poetryof other illiterate peoples.
According to Jordanes, the earliest migrating Goths sailed from
Scandzaunder King Berig[Jordanes 25.] in three ships [Jordanes 94.] and named the place at which they landed after themselves. Today (says Jordanes) it is called Gothiscandza("Scandza of the Goths"). [Jordanes 26.] From there they entered the land of the Ulmerugi (Rügen?), drove them out, and also subdued the Vandals, their neighbors.
As for the location of Gothiscandza, Jordanes says [Jordanes 96.] that one shipload "dwelled in the province of Spesis on an island surrounded by the shallow waters of the
Vistula." Today's Gdansk, a large city, is at the mouth of the Vistula, but the terrain has changed due to the deposition of mud. The origin of the city remains undetermined. The name is generally conceded to be from "Goth" but not necessarily from Gothiscandza. That this is a legend of the origin of Gdansk cannot be ruled out.
Under their 5th king,
Filimer, son of Gadaric, the Goths entered Oium, a land of bogs, part of Scythia, [Jordanes 27.] defeated the Spaliand moved to the vicinity of the Black Sea. [Jordanes 28.] There they became divided into the Visigothsruled by the Balthi family and the Ostrogothsruled by the Amalifamily. [Jordanes 42.] Ostrogoths means "eastern Goths" and Visigoths means "Goths of the western country." [Jordanes 82.]
Independent confirmation of Jordanes' account in some cases itself needs confirmation: specifically the passage attributed by
Pliny[Book 37, Chapter 11.] to the voyager Pytheas, in which the latter states that the "Gutones, a people of Germany," inhabit the shores of an estuary of at least 6,000 stadia (the Baltic Sea) called Mentonomon, where amberis cast up by the waves. Lehmann (mentioned above under "Etymology") accepted this view but a manuscript variant states Guiones rather than Gutones. [cite book|pages=page 113|title=Germania|first=Cornelius|last=Tacitus|authorlink=Cornelius Tacitus|coauthors=J.B. Rives, Translator and Commentator|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|year=1999|id=ISBN 0199240000, 9780199240005 As Pytheas did mention the Teutones in the same passage it securely dates them to 300 BC.] No other trace of Guiones has even been found.
In Pliny's only other mention of the Gutones [Book 4, Chapter 13.] he says that the
Vandalsare one of the five races of Germany, and that the Vandals include the Burgodiones, the Varinnae, the Charini and the Gutones. The location of those Vandals is not stated, but there is a match with his contemporary Ptolemy's east German tribes. [Book II, Chapter 10.] As those Gutones are put forward as Pliny's not Pytheas', the early date is unconfirmed, but not necessarily invalid.
Major sources for Gothic history include Ammianus Marcellinus' "Res gestae", mentioning Gothic involvement in the civil war between emperors Procopius and
Valensof 365and recounting the Gothic refugee crisis and revolt of 376-382 and Procopius' "de bello gothico", describing the Gothic War of 535-552. In the 3rd century, there were at least two groups of Goths, the Thervingi, and the Greuthungi. The Thervingi launched one of the first major " barbarian" invasions of the Roman Empire from 262, sacking ByzantiumFailed verification|date=February 2007 in 267. [ Hermannus Contractus, quoting Eusebius, has "263: Macedonia, Graecia, Pontus, Asia et aliae provinciae depopulantur per Gothos".] A year later, they suffered a devastating defeat at the Battle of Naissusand were driven back across the Danube Riverby 271. This group then settled north of the Danube and established an independent kingdom centered on the abandoned Roman province of Dacia. In 332 Constantine, in order to enforce the roman empire border, helped the Sarmatians to settle on the north banks of the Danube to defend against the Goths' attacks. 100,000 goths were killed in battle, and Ariaricus, the son of the King of the Goths, was captured.In 334 Constanine evacuated 300,000 Sarmatians from the north bank of the Danube (after a local revolt of the sarmatian's slaves),still in 335-336 Constantine continued the Danube campaign, defeating many goth tribes. [Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions] [Eusebius Vita Constantini IV.6] [Charles Manson Odahl Constantine and the Christiane Empire chapter X] Both the Greuthungi and Thervingi became heavily Romanized during the 4th century by the influence of trade with the Byzantines, and by their membership of a military covenant centered in Byzantium to assist each other militarily. They converted to Arianismduring this time. Hunnic domination of the Gothic kingdom in Scythia began in the 370s,Fact|date=February 2007 and under pressure of the Huns, the king of the Thervingi,Fact|date=February 2007 Fritigernin 376asked the Eastern Roman Emperor Valensto be allowed to settle with his people on the south bank of the Danube. Valens permitted this, and even helped the Goths cross the river,Fact|date=February 2007 probably at the fortress of Durostorum, but following a famine the Gothic War (376-382)erupted, and Valens was killed at the Battle of Adrianople.
The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, (the Ostrogoths being the other) during the fifth century. Together these tribes were among the Germanic peoples who disturbed the late
Roman Empireduring the Migration Period. A Visigothic force led by Alaric Isacked Rome in 410. Honorius granted the Visigoths Aquitania, where they defeated the Vandalsand by 475 ruled most of the Iberian peninsula.
The Ostrogoths in the meantime freed themselves of government of the
Hunsfollowing the Battle of Nedaoin 454. At the behest of emperor Zeno, Theodoric the Greatfrom 488conquered all of Italy. The Goths were briefly reunited under one crown in the early sixth century under Theodoric the Great, who became regent of the Visigothic kingdom following the death of Alaric IIat the Battle of Vouilléin 507. Procopius, writing at this time, interpreted the name "Visigoth" to mean "western Goths", and the name "Ostrogoth" as "eastern Goth" which corresponded to the current distribution of the Gothic realms.
The Ostrogothic kingdom persisted until
553under Teia, when Italy briefly fell back under Byzantine control, until the conquest of the Langobardsin 568. The Visigothic kingdom lasted longer, until 711under Roderic, when it had to yield to the Muslim Umayyadinvasion of Spain Andalusia.
Poland, the earliest material culture identified with the Goths is the Wielbark Culture, [http://www.muzarp.poznan.pl/archweb/gazociag/title5.htm The Goths in Greater Poland] ] which replaced the local Oksywie culturein the 1st century. This replacement happened when a Scandinavian settlement was established in a buffer zone between the Oksywie culture and the probably Vandal Przeworsk culture. [ [Andrzej Kokowski "Archäologie der Goten" 1999 (ISBN 83-907341-8-4) ]
However, as early as the late
Nordic Bronze Ageand early Pre-Roman Iron Age(ca 1300 BC–ca 300 BC), this area had influences from southern Scandinavia. [ [http://www.arkeologi.uu.se/publications/opia/gothicabstract.htm Gothic Connections] ] In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomeraniaand today's northern Poland from ca 1300 BC (period III) and onwards was so considerable that this region is sometimes included in the Nordic Bronze Age culture. [Dabrowski 1989:73]
During the period ca 600 BC–ca 300 BC the warm and dry climate of southern Scandinavia deteriorated considerably, which not only dramatically changed the flora, but forced people to change their way of living and to leave settlements.
The Goths are believed to have crossed the
Baltic Seasometime between the end of this period, ca 300 BC, and 100. According to earlier research, in the traditional Swedish province of Östergötland, archaeological evidence shows that there was a general depopulation during this period. [Oxenstierna 1945] However, this is not confirmed in the recent publications [Kaliff 2001] The settlement in today's Poland probably corresponds to the introduction of Scandinavian burial traditions, such as the stone circles and the stelae, especially common on the island of Gotlandand other parts of southern Sweden, which indicates that the early Goths preferred to bury their dead according to Scandinavian traditions. The Polish archaeologist Tomasz Skorupka states that a migration from Scandinavia is regarded as a matter of certainty:
However, the Gothic culture also appears to have had continuity from earlier cultures in the area, suggesting that the immigrants mixed with earlier populations, perhaps providing their separate aristocracy. The Oxford scholar Heather suggests that it was a relatively small migration from Scandinavia. [Heather 1996:25.] This scenario would make their migration across the Baltic similar to many other population movements in history, such as the Anglo-Saxon Invasion, where, according to some theories, migrants have imposed their own culture and language on an indigenous one. The Willenberg/Wielbark culture shifted south-eastwards towards the
Black Seaarea from the mid-2nd century. It was the oldest part of the Wielbark culture, located west of the Vistula and which had Scandinavian burial traditions, that pulled up its stakes and moved. In Ukraine, they imposed themselves as the rulers of the local Zarubintsy cultureforming the new Chernyakhov Culture(ca 200–ca 400). They were ultimately assimilated into the local population.
There is archaeological and historic evidence of continued contacts between the Goths and southern Sweden during their migrations, into the
6th century. [Arhenius, B. Connections between Scandinavia and the East Roman Empire in the Migration Period, in "From the Baltic to the Black Sea: Studies in Medieval Archaeology", ed. by David Austin and Leslie Alcock (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990), 118-37 (pp. 119, 134).] [Heather, Peter: The Goths (Blackwell, 1996), p. 27.]
Chernyakhov settlements cluster in open ground in river valleys. The houses include sunken-floored dwellings, surface dwellings, and stall-houses. The largest known settlement (Budesty) is 35 hectares. [Heather, Peter & Matthews, John, 1991, "The Goths in the Fourth Century", Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, pp. 52-54.] Most settlements are open and unfortified; some forts are also known. Fact|date=February 2007
Chernyakhov cemeteries include both
cremationand inhumationburials; among the latter the head is to the north. Some graves were left empty. Grave goods often include pottery, bone combs, and iron tools, but almost never any weapons. [Heather, Peter & Matthews, John, 1991, "Goths in the Fourth Century," Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, pp. 54-56.]
According to at least one theoryFact|date=July 2008, there are closer linguistic connections between Gothic and
Old Norse(especially the Old Gutnishdialect) than between Gothic and the West Germanic languages(see East Germanic languagesand Gothic). Moreover, there were two tribes that probably are closely related to the GothsStål, Harry. (1976). "Ortnamn och ortnamnsforskning". Almquist & Wiksell, Uppsala. p.131.] sex remained in Scandinavia, the Gutar (Gotlanders), whose name is identical to Goths, and the Geats. These tribes were considered to be Goths by Jordanes (see Scandza).
The fact is that virtually all of those phonetic and grammatical features that characterize the
North Germanic languagesas a separate branch of the Germanic language family (not to mention the features that distinguish various Norse dialects) seem to have evolved at a later stage than the one preserved in Gothic. Gothic in turn, while being an extremely archaic form of Germanic in most respects, has nevertheless developed a certain number of unique features that it shares with no other Germanic language.
However, this does not exclude the possibility of the Goths, the
Gutarand the Geatsbeing related as tribes. Similarly, the Saxon dialects of Germany are hardly closer to Anglo-Saxon than any other West Germanic language that hasn't undergone the High German consonant shift (see Grimm's law), but the tribes themselves are definitely identical. The Jutes (Dan. jyder) of Jutland (Dan. Jylland, in Western Danmark) are at least etymologically identical to the Jutesthat came from that region and invaded Britain together with the Angles and the Saxons in the 5th century AD. Nevertheless, there are no remaining written sources to associate the Jutes of Jutlandia with anything but North Germanic dialects, or the Jutes of Britain with anything but West Germanic dialects. Thus, language is not always the best criterion for tribal or ethnic tradition and continuity.
Gutar("Gotlanders") themselves had oral traditions of a mass migration towards southern Europe, written down in the Gutasaga. If the facts are related, that would be a unique case of a tradition that survived in more than a thousand years and that actually pre-dates most of the major splits in the Germanic language family.
The Goths' relationship with Sweden became an important part of Swedish nationalism, and until the 19th century the view that the Swedes were the direct descendants of the Goths was common. Today Swedish scholars identify this as a
cultural movementcalled Gothicismus, which included an enthusiasm for things Old Norse.
Since 1278, when
Magnus III of Swedenmounted the throne, it has been included in the title of the King of Sweden. " "We N.N. by Gods Grace of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends King". In 1973, with the death of King Gustaf VI Adolf, the title was changed to solely "King of Sweden"
In Medieval and Modern Spain, the
Visigothswere thought to be the origin of the Spanish nobility(compare Gobineaufor a similar French idea).
Somebody acting with arrogance would be said to be "haciéndose los godos" ("making himself to act like the Goths"). Because of this, in
Chile, Argentinaand the Canary Islands, "godo" was an ethnic slurused against European Spaniards, who in the early colony period would feel superior to the people born locally ("criollos").
This claim of Gothic origins led to a clash with the Swedish delegation at the
Council of Basel, 1434. Before the assembled cardinals and delegations could undertake the theological discussions, they had to decide how to sit during the proceedings. The delegations from the more prominent nations were to sit closest to the Pope, and there were also disputes about who was to have the finest chairs and who was to have their chairs on mats. In some cases they compromised so that some would have half a chair leg on the rim of a mat. In this conflict, the bishop of Växjö, Nicolaus Ragvaldiclaimed that the Swedes were the descendants of the great Goths, and that the people of Västergötland("Westrogothia" in Latin) were the Visigoths and the people of Östergötland("Ostrogothia" in Latin) were the Ostrogoths. The Spanish delegation then retorted that it was only the "lazy" and "unenterprising" Goths who had remained in Sweden, whereas the "heroic" Goths, on the other hand, had left Sweden, invaded the Roman empire and settled in Spain. [Ergo 12-1996.] [ [http://runeberg.org/samlaren/1896/0195.html Söderberg, Werner. (1896). "Nicolaus Ragvaldis tal i Basel 1434", in "Samlaren". p. 187-195.] ]
The Battle of the Goths and Huns
King of the Geats
Sabbas the Goth
* Downloadable Google Books.
*Dabrowski, J. (1989) Nordische Kreis un Kulturen Polnischer Gebiete. "Die Bronzezeit im Ostseegebiet. Ein Rapport der Kgl. Schwedischen Akademie der Literatur Geschichte und Alter unt Altertumsforschung über das Julita-Symposium 1986". Ed Ambrosiani, B. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. Konferenser 22. Stockholm.
*Findeisen, Joerg-Peter: "Schweden - Von den Anfaengen bis zur Gegenwart", Regensburg: Verlag Friedrich Pustet, 1998.
*Oxenstierna, Graf E.C. : "Die Urheimat der Goten". Leipzig, Mannus-Buecherei 73, 1945 (later printed in 1948).
*Heather, Peter: "The Goths" (Blackwell, 1996)
*Hermodsson, Lars: "Goterna - ett krigafolk och dess bibel", Stockholm, Atlantis, 1993.
*Kaliff, Anders: "Gothic Connections. Contacts between eastern Scandinavia and the southern Baltic coast 1000 BC – 500 AD". Occasional Papers in Archaeology (OPIA) 26. Uppsala 2001.
*Mastrelli, Carlo Alberto in Volker Bierbauer et al, "I Goti", Milan: Electa Lombardia, Elemond Editori Associati, 1994.
*Nordgren, I.: "Goterkällan - om goterna i Norden och på kontinenten", Skara: Vaestergoetlands museums skriftserie nr 30, 2000.
*Nordgren, I.: "The Well Spring of the Goths : About the Gothic peoples in the Nordic Countries and on the Continent" (2004)
*Rodin, L. - Lindblom, V. - Klang, K.: "Gudaträd och västgötska skottkungar - Sveriges bysantiska arv", Göteborg: Tre böcker, 1994.
*"Schaetze der Ostgoten", Stuttgart: Theiss, 1995. Studia Gotica - Die eisenzeitlichen Verbindungen zwischen Schweden und Suedosteuropa - Vortraege beim Gotensymposion im Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm 1970.
*Tacitus: "Germania", (with introduction and commentary by J.B. Rives), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.
*Wenskus, Reinhard: "Stammesbildung und Verfassung. Das Werden der Frühmittelalterlichen Gentes" (Köln 1961).
* [http://video.google.ca/videoplay?docid=801730674011842168&q=terry+jones+barbarians&total=17&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=9 "The Savage Goths"] - part of "Terry Jones' Barbarians", June 2006.
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