- Ethic of reciprocity
The ethic of reciprocity is a fundamental moral
valuewhich "refers to the balance in an interactive system such that each party has both rights and duties, and the subordinate norm of complementarity states that one's rights are the other's obligation." [cite book|last=Bornstein |first=Marc H.|title=Handbook of Parenting|publisher=Lawrence Erlbaum Associates|date=2002|pages=p. 5|isbn=978-0-8058-3782-7 See also: cite book|last=Paden |first=William E.|title=Interpreting the Sacred: Ways of Viewing Religion|publisher=Beacon Press|date=2003|pages=pp. 131-132|isbn=978-0-8070-7705-4] In essence, it is an ethical code that states one has a right to just treatment, and a responsibility to ensure justice for others. Reciprocity is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rightsOr|date=August 2008, though it is not without its critics.
Many assign the imperative commandment of Golden Rule as instruction for a positive only form of reciprocity. A key element of the golden rule is that a person attempting to live by this rule treats all people, not just members of his or her
in-groupwith consideration. The golden rule, with roots in a wide range of world cultures, is well suited to be a standard to which different cultures could appeal in resolving conflicts.Or|date=August 2008 Principal philosophers and religious figures have stated it in different ways.
Ancient Greek philosophy
:"Do not to your neighbor what you would take ill from him." (Pittacus) [Pittacus, Fragm. 10.3] :"Avoid doing what you would blame others for doing." (
Thales) [Diogenes Laërtius, "The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers", I,36] :"What you wish your neighbors to be to you, such be also to them." ( Sextusthe Pythagorean) [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=IPTlx3pEsPkC&pg=PA304&dq=%22What+you+wish+your+neighbors+to+be+to+you,+such+be+also+to+them.%22&ei=Bd_SR7W_K4aUzAS6hpCbAg Sextus, 406 B.C.] ] :"Do not do to others what would anger you if done to you by others." ( Isocrates) [Isocrates, "Nicocles",6] :"What thou avoidest suffering thyself seek not to impose on others." ( Epictetus) [Epictetus, "Encheiridion"]
The "Declaration Toward a Global Ethic" [ [http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma/globalethic.html Towards a Global Ethic] urbandharma.org] from the
Parliament of the World’s Religions[ [http://www.cpwr.org/ The Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions.] ] (1993) proclaimed the Golden Rule (both in negative and positive form) as the common principle for many religions. [http://www.religioustolerance.org/parliame.htm Towards a Global Ethic] (An Initial Declaration) ReligiousTolerance.org] The Initial Declaration was signed by 143 leaders from different faith traditions and spiritual communities.
Karma:Putting oneself in the place of another, :one should not kill nor cause another to kill. [ [http://www.enabling.org/ia/vipassana/Archive/H/Harris/detachmentHarris.html Detachment and Compassion in Early Buddhism] by Elizabeth J. Harris (enabling.org)]
:One who, while himself seeking happiness, oppresses with violence other :beings who also desire happiness, will not attain happiness hereafter. [(
In addition, the
Dalai Lamahas stated:
If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion. [cite web | url = http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/d/dalai_lama.html |title = Quotes from the Dalai Lama | accessdate = 2007-10-14 | author = Dalai Lama | format = html ]
From the sacred scriptures of the Baha'i Faith:
"Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thou doest not."
Baha'u'llah. [ [http://www.cambridgebahais.org/node/97 Words of Wisdom] "See: The Golden Rule"] [Baha'u'llah, Gleanings, LXVI:8] [Hidden Words of Baha'u'llah, p10]
"Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself." Baha'u'llah; [ [http://www.bahainyc.org/presentations/goldenrule/golden-rule10.html The Golden Rule Baha'i Faith] ] [Tablets of Baha'u'llah, p71]
"And if thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbour that which thou choosest for thyself." Baha'u'llah. [ [http://info.bahai.org/article-1-3-2-9.html The Hidden Words of Bahá'u'lláh -- Part II] ] [Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p30]
Within Christian circles, the ethic of reciprocity is often called the "Golden Rule". Christianity adopted the ethic from two edicts, found in sourcetext|source=Bible|version=King James|book=Leviticus|chapter=19|verse=18 ("Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the LORD.") and sourcetext|source=Bible|version=King James|book=Leviticus|chapter=19|verse=34 ("But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God"). Crucially, Leviticus 19:34 universalizes the edict of Leviticus 19:18 from "one of your people" to all of humankind.
Several passages in the
New Testamentquote Jesus of Nazareth espousing the ethic of reciprocity, including the following:
"So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets."
"Just as you want others to do for you, do the same for them."
25 Just then a lawyer stood up to test Jesus. ‘Teacher,’ he said, ‘what must I do to inherit eternal life?’
26He said to him, ‘What is written in the law? What do you read there?’
27He answered, ‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbour as yourself.’
28And he said to him, ‘You have given the right answer; do this, and you will live.’
Jesus then proceeds to tell the parable of the
Good Samaritan, indicating that "your neighbour" means a total stranger, or someone that happens to be nearby.
Confuciussaid in the Analects:
"Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself." -The same idea is also presented in V.12 and VI.30 of the
AnalectsXV.24, tr. David Hinton Analects.
The Golden rule appears in the
Mahabharata, where Vrihaspatisays:
That man who regards all creatures as his own self, and behaves towards them as towards his own self, laying aside the rod of chastisement and completely subjugating his wrath, succeeds in attaining to happiness. [ [http://www.mahabharataonline.com/translation/mahabharata_13b078.php Mahabharata Book 13 (Anusasana Parva) Section CXIII] ]
In addition to the law of
karma, the Bhagavad Gitacontains a dialogue between Krishnaand Arjunawith the statement:
That one I love who is incapable of ill will,And returns love for hatred. [ [http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-12-15.html Bhagavad-Gita: Chapter 12, Verse 18,19 ] ]As portrayed by Swami Vivekanand- Do good and forget, don't expect any rewardFact|date=May 2008.
*"Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you."
Jeffrey Wattlesholds that the ethic of reciprocity appears in the following statements attributed to Muhammad: Jeffrey Wattles, The Golden Rule (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) 4, 191-192, Questia, 24 July 2007]
*“Woe to those . . . who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure, but when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due” [
Qur’an(Surah 83, "The Unjust," vv. 1-4)
Rost, H.T.D. The Golden Rule: A Universal Ethic, 100. Oxford, 1986]
*The Qur'an commends "those who show their affection to such as came to them for refuge and entertain no desire in their hearts for things given to the (latter), but give them preference over themselves" [
Qur’an(Surah 59, "Exile," vv. 9)
*“None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” [An-Nawawi's Forty Hadith 13 (p. 56)
*"Seek for mankind that of which you are desirous for yourself, that you may be a believer; treat well as a neighbor the one who lives near you, that you may be a Muslim [one who submits to God] ."Sukhanan-i-Muhammad (Teheran, 1938) [English Title: Conversations of Muhammad]
Donaldson Dwight M. 1963. Studies in Muslim Ethics, p.82. London: S.P.C.K]
*“That which you want for yourself, seek for mankind.”
*"The most righteous of men is the one who is glad that men should have what is pleasing to himself, and who dislikes for them what is for him disagreeable."
*Following quotation from the
Acaranga Sutrasums up the philosophy of Jainism :cquote|Nothing which breathes, which exists, which lives, or which has essence or potential of life, should be destroyed or ruled over, or subjugated, or harmed, or denied of its essence or potential.
In support of this Truth, I ask you a question - "Is sorrow or pain desirable to you ?" If you say "yes it is", it would be a lie. If you say, "No, It is not" you will be expressing the truth. Just as sorrow or pain is not desirable to you, so it is to all which breath, exist, live or have any essence of life. To you and all, it is undesirable, and painful, and repugnant. [cite book | last =Jacobi | first =Hermann | title =Ācāranga Sūtra, Jain Sutras Part I, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 22. | date= 1884 | url =http://www.sacred-texts.com/jai/sbe22/index.htm Sutra 155-6]
Saman Suttamof Jinendra Varni[*cite book | last =Varni | first =Jinendra | coauthors =Ed. Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. K.K. Dixit | title =IAST|Samaṇ Suttaṁ | publisher =Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti | date= 1993 | location =New Delhi ] gives further insight into this percepts:- Judaism
The ethic of reciprocity is set forth in sourcetext|source=Bible|version=Jewish Publication Society 1917|book=Leviticus|chapter=19|verse=18 (the
Great Commandment) ("You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your countrymen. Love your fellow as yourself: I am the LORD." New JPS Hebrew/English Tanakh] ) and sourcetext|source=Bible|version=Jewish Publication Society 1917|book=Leviticus|chapter=19|verse=34 ("The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as one of your citizens; you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I the LORD am your God.").
The Sage Hillel formulated the Golden Rule in order to illustrate the underlying principles of Jewish moral law: [cite book | last = Gensler | first = Harry J. | title = Formal Ethics | publisher = Routledge | date= 1996 | pages = 105 | isbn = 0415130662]
That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn. [
Talmud, "Shabbat" 31a]
Rabbi Akiba emphasized the importance of Leviticus 19:18.
Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.
Not surprisingly, Israel's postal service quoted from this verse when it commemorated the
Universal Declaration of Human Rightson a 1958 postage stamp. [ [http://marbl.library.emory.edu/DigitalExhibits/stamps/015.html Sol Singer Collection of Philatelic Judaica - Emory University ] ] Taoism
*"Regard your neighbor's gain as your own gain, and your neighbor's loss as your own loss." T'ai Shang Kan Ying P'ien.
*"The sage has no interest of his own, but takes the interests of the people as his own. He is kind to the kind; he is also kind to the unkind: for Virtue is kind. He is faithful to the faithful; he is also faithful to the unfaithful: for Virtue is faithful." Tao Teh Ching, Chapter 49
Many people have criticized the golden rule;
George Bernard Shawonce said that "The golden rule is that there are no golden rules". Shaw also criticized the golden rule, "Do not do unto others as you would expect they should do unto you. Their tastes may not be the same." (Maxims for Revolutionists). "The golden rule is a good standard which is further improved by doing unto others, wherever possible, as "they" want to be done by." Karl Popper(" The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 2") This concept has recently been called "The Platinum Rule" [ [http://lorenrosson.blogspot.com/2006/02/platinum-rule.html The Busybody: The Platinum Rule ] ] Philosophers, such as Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Bertrand Russell, have objected to the rule on a variety of grounds. [ [http://onlyagame.typepad.com/only_a_game/2007/05/the_golden_rule.html Only a Game: The Golden Rule ] ] The most serious among these is its application. How does one know how others want to be treated? The obvious way is to ask them, but this cannot be done if one assumes they have not reached a particular and relevant understanding.
Differences in values or interests
Shaw's comment about differing tastes suggests that if your values are not shared with others, the way you want to be treated will not be the way they want to be treated. For example, it has been said that a sadist is just a masochist who follows the golden rule. Another often used example of this inconsistency is that of the man walking into a bar looking for a fight. [ [http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/golden.rule.html How would you feel, if a million Soviet troops stormed your Reich Capital? ] ] It could also be used by a seducer to suggest that he should kiss an object of his affection because he wants that person to kiss him. Similar objections also apply to the so-called "platinum rule," for if a seducer wants a woman to kiss him, but she does not want him to, it follows from this rule that the seducer should not kiss her--but that she should kiss him.
Differences in situations
Immanuel Kantfamously criticized the golden rule for not being sensitive to differences of situation, noting that a prisoner duly convicted of a crime could appeal to the golden rule while asking the judge to release him, pointing out that the judge would not want anyone else to send him to prison, so he should not do so to others. [Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Cambridge University Press 1997, p68, also his Critique of Practical Reason, trans. T.K. Abbott, 6th ed., p48note]
M. G. Singer observed that there are two importantly different ways of looking at the golden rule: as requiring that you perform specific actions that you want others to do to you, or that you guide your behavior in the same general ways that you want others to. [M.G. Singer, The Ideal of a Rational Morality, p270] Counter-examples to the golden rule typically are more forceful against the first than the second. In his book on the golden rule, Jeffrey Wattles makes the similar observation that such objections typically arise while applying the golden rule in certain general ways (namely, ignoring differences in taste, in situation, and so forth). But if we apply the golden rule to our own method of using it, asking in effect if we would want other people to apply the golden rule in such ways, the answer would typically be no, since it is quite predictable that others' ignoring of such factors will lead to behavior which we object to. It follows that we should not do so ourselves--according to the golden rule. In this way, the golden rule may be self-correcting. [Wattles, p6] An article by Jouni Reinikainen develops this suggestion in greater detail. [Jouni Reinikainen, "The Golden Rule and the Requirement of Universalizability." Journal of Value Inquiry. 39(2): 155-168, 2005.]
It is possible, then, that the golden rule can itself guide us in identifying which differences of situation are morally relevant. We would often want other people to ignore our race or nationality when deciding how to act towards us, but would also want them to not ignore our differing preferences in food, desire for aggressiveness, and so on. The platinum rule, and perhaps other variants, might also be self-correcting in this same manner.
cience of the Golden Rule
There has been some research published arguing that some of fair play and the Golden Rule may be stated and rooted in terms of neuroscientific and neuroethical principles. [Pfaff, Donald W., "The Neuroscience of Fair Play: Why We (Usually) Follow the Golden Rule", Dana Press, The Dana Foundation, New York, 2007. ISBN 9781932594270]
Cynical version of the Golden Rule
While the golden rule in religion implies devotion to selflessness, "the Golden Rule" is often recited as "Whoever has the gold makes the rules." Although websites credit
Lyndon Foremanfor this version, his precise significance as a notable figure is unclear. This ironic version is most often used dismissively by economists and stock traders; it is not so much an opposite of the Golden Rule as a claim that moral precepts are decided by those who have wealth and the power that wealth can bring—i.e. they are not really moral precepts, merely rules allowing those with wealth and power to hold onto or increase that wealth and power.
Axiom of Equity
Ethics in religion
Random act of kindness
Reciprocity (social psychology)
* [http://www.jcu.edu/philosophy/gensler/goldrule.htm A short essay on the Golden Rule]
* [http://tralvex.com/pub/spiritual/index.htm#GR Golden Rule in a Nutshell, referencing at least 19 religions / belief systems]
* [http://www.goldenruleradical.org Golden Rule Links and Articles]
* [http://the_mystic_light.tripod.com/the_golden_rule.htm Rosicrucians: The Golden Rule]
* [http://www.religioustolerance.org/reciproc.htm Shared belief in the Golden Rule]
* [http://www.marburger-forum.de/mafo/heft2007-1/Bor_gol.htm The Golden Rule as a Global Ethos] by Josef Bordat
* [http://www.vexen.co.uk/notes/golden.html The Golden Rule, Ethic of Reciprocity, and the Wiccan Rede]
* [http://www.unification.net/ws/theme015.htm The Golden Rule in Religion]
* [http://www.teachingvalues.com/goldenrule.html The Golden Rule in World Religions]
* [http://www.projectworldview/wvtheme16.htm The Golden Rule, Village Ethic of Mutual Help] from Project Worldview
* [http://19.org/index.php?id=73,67,0,0,1,0 The Rules of the Game]
* [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/augustine/arch/lewis/abolition3.htm The Abolition of Man] E-text of the
C. S. Lewisbook The Abolition of Man, which includes a comparative appendix.
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