- Berlin Circle
The Berlin Circle was a group that maintained logical empiricist views about
It was created in the late 1920s by
Hans Reichenbachand composed of philosophers and scientists such as Carl Gustav Hempel, David Hilbert, Kurt Grellingand Richard von Mises. Its original name was "Die Gesellschaft für empirische Philosophie", which in English may be translated as "the society for empirical philosophy". Together with the Vienna Circle, they published the journal "Erkenntnis" ("Knowledge") edited by Rudolf Carnapand Reichenbach, and organized several congresses and colloquia concerning the philosophy of science, the first of which was held in Praguein 1929.
The Berlin Circle had much in common with the
Vienna Circle, but the philosophies of the circles differed on a few subjects, such as probabilityand conventionalism. Reichenbach insisted on calling his philosophy logical empirism, to distinguish it from the logical positivism of the Vienna circle. Few people today make the distinction, and the words are often used interchangeably.
Members of the Berlin Circle were particularly active in analyzing the philosophical and logical consequences of the advances in contemporary
physics, especially the theory of relativity. Apart from that, they denied the soundnessof metaphysicsand traditional philosophy and asserted that many philosophical problems are indeed meaningless.
After the rise of
Nazism, several of the group's members emigrated to other countries, including Reichenbach, who moved to Turkeyin 1933 and later to the USAin 1938; Hempel moved to Belgiumin 1934 and later to the USA in 1939; and Grelling was killed in a concentration camp. Thus the group came to an end, but not without influencing a wide range of philosophers of the 20th century, its method having been especially influential on analytic philosophy.
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