- Water absorption
Water absorption is a phenomenon in the transmission of
electromagnetic radiationthrough a medium containing watermolecules. Water molecules are excited by radiation at certain wavelengthsand tend to selectively absorb portions of the spectrumwhile allowing the balance of the spectrum to be transmitted with minimal effect.
water vaporabsorption bands occur at wavelengths around 2500, 1950 and 1450 nanometers(nm),cite journal
author = Carter, G.A.
coauthors = McCain, D.C.
year = 1993
title = Relationship of leaf spectral reflectance to chloroplast water content determined using NMR microscopy
journal = Remote Sensing of Environment
volume = 46
issue = 3
pages = 305–310
url = http://www.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=3615755
accessdate = 2007-10-31
quote = Reflectance responses to leaf water content were greatest in the water absorption bands near 1450 nm, 1950 nm, and 2500 nm wavelengths
doi = 10.1016/0034-4257(93)90050-8] cite journal
author = Rossel, R.A.V.
coauthors = McBratney, A.B.
year = 1998
title = Laboratory evaluation of a proximal sensing technique for simultaneous measurement of soil clay and water content
journal = Geoderma
volume = 85
issue = 1
pages = 19–39
url = http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016706198000238
accessdate = 2007-10-31
quote = the strong absorption bands of OH groups in soil water at around 1450, 1950 and 2500 nm.
doi = 10.1016/S0016-7061(98)00023-8 ] with weaker absorption around 1200 and 970 nm,cite journal
author = Jacquemoud, S.
coauthors = Ustin, S.L.
year = 2003
title = Application of radiative transfer models to moisture content estimation and burned land mapping
journal = Joint European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories (EARSeL) and GOFC/GOLD-Fire Program, 4th Workshop on Forest Fires, University Ghent, Belgium 5--7 June 2003
url = http://www.sigu7.jussieu.fr/Led/documents/earsel2003.pdf
accessdate = 2007-10-31
quote = ...in the action spectrum of water the three main peaks near 1400, 1950, and 2500 nm, and two minor ones at 970 and 1200 nm,
format = dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3A+intitle%3AApplication+of+radiative+transfer+models+to+moisture+content+estimation+and+burned+land+mapping&as_publication=Joint+European+Association+of+Remote+Sensing+Laboratories+%28EARSeL%29+and+GOFC%2FGOLD-Fire+Program%2C+4th+Workshop+on+Forest+Fires%2C+University+Ghent%2C+Belgium+5--7+June+2003&as_ylo=2003&as_yhi=2003&btnG=Search Scholar search] ] and three additional sets of water-vapor absorption lines near 930, 820, and 730 nm, [cite book | last = Duarte | first = Edited | title = Tunable Laser Applications | publisher = M. Dekker | location = New York | year = 1995 | isbn = 0824789288 | quote = There are three sets of water-vapor absorption lines in the near-IR spectral region. Those near 730 and 820 nm are useful for lower tropo- spheric measurements, whereas those near 930 nm are useful for upper- tropospheric measurements...] all in the
infraredspectrum. Water has a complex absorption spectrum — the 2007 HITRAN spectroscopydatabase update lists more than 64,000 spectral lines corresponding to significant transitions of water vapor ranging from the microwaveregion to the visible spectrum.cite web | url = http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/atmosphere/publications/2007-Diet-JQSRT-XXX.pdf | author = Gordon, Iouli E. |coauthors = Laurence S. Rothman, Robert R. Gamache, David Jacquemart, Chris Boone, Peter F. Bernathd, Mark W. Shephard, Jennifer S. Delamere, Shepard A. Clough | title = Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new ‘‘Diet’’ for air-broadened half-widths| accessdate = 2007-11-03 | date = 2007-06-24 | format = pdf | work = Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer | quote = Water vapor is the principal absorber of longwave radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere and it has a profound effect on the atmospheric energy budget in many spectral regions. The HITRAN database lists more than 64,000 significant transitions of water vapor ranging from the microwave region to the visible, with intensities that cover many orders of magnitude. These transitions are used, or have to be accounted for, in various remote-sensing applications.]
The liquid water absorption features are offset to longer wavelengths from the water vapor absorption features by about 60 nm. [cite book | last = Toselli | first = F. | title = Imaging Spectroscopy | publisher = Kluwer Academic Publishers | location = Boston | year = 1992 | isbn = 0792315359 |quote = The liquid water absorption features are offset to longer wavelengths from the water vapor absorption features by about 60 nm.] In
hexagonal ice, the features are shifted even further. In liquid water and ice the infrared and Raman spectra are far more complex than in the vapor.
Water vapor is a
greenhouse gasin the Earth's atmosphere, responsible for 70% of the known absorption of incoming sunlight, particularly in the infrared region, and about 60% of the atmospheric absorption of thermal radiationby the Earth known as the greenhouse effect.cite web | url = http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/17402 | title = The climatic effects of water vapour - physicsworld.com | accessdate = 2007-11-03 | date = 2003-05-01 | author = Maurellis, Ahilleas | work = Physics World| publisher = Institute of Physics] It is also an important factor in multispectral imagingand hyperspectral imagingused in remote sensingbecause water vapor absorbs radiation differently in different spectral bands. Its effects are also an important consideration in infrared astronomyand radio astronomyin the microwaveor millimeter wavebands. The South Pole Telescopewas constructed in Antarcticain part because the elevation and low temperatures there mean there is very little water vapor in the atmosphere. [cite web | url = http://spt.uchicago.edu/public/southpole.html | title = South Pole Telescope: South Pole : Why is the telescope at the South Pole? | accessdate = 2007-11-03 | publisher = University of Chicago| work = | quote = Quick Answer: Because the South Pole is probably the best place on Earth for this telescope. It is extremely dry, making the atmosphere exceptionally transparent for SPT.]
carbon dioxideabsorption bands occur around 1400, 1600 and 2000 nm, [cite web | url = http://geography.swan.ac.uk/personal/prjn/papers/Prietoetal2005.pdf | title = Satellite estimation of surface/atmosphere parameters: a sensitivity study | accessdate = 2007-10-31 | format = pdf| author = Prieto-Blanco, Ana | coauthors = Peter R. J. North , Nigel Fox , Michael J. Barnsley | quote = ...water absorption bands (around 940nm, 1100nm, 1450nm, 1950nm and 2500nm) and carbon dioxide absorption bands (1400nm, 1600nm and 2000nm)...] but its presence in the Earth's atmosphere accounts for just 26% of the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide gas absorbs energy in some small segments of the thermal infrared spectrum that water vapor misses. This extra absorption within the atmosphere causes the air to warm just a bit more and the warmer the atmosphere the greater its capacity to hold more water vapor. This extra water vapor absorption then further enhances the Earth’s greenhouse effect. [cite web | url = http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/Iris/ | title = EO Study: Does the Earth have an Iris Analog | publisher = NASA| accessdate = 2007-11-04]
Conversely, there is an
atmospheric windowbetween approximately 800 and 1400 nm, in the near-infrared spectrum where carbon dioxide and water absorption is weak. [cite book | last = Cotton | first = William | title = Human Impacts on Weather and Climate | publisher = Cambridge University Press | location = Cambridge | year = 2006 | isbn = 0521840864 |quote = Little absorption is evident in the region called the atmospheric window between 8 and 14 μm] This window allows most of the thermal radiation in this band to be radiated out to space, keeping the Earth's atmosphere from going into thermal runaway. This band is also used for remote sensing of the Earth from space, for example with VNIRimaging.
The water vapor absorption bands are related to
molecular vibrations involving different combinations of the water molecule's three fundamental vibrational transitions:
*V1: symmetric stretch mode
*V2: bending mode
*V3: asymmetric stretch mode
The absorption feature centered near 970 nm is attributed to a 2V1 + V3 combination, the one near 1200 nm to a V1 + V2 + V3 combination, the one near 1450 nm to a V1 + V3 combination, and theone near 1950 nm to a V2 + V3 combination.
In liquid water, rotations tend to be restricted by
hydrogen bonds, leading to librations, or rocking motions. Also stretching is shifted to a lower frequency while the bending frequency increased by hydrogen bonding.cite web | url= http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/vibrat.html | title = Water Absorption Spectrum | author = Chaplin, Martin | date = 2007-10-28 | accessdate = 2007-11-04| quote = In the liquid, rotations tend to be restricted by hydrogen bonds, giving the librations. Also, spectral lines are broader causing overlap of many of the absorption peaks. The main stretching band in liquid water is shifted to a lower frequency and the bending frequency increased by hydrogen bonding.]
Hydroxyl ion absorptionin optical fiber
Color of water
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