- Raymond I of Pallars and Ribagorza
Raymond I ( _ca. Ramon, _es. Raimundo; died 920) was the first independent
Count of Pallarsand Ribagorza from 872 until his death. Early speculation made him a scion of the Counts of Toulouse, [Serrano y Sans, 127;del Arco y Garay, 359] but he is certainly the "Regimundo comite, filio Luponi comiti . . . in pago Paliarensi" of a 920 document. [d'Abadal y de Vinyals, I: 351] . His father may have been the Basque count Lupus I of Bigorre [d'Abadal y de Vinyals, I: 121] and during his lifetime Pallars represented the westernmost extent of the Basque language. [Lewis, 112 n104.]
Raymond was a local nobleman who in the aftermath of the assassination of
Bernard II of Toulouseby partisans of Bernard Plantapilosa(872) seized authority for himself in Pallars and Ribagorza.Lewis, 110.] The exact circumstances surrounding his rise are obscure, but he had probably held lands south of the Pyreneesfrom the County of Toulouseprior to gaining independence. [Lewis, 112.] Neither is it clear what part the leading men of the regions played in his elevation, but after the fact Pallars and Ribagorza were not even nominally attached to Francia.Lewis, 110.]
Raymond immediately made overtures of peace and alliance with the
Banu Qasigovernors of Huescaand Zaragoza, but to no avail; in the end, a policy of Reconquistahad to be adopted. Consequentially, his reign saw the encastellationof Pallars of Ribagorza and the proliferation of "turres" (defensive towers). [Lewis, 131–132.] Castles were built at Leovalles, Castellous, and Lemignano. [Lewis, 229–230.] Raymond also consolidated his "de facto" independence from any superior authority by creating a new diocese of Pallars, enabling himself to control the local church. Raymond also established an alliance with the Jiménez dynastyof Navarre. He married his sister Dadildis to García Jiménez of Pamplona, and in 905 he collaborated with Alfonso III of Asturiasand Abd Allah ibn Lope ibn Qasiin a coup that overthrew Fortún Garcés of Pamplonain favor of Raymond's nephew, Sancho Garcés I. [Pérez de Urbel, 297]
In 904 he was attacked by
Lope ibn Muhammad, who took 700 prisoners, including Raymond's grandson and heir Isarn. He lost much of Ribagorza, including Rodaand Montpedrós, to al-Tawilof Huesca in 907 and thereafter ruled mainly just Pallars, which had always been his political base. He died in 920. His wife may be the Guiniguentes, daughter of Aznar Dat, mentioned in the Codex of Roda, but the text is ambiguous and this may be his daughter-in-law. [Lacarra, 234] Pallars was inherited by his two youngest sons, Isarn and Lupo, while overrun Ribagorza went to his two eldest, Miro and Bernard Unifred.
*d'Abidal y de Vinyals, Ramon. "Els comtats de Pallars i Ribagorça", Institut d’Estudis Catalans:Barcelona, 1955.
*del Arco y Garay, Ricardo. "España Christiana: Hasta el año 1035, fecha de la Muerte de Sancho Garcés III" in "España Christiana: Comienzo de la Reconquista (711-1038). Historia de España [dirigida por Don Ramón Menéndez Pidal] ", vol. 6. Espasa Calpe: Madrid, 1964.
*Lacarra, José María. "Textos navarros del Códice de Roda," "Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón", 1:194-283 (1945).
*Lewis, Archibald Ross. " [http://libro.uca.edu/lewis/index.htm The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050] ". University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965.
*Pérez de Urbel, Justo. "Los Primeros Siiglos de la Reconquista, (Años 711-1038)" in "España Christiana: Comienzo de la Reconquista (711-1038). Historia de España [dirigida por Don Ramón Menéndez Pidal] ", vol. 6. Espasa Calpe: Madrid, 1964.
*Serrano y Sans, Manuel. "Noticias y documentos historicos del Contado di Ribagorza hasta la muerte de Sancho Garces III", Centro de Estudios Historicos: Madrid, 1912.
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