Religion in York


Religion in York

Religion in York can be traced back to the City's foundation in Roman times with evidence of York's first Christian community dating from this period.

History

Roman

Polytheism

A range of evidence about Roman religious beliefs of the people of Eboracum have been found including altars to Mars, Hercules, Jupiter and Fortune, while phallic amulets are the most commonly found type of good luck charm. In terms of number of reference the most popular deities were the spiritual representation ("genius") of Eboracum and the Mother Goddess, there is also evidence of local or regional deities. Evidence showing the worship of eastern deities has also been found during excavations in York. For example evidence of the Mithras cult, which was popular among the military, has been found including a sculpture showing Mithras slaying a bull and a dedication to Arimanius, the god of evil in the Mithraic tradition. [cite book | last = Hall | first = Richard | title = English Heritage: Book of York | origyear = 1996 | edition = 1st Ed. | year = 1996 | publisher = B.T.Batsford Ltd | pages = 97-101 | isbn = 0-7134-7720-2] Another example is the dedication of a temple to Serapis a Hellenistic-Egyptian God by the Commander of the Sixth Legion. [Hartley, Elizabeth [1985] . Roman Life at the Yorkshire Museum, The Yorkshire Museum, ISBN 0-905807-02-2 P.25]

Christianity

There was also a Christian community in Eboracum although it is unknown when this was first formed and in archeological terms there is virtually no record of it. The first evidence of this community is a document noting the attendance of Bishop Eborius of Eboracum at the Council of Arles in 314. [cite book | last = Hall | first = Richard | title = English Heritage: Book of York | origyear = 1996 | edition = 1st Ed. | year = 1996 | publisher = B.T.Batsford Ltd | pages = 97-101 | isbn = 0-7134-7720-2] The Episcopal see at Eboracum was called "Eboracensis" in Latin and Bishops from the See also attended the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the Council of Sardica, and the Council of Ariminum. [ [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15733b.htm "Ancient See of York"] , New Advent (2007), retrieved on 25 October 2007]

Early Medieval

Anglo-Saxon polytheism

Early Christianity

Danish polytheism

Medieval

Christianity

Judaism

On March 16, 1190, a mob of townsfolk forced the Jews in York to flee into Clifford's Tower, which was under the control of the sheriff. The castle was set on fire and the Jews were massacred. It is likely that various local magnates who were debtors of the Jews helped instigate this massacre or, at least, did nothing to prevent it. It came during a time of widespread attacks against Jews in Britain. The Jewish community in York did recover after the massacre and a Jewish presence remained in York until the expulsion of Jews from England took place in 1290. [Hall, "English Heritage: Book of York", Pages 58-59]

In the intervening years, though, the pressure on the Jews of Yorkshire increased, especially by those who were in hock to them. A deed of 1249, for instance, between the Anglo-Norman Hamond de Levet (Levett) and several donors to Yorkshire's Roche Abbey, required the donors to put the "Hebrew letter with their seal," acknowledging that the Abbey had likely borrowed money from Jewish lenders in York. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=awIhAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA116&dq=rotherham+levet&lr=&ei=BavlSMHVOIiCswPNkfS6Dw Yorkshire: The HIstory of Roche Abbey, from Its Founding to Its Dissolution, James Hobson Aveling, Robert White, Worksop, 1870] ]

Reformation

Anglicanism

Disolution of Christian Orders

Roman Catholicism

Modern

Church of England

Located in York are the Mother Church, York Minster, and administrative centre of the Church of England's Diocese of York, as well as Bishopthorpe Palace the official residence of the Archbishop of York the second highest ranking cleric the Church. There are 32 Church of England churches within the area of the City of York [ [http://www.dioceseofyork.org.uk/index.shtml "Welcome"] , The Diocese of York (2007), retrieved on 6 November 2007]

Roman Catholic

York is part of the Central Vicariate of the Diocese of Middlesbrough and has eight Roman Catholic Churches and one separate shrine to St. Margaret Clitherow, where masses are held, located in the shambles. The oldest active parish is that of St. Wilfrid which was formed in 1710 with the current Church at High Petergate in 1862-4 to a design by architect George Goldie. [http://middlesbrough-diocese.org.uk/?page_id=64"Parishes"] , Middlesbrough Diocese (2007), retrieved on 5 November 2007]

Religious Society of Friends

There are three meeting houses of the Religious Society of Friends in York although meetings are held at other venues including The Retreat and University of York. [ [http://www.yorkquakers.org.uk/ "Home"] , Quakers in the York area, retrieved on 6 November 2007]

York has a long association with the Religious Society of Friends, known as the Quakers, and founded two schools in the city Bootham School in 1823 and The Mount in 1831. The Retreat is a large Quaker mental hospital, situated in the east of the city outside the city walls. It was founded in 1796 by William Tuke; over the next century his son Henry Tuke, grandson Samuel Tuke and great-grandson Daniel Hack Tuke also devoted themselves to mental health reform, continuing to reform The Retreat and publishing a number of works on the subject. [ [http://www.yorkhullmethodist.org.uk/ "The Retreat - Our History"] , The Retreat (2007), retrieved on 5 November 2007] The York-born Quaker chocolate entrepreneurs and social reformers Joseph Rowntree and Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree left an indelible mark on the city, through both their business interests and their philanthropy. They built the village of New Earswick to provide quality affordable housing for their employees, contributed to the building of York Public Library and the created Rowntree Park. The four Rowntree Trusts, funded from the Rowntree legacies, are based in York. [ [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RErowntreeJ.htm "Joseph Rowntree"] , Spartacus Educational, retrieved on 5 November 2007]

Methodists

The York North and York South circuits of the The Methodist Church York and Hull District operate in York. [ [http://www.yorkhullmethodist.org.uk/ "Circuits & Churches"] , The Methodist Church York and Hull District, retrieved on 5 November 2007]

Unitarianism

Islam

There is one Mosque in York which also contains a UK Islamic Mission Islamic centre. [ [http://www.mcb.org.uk/affiliates.php "UKIM Educational Centre Project"] , UK Islamic Mission Islamic (2007), retrieved on 5 November 2007] In 2007 after armed police were put on patrol in York as a response to terrorist threats Professor Mohamed El-Gomati, of York Mosque, commented that "People are trying to change our way of life - everybody's way of life, not just a white person's or a brown person's . . . We are all in this together. I am happy to say to extremists, of which thankfully we don't have any in York, that what they are doing is wrong, is non-Islamic." [ [http://archive.yorkpress.co.uk/2007/7/4/358309.html "Armed police on the streets of York"] , York Press (2007), retrieved on 5 November 2007]

Buddhism

Various Buddhist traditions are represented in and around York.

References

See also

* History of York
* Medieval churches of York
* Diocese of York


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