- Digital reformatting
Digital reformatting is the process of converting analogue materials into a digital format as a surrogate of the original. The digital surrogates perform a preservation function by reducing or eliminating the use of the original. Digital reformatting is guided by established best practices to ensure that materials are being converted at the highest quality.
The Library of Congress has been actively reformatting materials for its American Memory project and developed best standards and practices pertaining to book handling during the digitization process, scanning resolutions, and preferred file formats. Some of these standards are:
- The use of ISO 16067-1 and ISO 16067-2 standards for resolution requirements.
- Recommended 400 ppi resolution for OCR'ed printed text.
- The use of 24-bit color when color is an important attribute of a document.
- The use of the scanning device's maximum resolution for digitally reproducing photographs
- TIFF as the standard file format.
- Attachment of descriptive, structural, and technical metadata to all digitized documents.
A list of archival standards for digital preservation can be found here: 
The International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) has produced guidelines on the creation and preservation of digital from analogue originals. The guidelines cover:
- selection and preparation of best available copy for digitising
- optimising signal extraction
- analog-to-digital converter technical specifications
- audio digitised at 24-bit word length and a minimum 48,000 samples/sec
- target audio format: linear PCM Broadcast Wave Format
- storage recommendations
Digital formatting programs can be costly and have huge start-up costs, especially if done in-house. A hypothetical case study presented at the 2003 National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage (NINCH) Symposium  quoted a small digitization project as costing $16,332, if outsourced to a vendor, or about $100,000 (to purchase software and hardware for an in-house program). These prices are worth it when one considers the long-term financial benefits of digital reformatting. A cost-benefit study presented by Lee (2001) found that it costs about $5.40 to digitize a 10-page article (with unlimited free duplicates), much less than the total accumulated cost of repeatedly duplicating the physical master with a photocopier.
Function as a preservation strategy
Digital reformatting is not unanimously accepted as a viable, long-term preservation strategy. The Association of Research Libraries recognized digitization as a viable preservation method because of its capture capabilities, reproduction of “the navigational experience of a book,” enhanced accessibility, and the creation of “virtual collections that will support new and creative research made possible only in a digital environment”. As of September 12, 2007, however, OCLC had not recognized digitization and digital reformatting as preservation standards.
Digital Reformatting Programs
The Library of Congress has constituted a Preservation Digital Reformatting Program. The Three main components of the program include:
- Selection Criteria for digital reformatting
- Digital reformatting principles and specifications
- Life cycle management of LC digital data
- ^ Library of Congress. (2007). Technical Standards for Digital Conversion of Text and Graphic Materials. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/about/techStandards.pdf
- ^ IASA (2009) Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects
- ^ Pence, D. (2003). Ten Ways to Spend $100,000 on Digitization. The Price of Digitization: New Cost Models for Cultural and Educational Institutions. http://www.ninch.org/forum/price.report.html#dp
- ^ Lee, S.D. (2001). Digitization: Is it Worth It? Computers in Libraries, 21 (5). http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/may01/lee.htm
- ^ Arthur, K., Byrne, S., Long, E., Montori, C.Q., and Nadler, J. (2004). Recognizing Digitization as a Preservation Reformatting Method. http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/digi_preserv.pdf
- ^ Online Computer Library Center. (2007). Can Digitization Replace Microfilm, Or Do We Need Both? http://www.oclc.org/support/questions/preservation/question4.htm
- ^ Library of Congress, (2006). Preservation Digital Reformatting Program. http://www.loc.gov/preserv/prd/presdig/presintro.html
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Digital preservation — is the set of processes, activities and management of digital information over time to ensure its long term accessibility. The goal of digital preservation is to preserve materials resulting from digital reformatting, and particularly information … Wikipedia
Digital artifactual value — is a preservation term that refers to the intrinsic value of a digital object, rather than the informational content of the object. There are currently no established standards for what constitutes digital artifactual value. Nonetheless, born… … Wikipedia
Digital rights management — (DRM) is a term for access control technologies that are used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders and individuals to limit the use of digital content and devices. The term is used to describe any technology that inhibits uses … Wikipedia
Born-digital — is a term from digital preservation describing digital materials that originated in the digital realm and have no print or analog counterpart. [cite web last = first = authorlink = title = Introduction Definitions and Concepts work = publisher =… … Wikipedia
Secure Digital — SDHC redirects here. For the gene, see SDHC (gene). SD, SDHC, SDXC SD (top), miniSD, microSD cards Media type Memory card Capacity SDSC (SD): 1 MB to 2 GB although 4 GB cards are available SDHC: 4 GB to 3 … Wikipedia
ATSC tuner — Multiple MPEG programs are combined then sent to a transmitting antenna. In the US broadcast digital TV system, an ATSC receiver then decodes the TS and displays it on a TV. An ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) tuner, often called an… … Wikipedia
Preservation (library and archival science) — Preservation is a branch of library and information science concerned with maintaining or restoring access to artifacts, documents and records through the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of decay and damage. [cite web… … Wikipedia
library — /luy brer ee, breuh ree, bree/, n., pl. libraries. 1. a place set apart to contain books, periodicals, and other material for reading, viewing, listening, study, or reference, as a room, set of rooms, or building where books may be read or… … Universalium
Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System — Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (or ACARS) is a digital datalink system for transmission of small messages between aircraft and ground stations via radio or satellite. The protocol, which was designed by ARINC to replace… … Wikipedia
Disk formatting — Formatting a hard drive using MS DOS Disk formatting is the process of preparing a hard disk drive or flexible disk medium for data storage. In some cases, the formatting operation may also create one or more new file systems. The formatting… … Wikipedia