Archipelago of the Recherche


Archipelago of the Recherche

Archipelago of the Recherche is a group of 105 islands, and over 1200 "obstacles to shipping", off the southern coast of Western Australia. The islands, also known as the Recherche Archipelago, stretch convert|230|km|mi|0 from East to West and to convert|50|km|mi|0 off-shore.The western group is near Esperance and the eastern group at Israelite Bay. They are located in coastal and inland waters, part of which is referred to as the "Recherche Archipelago Nature Reserve".

History

European discovery and naming

The islands became known to Europeans when Francois Thijssen and Pieter Nuyts, sailing on "'Gulden Zeepaert", sighted and explored the area in 1627. George Vancouver also passed through the archipelago as part of his expedition in HMS "Discovery" in 1791. [cite web|url=http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/docs/mp/mp140/fmp140.pdf|title=Aquaculture Plan for the Recherche Archipelago|year=2000|accessdate=2007-10-11] .The area was named the Archipelago of the Recherche ("L’Archipel de la Recherche") by Bruni d'Entrecasteaux during a French expedition in 1792. This name was taken from one of the Rear Admiral's ships, "Le Recherche", the town of Esperance is named from the other ship of the expedition. They also came to be known as the D'Entrecasteaux Islands.
Matthew Flinders was the first to explore and chart the islands of the archipelago in 1802 as part of his voyage in the Investigator.cite web|url=http://www.mlssa.asn.au/nletters/september2004.htm|title=Marine Life Society of South Australia Inc. Newsletter September 2004|year=2004|accessdate=2007-10-11|quote=The Recherche Archipelago comprises some 105 islands and 1500 islets]

Maritime history

On the 14th February 1991 the "Sanko Harvest" a bulk carrier of 33,024 tons sank in the archipelago - and it became the second largest wreck that can be dived on in the world. [ (1994) "Wreck has become a massive artificial reef. Second largest vessel in the world that can be dived" Landscope, Winter 1994, p. 23-27 ] [ (1995) "Government declares 500 metre radius around the wreck a protected area for local marine life and recreational diving" Western fisheries, May/June 1995, p.7 ] The response to the pollution by wreck was reported upon soon after the wreck [ Western Australia. State Committee for Combating Marine Oil Pollution.(1991) Report on pollution response operations at Esperance from the wreck of the "Sanko Harvest" / by the State Committee for Combating Marine Oil Pollution ; R.S. Purkiss, chairman. Fremantle, W.A : Dept of Marine & Harbours, 1991] no. DMH P4/91 ]

Australia's only recorded pirate, Black Jack Anderson, frequented the archipelago in the 1830s. A former sealer he turned to piracy and wreaked havoc in the area until being murdered by his crew. [cite web|url=http://www.news.com.au/travel/story/0,23483,17922021-27982,00.html|title=NEWS.com.au - True Blue Islands|year=2007|accessdate=2007-10-11] .

Flinders lost two important anchors when leaving the area in 1802, in 1972 these were recovered and moved to the South Australian Maritime Museum.

Uses of the area now include recreational and commercial fishing, and shipping from the Port of Esperance. Commercial fishing is primarily abalone, Esperance Rock Lobster, pilchard, and sharks, and fishing tourism is an established industry. The area is proposed for other applications of aquaculture, including farming trials of Bluefin Tuna. [cite web|title=Project description|url=http://www.marine.uwa.edu.au/recherche/project_description.htm|work=Characterising the Fish habitats of the Recherche Archipelago|publisher=Fisheries Research and Development Corporation]

Geography

An island group at inland and coastal waters near the southwest coast of Australia. The western group is near Esperance, Western Australia and an eastern group at Israelite Bay. These form an Archipelago of 105 features classed as islands, and more than 1500 islets. cite web|url=http://www.naturebase.net/component/option,com_docman/task,doc_download/gid,745/|title=Management Plan for Esperance Coastal Reserves Issues|year=2007|accessdate=2007-10-14] The islands of the archipelago have a combined area of convert|97.2|km2|acre|0|lk=on. [cite web|url=http://www.naturebase.net/pdf/science/bio_audit/esperance02_p209-223.pdf|title=Naturebase - Esperance 2 (Recherche Subregion)|year=2007|accessdate=2007-10-14] The islands are generally composed of granite outcrops; these have steep slopes and often lack beaches. A large number of features are submerged, some becoming exposed by tides.

Groups

The islands are usually considered as being either in the western group (near Esperance and Woody Island and Cape Le Grand National Park) or in the eastern group (Middle Island being the most prominent) - near Cape Arid National Park [Smith, L.A.,R.E. Johnstone and J. Dell.(2005) "Vertebrate fauna of the Eastern Group, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia" Western Australian naturalist, Vol.24, no.4 (30 April 2005), p.232-246 ] Some surveys of the archipelago go further than the eastern and western distinction and consider groupings around named islands [ Everall Consulting Biologist.(1999) "Benthic habitat survey of the Remark, Mart, Mondrain, Tory and York Island groups in the Recherche Archipelago" Perth, W.A. : Fisheries Western Australia, also known as "Draft aquaculture plan for the Recherche Archipelago, Western Australia."February 1999" ]

Part of the area is included in the bioregion described as Esperance 2 (ESP2), the 'Recherche subregion', which contains Cape Le Grand National Park at its western end, and the Cape Arid National Park at the eastern end. This area is named the "Recherche Archipelago Nature Reserve".

Notable islands

* Ben Island has had scientific research conducted [ Johnstone, R. E.(1988) "Ben Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia". Corella, vol.12 no.3 (October 1988), p.89-90 ]
* Middle Island has had historical activity. [Harvey, Clare.(2001) "Archaeologists unravel mysteries of Middle Island". Esperance express, 14 Aug. 2001, p.7. ] [Bindon, Peter.(1996) "Report on a visit to Middle Island Recherche Archipelago, February, 1996" Perth, W.A.Anthropology Dept., Western Australian Museum. Community report (Western Australian Museum. Anthropology Dept.) no. 1996/1.] It is the largest island in the archipelago at convert|10.8|km2|acre|0|lk=on and was named by Matthew Flinders in 1802. Flinders climbed the convert|185|m|ft|0 peak (called Flinders Peak) on Middle Island to survey the surrounding islands. The island also contains a pink lake, Lake Hillier, that John Thistle collected some salt samples from. coord|34|5|58.08|S|123|11|23.86|E|
* Woody Island (Western Australia) is the only island with public access and usage within the reserve.
* Anvil Island a haul-out site for the Australian Sea Lion coord|33|44|7.49|S|124|5|52.03|E|
* Barrier Island a haul-out site for the Australian Sea Lion. coord|33|58|42.34|S|123|8|21.95|E|
* Forrest Island [ Smith, L.A.(1988) "Forrest Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia". Corella, vol.12 no.3 (October 1988), p.91-92 ] coord|33|54|59.00|S|122|42|38.59|E|
* Taylor Island a breeding site for the Australian Sea Lion. coord|33|55|15.49|S|122|52|21.59|E|
* Cooper Island a breeding site for the Australian Sea Lion and the New Zealand Fur Seal [cite web|url=http://affashop.gov.au/PdfFiles/sealassess127_149.pdf|title=Appendices - Distribution of the Australian Sea Lion|year=2007|accessdate=2007-10-11] . coord|34|13|55.28|S|123|36|22.21|E|
* Mondrain Island This convert|8.1|km2|acre|0|lk=on island supports a population of Recherche Rock-wallabys. The highest point of this island is Baudin Peak with a height of convert|222|m|ft|0 coord|34|8|7.10|S|122|14|45.35|E|
* Observatory Island Captain Bruni d’Entrecasteaux and Captain Huon de Kermandec sheltered on the lee side of this island in 1792 during a wild storm. While there ships, Le Recherche and L’Esperance , were at anchor Captain d'Entrecasteaux decided to name the bay after the first ship to enter it – L’Esperance. [cite web|url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/Western-Australia/Esperance/2005/02/17/1108500208428.html |title=Sydney Morning Herald – Travel - Esperance |year=2004|accessdate=2007-10-11] . coord|33|55|20.02|S|121|47|37.03|E|
* Salisbury Island This convert|3.2|km2|acre|0|lk=on island is a breeding ground for the Australian Fur Seal and the New Zealand Fur Seal. This island also supports a population of Black-flanked Rock-wallabys. [cite web|url=http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=66647|title=Department of Environment - Petrogale lateralis lateralis — Black-flanked Rock-wallaby|year=2007|accessdate=2007-10-11] . coord|34|21|32.49|S|123|33|13.10|E|
* Westall Island This convert|70|ha|acre|0|lk=on island supports a population of Recherche Rock-wallabys. coord|34|4|44.01|S|122|58|3.18|E|
* Wilson Island This convert|90|ha|acre|0|lk=on island supports a population of the Recherche Rock-wallabys. [cite web|url=http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=66849|title=Department of Environment - Petrogale lateralis hacketti — Recherche Rock-wallaby Glossary |year=2007|accessdate=2007-10-11] . coord|34|6|52.50|S|121|59|49.63|E|

Flora and Fauna

Larger islands have a substrate that supports vegetation, nesting birds, and other animals. A complex marine environment is found in the surrounding waters, the benthic habitat is various densities of seagrass meadows, reefs, or bare sand.

Marine

The waters around the islands meet often steep faces of granite, the extensive reefs and other features form habitat which supports a rich diversity of marine life. This includes over 450 types of sponge, sea grasses, and soft corals. A coral-like algae species, rhodoliths, form beds which support marine species of spiders, snails, and worms, also acting as a creche for scallops. [cite web | url = http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ss/stories/s1433255.htm | title = The Recherche Archipelago | accessdate = | author = Robyn Williams | authorlink = | coauthors = | date = 20 August 2005 | year = | month = | work = The Science Show | publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation | quote = interview with Katrina Baxter ] Marine mammals associated with the islands include two species of seal, large groups of common dolphins ("Delphinus delphis"), and Minke whales ("Balaenoptera acutorostrata").

Seagrasses found at the island include: "Amphibolis antarctica, Amphibolis griffithii, Halophila decipiens, Halophila ovalis, Posidonia angustifolia, Posidonia australis, Posidonia coriacea, Posidonia denhartogii, Posidonia kirkmani, Posidonia ostenfeldii, Posidonia sinuosa, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Thalassodendron pachyrhizum". [cite web|url=http://www.marine.uwa.edu.au/recherche/Research/Final%20Report/APPENDIX%201.pdf|title=Review of existing information (appendix 1)|author= Kendrick, G.A., Harvey, E., Hill, J., McDonald, J.I. & Grove, S. |work= Characterising the fish habitats of the Recherche Archipelago|publisher=School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia|year=2002|month=April |quote=APPENDIX SG1: Seagrass species found within the Recherche Archipelagoregion (after Campey et al., (2000); D.A. Lord & UWA (2001); Kirkman (1997);Walker, (1991); Waycott, (1998 & 2000)).]

Terrestial

The islands support populations of terrestrial flora and fauna, some of which are unique to the archipelago.New Zealand Fur Seal ("Arctocephalus forsteri") and Australian Sea-lion ("Neophoca cinerea") breeding colonies are found on some islands. Marsupials include Tammars ("Macropus eugenii derbianus"), a species of Bandicoot ("Isoodon obesulus"), two subspecies of Rock Wallabies ("Petrogale lateralis lateralis" and "Petrogale lateralis hacketti"). Snakes include the Recherche Island Dugite ("Pseudonaja affinis tanneri") on Cull Island, and the python "Morelia spilota imbricata". Other reptiles include the Barking gecko ("Underwoodisaurus milii"), Ornate Dragon ("Ctenophorus ornatus"), and the Southern Heath Monitor ("Varanus rosenbergi"). A type of goose are resident on the islands, the Recherche Cape Barren Goose ("Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea"), and this rare subspecies breeds on islands with herbaceous vegetation; Cull Island, Daw, Round, and Wickham Island are noted examples of this preferred habitat.Two species of frog are also found on the islands; the Quacking Frog "Crinia georgiana" andSpotted-thighed Frog "Litoria cyclorhyncha".: [cite book |author= Browne-Cooper, R., Bush, B., Maryan, B., Robinson, D. |title= Reptiles and Frogs in the Bush: Southwestern Australia|year= 2007|month= |publisher= University of Western Australia Press|isbn= 9778 1 920694 74 6 |pages= 281|chapter=Island species lists; Archipelago of the Recherche |chapterurl= |quote= ]

Many of the animals and plants are in refugia, where they are remote from factors that threaten mainland populations.

References

Further reading

* Australian Geographical Society (1952-1954). "Expedition to the Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia". Australian Geographical Society reports. no.1 (7 reports in 4 volumes)
**pt. 1a. "General history" by J.M. Bechervaise -- pt. 1b. "Physiography" by R.W. Fairbridge and V.N. Serventy -- pt. 2. "Birds" by V.N. Serventy -- pt. 3. "Plants", 3a. "Land flora" by J.H. Willis, 3b. "Marine algae" by H.B.S. Womersley -- pt. 4. "Mammals" by V. N. Serventy -- pt. 5. "Reptiles and frogs" by L. Glauert -- pt. 6. "Spiders and opiliones" by Barbara York Main -- pt. 7. "Molluscs (sea shells and snails)" by J. Hope Macpherson.
* Kendrick, G. (et al.) (2005) "Characterising the fish habitats of the Recherche Archipelago" Crawley, W.A. University of Western Australia. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. ISBN 1740521226 "Fisheries Research and Development Corporation report, project no. 2001/060."
* Thomson-Dans, Carolyn, Kendrick, Gary and Bancroft, Kevin (2003) "Researching the Recherche".Landscope (Como, W.A), Winter 2003, p. 6-8,

Early cartography

* Beautemps-Beaupré, C. F. (1807) "Carte de l'archipel de la Recherche, situé à la partie occidentale de la terre de Nuyts, reconnu par le contre amiral Bruny-Dentrecasteaux, en décembre 1792 (an 1er de l'ere Française)" Paris : Dépôt général des cartes et plans de la marine et des colonies] , Battye Library Map Stack B/23/17 Scale [ca. 1:436,000] (Map of Recherche Archipelago showing track of Recherche and Espérance in December 1792). ("Battye copy reduced to approximately 1:812 000 and 25 x 38.4 cm")

External links

* [http://www.ga.gov.au/bin/gazd01?rec=287022 - Geoscience Australia - location details]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/goldfields/stories/s554658.htm 2002 Research project announced]
* [http://www.edowa.org.au/maps/recherche-web.pdf Map of the region]


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