- Shuadit language
1977, on the death of Armand Lunel
Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct
Jewish languageof southern France, also known as Judæo- Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. The language is known from documents dating to as early as the 11th centuryin France, and after suffering drastic declines beginning with the charter of the Inquisitionin France, finally died out with the death of its last known speaker, Armand Lunel, in 1977.
The exact development and age of Shuadit is unclear to historians.
Latin, as the language of commerceand administration of the Roman Empire, spread to the region following the conquest of Transalpine Gaul by Julius Caesar, completed by 50 BC. There is, however, little evidence of whether Shuadit developed through the adoption and alteration of Latin by the local Jewish community, or whether it is a descendant of the much earlier Judæo-Latinlanguage. Another possibility is that the language developed as a result of the influence of the exegetical school at Narbonne. ("For further discussion, refer to Blondheim and Banitt in References below. See also the Judæo-French article at Zarphatic.")
Shuadit writings consist of two distinct varieties: religious texts and popular prose. As with most
Jewish languages, both forms were written exclusively using modifications of the Hebrew alphabet.
Religious texts contain a significantly higher incidence of Hebrew
loanwords, and reflect an overall more "educated" style, containing many words from Old French, Provençal, Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Latin. These texts include a fragment of a 14th centurypoem lauding Queen Esther, as well as a woman's siddur. This siddur contains an uncommon blessing, found in few other locations (including medieval Lithuania), thanking God, in the morning blessings, not for making her "according to His will" (she-asani kirtzono), but for making her as a woman. Even today, among the more "liberal" branches of AshkenaziJudaism ( Reform Judaismand Reconstructionist Judaism), this blessing is often worded as "she-asani betzalmo" ("who has made me in His image"), rather than "she-asani isha" ("who has made me a woman").
The extant texts comprising the collections of popular prose contain far fewer non-Provençal borrowings, and are essentially Provençal written using the Hebrew alphabet, possibly indicating a Jewish preference, prevalent at the time, for not using the
Roman alphabet, regarded widely as synonymous with the oppressive Christianrégimes. These texts demonstrate the extent to which the Jewish community of Provence was thoroughly familiar with Hebrew, as well as the extent to which the community was thoroughly integrated into the larger surrounding Christian culture of the region.
Shuadit displays a number of phonological characteristics that make it unique among
Jewish languages. The name "Shuadit" literally means "Jewish", and is the Shuadit pronunciation of the Hebrew word "Yehudit". This is because initial /j/ becomes IPA|/ʃ/, and /h/ is often elided between vowels, so Yehudit -> Shehudit -> Sheudit -> Shuadit (through a later vowel system change).
In words inherited from Hebrew and Aramaic, the letters "samekh", "sin" and "thav" are all pronounced IPA|/f/, the same as "fe". The conjecture is that the two former IPA|/s/ phonemes merged with the IPA|/θ/ phoneme, and then merged with the phoneme IPA|/f/. This observation gives particular validity to the theory that Shuadit is an outgrowth of a much older
Judæo-Latinlanguage, rather than an independent development within southern France, since the second step also occurred during the development of Latin from Proto-Italic.
In words derived from Latin, there is a tendency to
diphthongize IPA|/l/ following plosives, and to de-lateralize IPA|/ʎ/ to IPA|/j/. Additionally, the phonemes IPA|/ʒ/ and IPA|/ʃ/, as well as IPA|/dʒ/ and IPA|/tʃ/, are reduced to the single phoneme IPA|/ʃ/. Thus, the Provençal words "plus", "filho" and "juge", are rendered as "pyus", "feyo" and "šuše", respectively, in Shuadit.
A fundamental source for inferring information about the
phonologyof Shuadit is the comedy " Harcanot et Barcanot". ("See Pansier in the References section of this article.")
The earliest evidence of Shuadit as a distinguishable spoken language is probably in the comic poem, "
Lou Sermoun di Jusiou" ("The Jew's Sermon"), likely written in the sixteenth century. Given its content, this poem was likely composed by a non-Jew. Numerous parodies of Jewish speech appear also in recordings of Christmas carols.
Dom Pedro II of Brazilrecorded a number of bilingual Hebrew-Shuadit religious poems Fact|date=April 2008.
1498, the Jews were formally expelled from southern France. Although the community was not finally compelled to depart until 1501, much of the community had by then become dispersed into other regions, notably Genoaand the "less-civilized" regions of Germany. However, the Comtat-Venaissinwas then under the direct control of the Pope, and a small Jewish community continued to live there in relative isolation. From the time of the French Revolution, when Jews were permitted to live legally anywhere in France as full citizens, the status of Shuadit began to decline rapidly. The extinction of the language was noted in 1977, upon the death of its last known native speaker, Armand Lunel.
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sdt Ethnologue report for Shuadit]
*Banitt, M. 1963. Une langue fantôme: le judéo-français. Revue de linguistique romane 27: 245-294.
*Blondheim, D. S. 1928. Notes étymologiques et lexicographiques. Mélanges de linguistique et de littérature offerts à M. Alfred Jeanroy par ses élèves et ses amis. Paris: Champion. 71-80.
*Pansier, P. 1925. Une comédie en argot hébraïco-provençal de la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Revue des études juives 81: 113-145.
* [http://www.jewish-languages.org/judeo-provencal.html Jewish Language Research website's page on Judæo-Provençal]
* [http://www.omniglot.com/writing/languages.htm omniglot.com]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Shuadit — ou Chouadit שואדית Extinction en 1977 avec la mort d Armand Lunel Parlée en France Région Occitanie (Sud de la France) Classification par famille … Wikipédia en Français
Shuadit — noun an extinct Jewish language of France. Also called Judeo Provençal or Judeo Comtadine … Wiktionary
Shuadit — ISO 639 3 Code : sdt ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Extinct … Names of Languages ISO 639-3
Occitan language — Occitan occitan, lenga d òc Spoken in France Spain Italy Monaco Native speakers 800,000 (1999) … Wikipedia
Hebrew language — Hebrew redirects here. For other uses, see Hebrew (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Yiddish language. Hebrew עִבְרִית … Wikipedia
Yiddish language — Not to be confused with Hebrew language. Yiddish ייִדיש yidish Pronunciation [ˈjɪdɪʃ] Spoken in United States, Israel, Argentina … Wikipedia
Judeo-Romance languages — are Jewish languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by various Jewish communities (and their descendants) originating in regions where Romance languages predominate, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their… … Wikipedia
Judeo-Latin — Judeo Latin, or La lsquo;az is the presumed Jewish language of the many scattered Jewish communities of the former Roman Empire, but especially by the Jewish communities of the Italian Peninsula and Transalpine Gaul. La az (לעז) is Hebrew for… … Wikipedia
Jewish languages — The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities around the world, more notably in Europe, West Asia, and North Africa. The usual course of development for these languages was through the addition of Hebrew … Wikipedia
Catalanic — Catalanic, also called Qatalanit (קאטאלנית) or the more scholarly Judæo Catalan, was a Jewish language spoken by the Jewish communities of northeastern today s Spain, especially in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. Linguistically, it shared… … Wikipedia