Hoklo people


Hoklo people
Hoklo
Total population
Around 41.3 million (est. worldwide) [1]
Regions with significant populations
ChinaMainland China Fujian
Guangdong
Hainan
 Taiwan Majority of Taiwanese
 Hong Kong A minority population
 Macao A minority population
 Malaysia Largest group of Malaysian Chinese
 Singapore Largest group of Chinese Singaporeans
 Indonesia Some group of Indonesian Chinese
 Myanmar One of the 3 largest groups of Burmese Chinese
 Philippines Majority of Chinese Filipinos
Languages

Hokkien dialect of Minnan and/or Mandarin. Diaspora also speak their respective home country's language(s)

Religion

Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, non-religion, Small Muslim minority, Even smaller Christian minority

Minnan-speaking areas in South China and Taiwan. Only the speakers of Quanzhou Zhangzhou (also known as Hokkien) are seen as Hoklos.

The Hoklo people (endonym Hok-ló, Hō-ló, or Ho̍h-ló) are Han Chinese people whose traditional Ancestral homes are in southern Fujian of South China. They are also known by various endonym as Hok-ló, Hō-ló, or Ho̍h-ló, or other related terms such as Min-nan people (閩南人) or Hokkiens (福建人).

In narrower scope, the Hoklo people refers mainly to people who speak and use the Hokkien dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in southern Fujian, Taiwan, and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia.

In wider scope, the Hoklo people can include speakers of other Min Nan languages, such as Zhongshan Min, Zhenan Min, Teochew dialect, and Hainanese.[2]

Contents

Definition

In general, the Hoklo people can refer to one of the following:

Taiwanese Hoklo

Hoklo people is a main ethnic group in Taiwan.

In Taiwan, the Hoklos are the largest linguistic and sub-cultural group (see Demographics of Taiwan). Most Hoklos trace their paternal ancestry to male settlers who migrated to Taiwan from Fujian in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Because about 70% of the population in Taiwan are Hoklo, Taiwanese is often used interchangeably with Hoklo. People who are aware of the multi-ethnic nature of Taiwan recognize the two are not identical, although most people will know by context when this word refers to people from Taiwan and when this word refers specifically to Hoklos.

Guangdong Hoklo Boat people

Of the boat people who live in Guangdong around Canton and Hong Kong, there ar two groups. One is the Tanka people, who speak a dialect of Cantonese, and the other are Hoklo boat people who are of partial Fujian descent.[3] Their language is Min like other Hoklo[4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

"Boat people" was a general category for both the Tanka and the Hoklo (teochew), who made their living on boats. They spoke different dialects, and the Hoklo originated from Fujian. The Hoklo used the term Hoklo to refer to themselves, while the name Tanka was used only by Cantonese to describe the Tanka.[11][12]

There were two distinct categories of people based on their way of life, and they were further divided into different groups. The Hakka and Cantonese lived on land, the Tanka and Hoklo lived on boats and were both classified as boat people.[13]

The differences between the sea dwelling Tanka and land dwellers were not just based on merely their way of life, Cantonese and Hakka who lived on land fished sometimes for a living, but these land fishermen never mixed or married with the Tanka fishermen, barring the Tanka from celebrations.[14]

British reports on Hong Kong described the Tanka and Hoklo living in Hong Kong "since time unknown".[15][16][17][18] The encyclopedia Americana described Hoklo and Tanka as living in Hong Kong "since prehistoric times".[19][20][21]

During the British colonial era in Hong Kong, the Tanka were considered a separate ethnic group from the Punti, Hakka, and Hoklo.[22] Punti is another name for Cantonese people, who are Han chinese, the Hakka and hoklo are also Han chinese.

The three Han chinese groups, the Punti, Hakka, and Hoklo, all of whom spoke different Chinese dialects, despised and fought each otherduring the late Qing dynasty. However, they were all united in their overwhelming hatred for the Tanka, since the aboriginals of southern china were the ancestors of the Tanka.[23]

In 1962 a typhoon struck the Tanka and Hoklo boats, with hundreds being destroyed.[24][25][26]

Malaysia Hoklo

The Hoklo make up one of the Malaysian Chinese groups, one of the other being the Hakka people. There are also Hoklo among the Chinese Indonesians.

Chinese characters for Hoklo

In Taiwan, there are three common ways to write Hoklo in Chinese characters (Min Nan pronunciations are given in POJ):

  • 福佬 (Hok-ló; lit. "Fujian person") – emphasizes their connection to Fujian province.
  • 河洛 (Hô-lo̍k; lit. "Yellow River and Luo River") – emphasizes their purported long history originating from the area south of the Yellow River. This Han-character reading does not reflect the actual pronunciation in the southern-Chinese languages but only in Mandarin. It is likely a result of folk etymology.
  • 鶴佬 (Ho̍h-ló; lit. "crane person") – emphasizes the modern pronunciation of the characters (without regard to the meaning of the Chinese characters). This variant is used by the Chinese Wikipedia version of this article.

In Hakka, Hoklo may be written as 學老 (lit. "knowledge aged") and 學佬 (lit. "knowledge person").

Despite many ways to write Hoklo in Chinese, many Taiwanese will use the term Hō-ló to refer to the language and Hoklo culture.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/ethno_docs/distribution.asp?by=size
  2. ^ Ben Sia,《新加坡的漢語方言》 (The Chinese Languages and Dialects of Singapore),1988
  3. ^ Andrew Grzeskowiak. Passport Hong Kong: your pocket guide to Hong Kong business, customs & etiquette (illustrated ed.). World Trade Press. p. 25. ISBN 1885073313. http://books.google.com/books?id=njNQ_dojWaYC&pg=PA25&dq=The+earliest+written+records+date+from+before+the+eleventh+century+A.D.,+when+Han+people+(as+the+Chinese+first+called+themselves)+colonized+China's+southern+coast.+Early+settlers+on+the+hundreds+of+nearby+islands+called+themselves+Punti,+meaning+natives+(an+inaccurate+term,+since+the+Punti+supplanted+earlier+aboriginals).+The+aboriginals+may+have+formed+the+present+Tanka,+who&hl=en&ei=QJu0TrbpBoHr0gG03L28BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20earliest%20written%20records%20date%20from%20before%20the%20eleventh%20century%20A.D.%2C%20when%20Han%20people%20(as%20the%20Chinese%20first%20called%20themselves)%20colonized%20China's%20southern%20coast.%20Early%20settlers%20on%20the%20hundreds%20of%20nearby%20islands%20called%20themselves%20Punti%2C%20meaning%20natives%20(an%20inaccurate%20term%2C%20since%20the%20Punti%20supplanted%20earlier%20aboriginals).%20The%20aboriginals%20may%20have%20formed%20the%20present%20Tanka%2C%20who&f=false. 
  4. ^ the University of Virginia Hong Kong. Govt. Press. 1975. p. 189. http://books.google.com/books?ei=-o-1TrjYHor30gHrtaDSBw&ct=result&id=F3VCAAAAYAAJ&dq=Like+the+Tanka%2C+the+Hoklo+have+been+in+the+area+from+earliest+times.+Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+%28Hokkien%29%2C+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer%2C+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin&q=hoklo+earliest. Retrieved 2011 November 5. 
  5. ^ the University of Michigan Report for the year. H.M.S.O.. 1975. p. 189. http://books.google.com/books?ei=-Zm1TvmQBKfn0QGe9_WtBA&ct=result&id=oSrjAAAAMAAJ&dq=Like+the+Tanka%2C+the+Hoklo+have+been+in+the+area+from+earliest+times.+Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+%28Hokkien%29%2C+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer%2C+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin&q=hoklo+earliest. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "Like the Tanka, the Hoklo have been in the area from earliest times. Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin" 
  6. ^ Hong Kong annual report. H.M.S.O.. 1971. p. 215. http://books.google.com/books?ei=ZZq1Tp_ELcfv0gHp6KzSBw&ct=result&id=XuQzAQAAIAAJ&dq=The+Hoklo+people%2C+like+the+Tanka%2C+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+%28Hokkien%29%2C+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer%2C+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin&q=hoklo+fukien+hokkien. Retrieved 2011 November 5. 
  7. ^ Hong Kong (1956). Annual report on Hong Kong for the year .... H.M.S.O.. p. 35. http://books.google.com/books?id=7tggAQAAMAAJ&q=Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+(Hokkien),+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer,+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin.+Their+language+belongs+to+the+Min+group,+found+all+along+the+South+China+coast&dq=Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+(Hokkien),+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer,+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin.+Their+language+belongs+to+the+Min+group,+found+all+along+the+South+China+coast&hl=en&ei=OJ21TraxHIHh0QGYvrTSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 November 5. 
  8. ^ Hong Kong (1957). Hong Kong annual report. H.M.S.O.. p. 35. http://books.google.com/books?ei=8521TuunMqbL0QHU653SBw&ct=result&id=wKESAAAAIAAJ&dq=Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+%28Hokkien%29%2C+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer%2C+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin.+Their+language+belongs+to+the+Min+group%2C+found+all+along+the+South+China+coast&q=fukien+hokkien. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. Their language belongs to the Min group, found all along the South China coast" 
  9. ^ the University of Michigan Report for the year. H.M.S.O.. 1958. p. 39. http://books.google.com/books?ei=M561TuSqHoP00gHQ_pTRBw&ct=result&id=yBrjAAAAMAAJ&dq=Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+%28Hokkien%29%2C+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer%2C+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin.+Their+language+belongs+to+the+Min+group%2C+found+all+along+the+South+China+coast&q=fukien+hokkien. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. Their language belongs to the Min group, found all along the South China coast" 
  10. ^ University of Minnesota Hong Kong. H.M. Stationery Office. 1956. p. 35. http://books.google.com/books?ei=nJ61TsO6M4Pz0gG6qNXRBw&ct=result&id=A9QcAQAAMAAJ&dq=Their+name+suggests+that+they+originated+from+Fukien+Province+%28Hokkien%29%2C+but+this+is+probably+a+misnomer%2C+Fukien+being+only+one+of+their+places+of+origin.+Their+language+belongs+to+the+Min+group%2C+found+all+along+the+South+China+coast&q=fukien+hokkien. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. Their language belongs to the Min group, found all along the South China coast" 
  11. ^ the University of Michigan Far Eastern economic review, Volume 24. Review Pub. Co. Ltd.. 1958. p. 280. http://books.google.com/books?ei=EsKxTrb8GqnZ0QG61MjoAQ&ct=result&id=afAnAAAAMAAJ&dq=which+they+consider+derc+using+instead+%22Nam+hoi+yan%22+or+%22Shui+sheung+yan%22.+dwellers+however+have+few+dealings+with+either+race+%D1%81+people+and+tend+to+call+them+both+%22Tanka%22.+%D0%A2%D0%AA%D0%B5+Pui+Tanka+dialects+both+belong+to+the+western+section+of&q=nam+hoi+yan+shui+sheung+yan. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "The name "Hoklo" is used by the Hoklo, but the Tanka will not use the name "Tanka" which they consider derogatory, using instead "Nam hoi yan" or "Shui sheung yan". Shore dwellers however have few dealings with either race of people and tend to call them both "Tanka". Тhe Pui Tanka dialects both belong to the western section of" 
  12. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 13. http://books.google.com/books?ei=XA02TtC2IMuBtgft8ZD_DA&ct=result&id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&dq=or+%22Tanka%22+-+a+term+of+hatred%29+and+Hoklou.+The+Hoklou+speak+a+distinctive+dialect+of+South+Fukienese+%28South+Min&q=term+hatred+tanchia. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "into two major groups: Cantonese ("Tanchia" or "Tanka" - a term of hatred) and Hoklou. The Hoklou speak a distinctive dialect of South Fukienese (South Min, Swatowese)" 
  13. ^ James Hayes (1996). Friends & teachers: Hong Kong and its people, 1953-87. Hong Kong University Press. p. 23. ISBN 9622093965. http://books.google.com/books?id=1FipFmG_WLUC&pg=PA23&dq=leaving+aside+the+settled+land+population+Hakka+and+Cantonese+villagers,+and+the+trickle+of+newcomers+into+the+district,+there+were+also+the+boat+people,+of+whom+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+were+the+two+principal+groups.+They+were+numerous+and+to+be+found+everywhere+in+its+waters&hl=en&ei=Bm-1Tr60IMbj0QHoy6nSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=leaving%20aside%20the%20settled%20land%20population%20Hakka%20and%20Cantonese%20villagers%2C%20and%20the%20trickle%20of%20newcomers%20into%20the%20district%2C%20there%20were%20also%20the%20boat%20people%2C%20of%20whom%20the%20Tanka%20and%20Hoklo%20were%20the%20two%20principal%20groups.%20They%20were%20numerous%20and%20to%20be%20found%20everywhere%20in%20its%20waters&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "Leaving aside the settled land population Hakka and Cantonese villagers, and the trickle of newcomers into the district, there were also the boat people, of whom the Tanka and Hoklo were the two principal groups. They were numerous and to be found everywhere in its waters" 
  14. ^ David Faure, Helen F. Siu, ed (1995). Down to earth: the territorial bond in South China (illustrated, revised ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0804724350. http://books.google.com/books?id=I8AWyYywMn8C&pg=PA93&dq=the+Hong+Kong+region,+the+existence+of+groups+of+sea+fishermen+other+than+Tanka+was+quite+common.+...+Perhaps+as+a+result+of+this+long-established+social+divide,+the+Tanka+boat+people+of+Cheung+Chau+were+excluded+from+participation&hl=en&ei=q3a1TtuIEorG0AHyr4nSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=the%20Hong%20Kong%20region%2C%20the%20existence%20of%20groups%20of%20sea%20fishermen%20other%20than%20Tanka%20was%20quite%20common.%20...%20Perhaps%20as%20a%20result%20of%20this%20long-established%20social%20divide%2C%20the%20Tanka%20boat%20people%20of%20Cheung%20Chau%20were%20excluded%20from%20participation&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In the Hong Kong region, the existence of groups of sea fishermen other than Tanka was quite common. On nearby Peng Chau, both Cantonese and Hakka villagers undertook sea fishing..... However, in all such cases... occupational blurring did not mean... intermarriage between land based fishermen, who cllung to their own kind, and the Tanka. ... the Tanka boat people of Cheung Chau were excluded from participation in the ...jiao festival." 
  15. ^ Hong Kong. Govt. Press. 1970. p. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=LCcfAQAAMAAJ&q=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&dq=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&hl=en&ei=uZC1Tpm6EaHL0QGMt9TFBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  16. ^ the University of Virginia Hong Kong: report for the year .... Government Press. 1970. p. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=I-JHAAAAYAAJ&q=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&dq=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&hl=en&ei=DZW1TvHsJcnd0QG45YTHBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  17. ^ the University of Michigan Report for the year. H.M.S.O.. 1970. p. 215. http://books.google.com/books?ei=RJW1TsGuDqPd0QHloNzRBw&ct=result&id=OiTjAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Hoklo+people%2C+like+the+Tanka%2C+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places%2C+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&q=tanka+area++unknown. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  18. ^ Hong Kong annual report. H.M.S.O.. 1970. p. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=8uMzAQAAIAAJ&q=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&dq=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&hl=en&ei=zJW1Tte5IoXe0QG09ODRBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  19. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityGrolier Incorporated (1999). The encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier Incorporated. p. 474. ISBN 0717201317. http://books.google.com/books?ei=eJS1Tre2HsrW0QH6--zRBw&ct=result&id=lAxZAAAAYAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  20. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityScholastic Library Publishing (2006). Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Scholastic Library Pub.. p. 474. ISBN 0717201392. http://books.google.com/books?ei=uJa1TrvIIITr0gHtu5zSBw&ct=result&id=igzYAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  21. ^ the University of Michigan The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier. 1981. p. 474. ISBN 0717201120. http://books.google.com/books?ei=HZe1Tu_FGoTL0QGU_rzRBw&ct=result&id=DOUZAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  22. ^ Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 358. ISBN 1884964044. http://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA358&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=Jgs2TsX-N821twft-9GSDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE8Q6AEwCDgU#v=onepage&q=tanka%20tribes%20aboriginal&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 29. "When the British appropriated the territory in the nineteenth century, they found these three major ethnic groups — Punti, Hakka, and Tanka — and one minority, the Hoklo, who were sea-nomads from the northern shore of Guangdong and" 
  23. ^ Bob Dye (1997). Merchant prince of the Sandalwood Mountains: Afong and the Chinese in Hawaiʻi (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 31. ISBN 0824817729. http://books.google.com/books?id=NETf7njQoocC&pg=PA31&dq=tanka+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=2Jm0TpqGIITd0QGk-qGoBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBjgU#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "But it also increased social contact between the three largest dialect groups, and that caused trouble, Punti.... treated Hakka .... as if they were uncultured aborigines... Hakka and Hoklo battled each other...as they fought Punti... All of these groups despised the Tanka people, descendants of aborigines" 
  24. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityGrolier Incorporated (1999). The encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier Incorporated. p. 474. ISBN 0717201317. http://books.google.com/books?ei=eJS1Tre2HsrW0QH6--zRBw&ct=result&id=lAxZAAAAYAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  25. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityScholastic Library Publishing (2006). Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Scholastic Library Pub.. p. 474. ISBN 0717201392. http://books.google.com/books?ei=uJa1TrvIIITr0gHtu5zSBw&ct=result&id=igzYAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  26. ^ the University of Michigan The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier. 1981. p. 474. ISBN 0717201120. http://books.google.com/books?ei=HZe1Tu_FGoTL0QGU_rzRBw&ct=result&id=DOUZAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 

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