A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA2|pijút and [pijutím] ) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. "Piyyutim" have been written since Temple times. Most "piyyutim" are in Hebrew or Aramaic, and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an
acrosticfollowing the order of the Hebrew alphabetor spelling out the name of the author.
Many "piyyutim" are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known "piyyut" may be "Adon Olam" ("Master of the World"), sometimes attributed to
Solomon ibn Gabirolin 11th century Spain. Its poetic form consists simply of rhyming iambic tetrameter, and it is so beloved that it is often sung at the conclusion of many synagogue services, after the ritual nightly saying of the Shema, and during the morning ritual of putting on tefillin. Another well-beloved "piyyut" is "Yigdal" ("May God be Hallowed"), which is based upon the Thirteen Principles of Faithdeveloped by Maimonides.
The author of a piyyut is known as a "
paytan" (plural "paytanim").
What follows is a chart of some of the best-known and most-beloved "piyyutim". This is by no means an exhaustive list, but it tries to provide a flavor of the variety of poetic schemes and occasions for which these poems were written. Many of the "piyyutim" marked as being recited on
Shabbatare songs traditionally sung as part of the home ritual observance of Shabbatand also known as "zemirot" ("Songs/Melodies").
* [http://www.piyut.org.il Piyut site] - audio recordings of piyyutim, along with corresponding lyrics in Hebrew
* [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=360&letter=P&search=Anim%20Zemiros Jewish Encyclopedia article on piyyutim]
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PIYYUT — (Heb. פִּיּוּט; plural: piyyutim; from the Greek ποιητής), a lyrical composition intended to embellish an obligatory prayer or any other religious ceremony, communal or private. In a wider sense, piyyut is the totality of compositions composed in … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Piyyut — Piyyout Un piyyout (plur. piyyoutim, en hébreu פיוט IPA : /pijút/ et [pijutím]) est un poème liturgique juif généralement destiné à être chanté ou récité pendant l office. Il existe des piyyoutim depuis l époque du temple de Jérusalem. La… … Wikipédia en Français
Piyyut — (pl. Piyyutim) Liturgical hymns of the Jewish tradition. Originally written to enhance prayers, they eventually became detached as those prayers became more and more the province of the professional hazan (cantor) by the sixth century. The… … Historical dictionary of sacred music
Piyyut — Seph. Heb. /pee yooht /; Ashk. Heb. /pee yoot/, n., pl. Piyyutim Seph. Heb. /pee yooh teem /; Ashk. Heb. /pi yooh tim/. Judaism. a liturgical poem included in the services on holidays and special Sabbaths in addition to the established prayers. * … Universalium
piyyut — … Useful english dictionary
PROSODY, HEBREW — This article is a survey of the history of Hebrew poetic forms from the Bible to the present time. The entry is arranged according to the following outline: introduction the variety of formal systems the specific nature of hebrew literary history … Encyclopedia of Judaism
POETRY — This article is arranged according to the following outline (for modern poetry, see hebrew literature , Modern; see also prosody ): biblical poetry introduction the search for identifiable indicators of biblical poetry the presence of poetry in… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
HEBREW LANGUAGE — This entry is arranged according to the following scheme: pre biblical biblical the dead sea scrolls mishnaic medieval modern period A detailed table of contents precedes each section. PRE BIBLICAL nature of the evidence the sources phonology… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
MUSIC — This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction written sources of direct and circumstantial evidence the material relics and iconography notated sources oral tradition archives and important collections of jewish music… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
LITURGY — has conventionally been understood as the words that Jews recite in public worship. While written words are almost all that remains from earlier times, the study of liturgy today understands that the ways that these words are performed shapes… … Encyclopedia of Judaism