List of republics


List of republics

List of republics is a list of countries or states governed as a republic.

For Antiquity (or later in the case of societies that did not refer to a Western terminology to qualify their form of government) the assessment of whether a state organisation is a "republic" is an analysis by retrospect, left to the discretion of historians and political theorists.

For more recent systems of government worldwide organisations with a broad political acceptance, like the United Nations, can provide information on whether or not a sovereign state is referred to as a republic.

List of Republics by Period

Antiquity

* Doric Greek city-states of Crete Fact|date=September 2007
* Sparta Fact|date=September 2007
* Carthage (c. 8th century BC- 146 BC)Fact|date=September 2007
* Athens under the separate reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes.Fact|date=September 2007
* Licchavi Republic (c. 600 BC - 400 AD)Fact|date=September 2007
* Roman Republic (c. 509 – 27 BC) and many other Italian cities.Fact|date=September 2007
* Vaishali Republic (c. 600 BC - 400 AD)Fact|date=September 2007
* Hastinapur - and some states of Ancient India

Middle Ages and Renaissance

* San Marino (301 – present)Fact|date=September 2007
* Amalfi (839 – 1131)Fact|date=September 2007
* Venice (c. 9th century - 1797)Fact|date=September 2007
* Iceland (930 – 1262)Fact|date=September 2007
* Pisa (11th century – 1406, 1494 – 1509)Fact|date=September 2007
* Genoa (c. 1100 - 1797)Fact|date=September 2007
* Florence (1115 - 1537)Fact|date=September 2007
* Novgorod Republic (1136 – 1478) [cite web |url=http://www.waytorussia.net/CentralRussia/Novgorod/History.html |title=Brief history of Novgorod |accessdate=2007-12-26 |work= [http://www.waytorussia.net/index.html WayToRussia.Net] ]
* Lucca (1160 – 1805)
* Siena (1167 – 1557)Fact|date=September 2007
* Old Swiss Confederacy (1291 - 1798)
* Ragusa (14th century – 1808)Fact|date=September 2007
* Pskov Republic (1348 - 1510)
* Cospaia (1440 - 1826)
* Ambrosian Republic (1447 - 1450)
* Netherlands (1581 – 1795)Fact|date=September 2007

Early Modern

* Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569 - 1795)
* Goust (1648 - )
* Commonwealth of England (1649 - 1660)Fact|date=September 2007
* Corsican Republic (1755 - 1769) [Carrington, Dorothy, "The Corsican Constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755-1769)," "The English Historical Review", July 1973, pp 481-503]
* United States of America (1776 - Present)
* Vermont Republic (1777 - 1791) [cite book |last=Van de Water |first=Frederic Franklyn |title=The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791 |year=1974 |publisher=The Countryman Press |isbn=0-914378-02-3 ]
* First French Republic (1792 - 1804)
* Helvetic Republic (1798 - 1802)
* State of Muskogee (1799 - 1803)

19th Century

* Swiss Confederation (1803 - 1815)
* Confederation of the Rhine (1806 - 1813)
* Haiti (1806 - 1849; restored 1859)Fact|date=September 2007
* Duchy of Warsaw (1807 - 1813)
* Free City of Danzig (1807 - 1814)
* West Florida (1810)
* Paraguay (1811 - present)
* Free City of Krakow (1815 - 1846)
* Argentina (1816 - present)
* Chile (1818 - present)
* Colombia (1819 - present)
* Federal Republic of Central America (1823 - 1840)
* Mexico (1824 - present)
* Peru (1824 - present)
* Bolivia (1825 - present)
* Uruguay (1828 - present)
* Venezuela (1830 - present)
* Ecuador (1830 - present)
* Republic of Texas (1836 - 1845)
* Second French Republic (1848 - 1852)
* California Republic (1846)
* Menton and Roquebrune (1848 - 1861)
* Republic of Ezo (1868-1869)
* Third French Republic (1871-1940)
* [Independent Republic of Motril (1873) [Comité de Salud Pública en Motril durante la Revolución Cantonalde 1873.Actas de Creación. Motril,1989]
* Tavolara (1886 - 1899) ["Smallest State in the World," "New York Times", June 19, 1896, p 6] ["Tiny Nation to Vote: Smallest Republic in the World to Hold a Presidential Election," "Lowell Daily Sun", Sep 17, 1896] ["Nation of 55 People: Republic of Tavolara in Its Third Presidential Campaign" "Boston Globe", Jan 10, 1897, p 34]
* Franceville (1889) ["Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," "Hawaiian Gazette", Nov 1, 1895, p 1]
* Republic of Hawaii (1894 - 1898)
* Republic of Formosa (1895)
* Greater Republic of Central America (1896 - 1898)
* Republic of Acre (1st: 1899 - 1900; 2nd: 1900; 3rd: 1903)
* Republic of Yucatán (1840 - 1843; 1848 )

20th Century and Later

* Panama (est. 1903)
* Albania (est. 1946)Fact|date=September 2007
* Algeria (est. 1962)Fact|date=September 2007
* Afghanistan (est. 1973)Fact|date=September 2007
* Nepal (est. 2008)
* Zimbabwe (date to be openly edited)

List of Republics by Type

In modern usage, a republican form of government is applied loosely to any state which claims this designation. [http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50203498?single=1&query_type=word&queryword=republic&first=1&max_to_show=10 Republic] , "Oxford English Dictionary", SECOND EDITION 1989 ] So for example the Dominican Republic under Rafael Trujillo is considered a republic, as is the Republic of Iraq under Saddam Hussein and the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics under Joseph Stalin. The Kingdom of Sweden (which in 2006 ranked highest in the Economist's index of democracy) [ Laza Kekic, [http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/DEMOCRACY_INDEX_2007_v3.pdf The Economist Intelligence Units Index of democracy] , "The Economist: The World in 2007" ] is not a republic, but the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (which ranks lowest in the same survey) is.

Unitary republics

Unitary republics are unitary states which are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with a single constitutionally created legislature.
* Acre (1st: 1899-1900; 2nd: 1900; 3rd: 1903)
* Afghanistan (republic since 1973)Fact|date=September 2007
* Albania (since 1946)Fact|date=September 2007
* Algeria Fact|date=September 2007
* Bangladesh Fact|date=September 2007
* Benin Fact|date=September 2007
* Bolivia Fact|date=September 2007
* Botswana Fact|date=September 2007
* Bulgaria (since 1946)Fact|date=September 2007
* Burkina Faso Fact|date=September 2007
* Burundi (since 1966)Fact|date=September 2007
* Cameroon (unitary republic 1960-1961 and 1972-present; federal republic 1961-1972)Fact|date=September 2007
* Cape Verde Fact|date=September 2007
* Central African Republic (1958-1976; restored 1979)Fact|date=September 2007
* Chad Fact|date=September 2007
* Chile Fact|date=September 2007
* People's Republic of China Fact|date=September 2007
* Colombia (unitary republic since 1886)Fact|date=September 2007
* Congo (Brazzaville) Fact|date=September 2007
* Congo (Kinshasa) Fact|date=September 2007
* Corsica (1755-1769) [Carrington, Dorothy, "The Corsican Constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755-1769)," "The English Historical Review", July 1973, pp 481-503]
* Cospaia (1440-1826)
* Costa Rica Fact|date=September 2007
* Côte d'Ivoire Fact|date=September 2007
* Croatia Fact|date=September 2007
* Cuba Fact|date=September 2007
* Cyprus Fact|date=September 2007
* Czech Republic Fact|date=September 2007
* Djibouti Fact|date=September 2007
* Dominica Fact|date=September 2007
* Dominican Republic (1801-1861, 1865-present)Fact|date=September 2007
* East Timor Fact|date=September 2007
* Ecuador Fact|date=September 2007
* Egypt (since 1953)Fact|date=September 2007
* El Salvador (1821-present)Fact|date=September 2007
* Equatorial Guinea Fact|date=September 2007
* Eritrea Fact|date=September 2007
* Estonia (1921-1940; 1991-present)Fact|date=September 2007
* Ezo (1868-1869)
* Fiji Islands (since 1987)Fact|date=September 2007
* Finland Fact|date=September 2007
* Formosa (1895)
* Franceville (1889) ["Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," "Hawaiian Gazette", Nov 1, 1895, p 1]
* French Republic (1st: 1792-1804; 2nd: 1848-1852; 3rd: 1870-1940; 4th: 1945-1958 and 5th, since 1958)Fact|date=September 2007
* Gabon Fact|date=September 2007
* Gambia (since 1970)Fact|date=September 2007
* GeorgiaFact|date=September 2007
* Ghana (since 1960)Fact|date=September 2007
* Goust (since 1648)
* Greece (1st: 1822–1832; 2nd: 1924-1935; 3rd: since 1974)Fact|date=September 2007
* Guatemala Fact|date=September 2007
* Guinea Fact|date=September 2007
* Guinea-Bissau Fact|date=September 2007
* Guyana (since 1970) is a "Co-operative Republic" Fact|date=September 2007
* Haiti (1806-1849; restored 1859)Fact|date=September 2007
* Republic of Hawaii (1894-1898)
* Honduras Fact|date=September 2007
* Hungary (since 1946)Fact|date=September 2007
* Iceland (republic since 1944)Fact|date=September 2007
* Indonesia (Unitary republic since August 1950)Fact|date=September 2007
* Iran (since 1979)Fact|date=September 2007
* Iraq (since 1958)Fact|date=September 2007
* Ireland (republic since 1949)Fact|date=September 2007
* Israel (since 1948) [Shapiro, Allan E. "Taking Space Seriously, Law, Space and Society in Contemporary Israel" 2004. (accessed May 19, 2008).]
* Italian Social Republic (1943 - 1945)Fact|date=September 2007
* Italy (since 1946)Fact|date=September 2007
* Kazakhstan Fact|date=September 2007
* Kenya (since 1964)Fact|date=September 2007
* Kiribati Fact|date=September 2007
* Kyrgyzstan Fact|date=September 2007
* Laos (since 1975)Fact|date=September 2007
* Latvia Fact|date=September 2007
* Lebanon Fact|date=September 2007
* Liberia Fact|date=September 2007
* Libya (since 1969)Fact|date=September 2007
* Lithuania Fact|date=September 2007
* Lokot Republic (1941-1943)Fact|date=September 2007
* Republic of Macedonia (1991-)Fact|date=September 2007
* Madagascar Fact|date=September 2007
* Malawi (since 1966)Fact|date=September 2007
* Maldives (since 1968)Fact|date=September 2007
* Mali (since 1960)Fact|date=September 2007
* Malta (since 1974)Fact|date=September 2007
* Marshall Islands Fact|date=September 2007
* Mauritania Fact|date=September 2007
* Mauritius (since 1992)Fact|date=September 2007
* Menton and Roquebrune (1848-1861)
* Moldova Fact|date=September 2007
* Mongolia (since 1924)Fact|date=September 2007
* Montenegro (since 1944)Fact|date=September 2007
* Mozambique Fact|date=September 2007
* Muskogee (1799-1803)
* Namibia Fact|date=September 2007
* Nauru Fact|date=September 2007
* Nicaragua Fact|date=September 2007
* Niger Fact|date=September 2007
* North Korea (since 1948)Fact|date=September 2007
* Pakistan (since 1956)Fact|date=September 2007
* Palau Fact|date=September 2007
* Panama Fact|date=September 2007
* Paraguay Fact|date=September 2007
* Peru Fact|date=September 2007
* Philippines Fact|date=September 2007
* Poland Fact|date=September 2007
* Portugal (since 1910)Fact|date=September 2007
* Rhodesia (1970-1979)Fact|date=September 2007
* Romania (since 1947)Fact|date=September 2007
* Rwanda (since 1961)Fact|date=September 2007
* Samoa (since 2007)Fact|date=September 2007
* San Marino (since 301) qualifies itself as the "Most Serene Republic"Fact|date=September 2007
* São Tomé and Príncipe Fact|date=September 2007
* Senegal Fact|date=September 2007
* Serbia (since 1944)Fact|date=September 2007
* Seychelles Fact|date=September 2007
* Sierra Leone (since 1971)Fact|date=September 2007
* Singapore (since 1965)Fact|date=September 2007
* Slovak Republic (1939–1945)Fact|date=September 2007
* Slovakia Fact|date=September 2007
* Slovenia Fact|date=September 2007
* Somalia Fact|date=September 2007
* South Africa (since 1961)Fact|date=September 2007
* South Korea (since 1948)Fact|date=September 2007
* Spain (Twice: First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939))Fact|date=September 2007
* Sri Lanka (since 1972)Fact|date=September 2007
* Sudan Fact|date=September 2007
* Suriname Fact|date=September 2007
* Syria Fact|date=September 2007
* Republic of China (Taiwan) Fact|date=September 2007
* Tajikistan Fact|date=September 2007
* Tanzania Fact|date=September 2007
* Tavolara (1886-1899) ["Smallest State in the World," "New York Times", June 19, 1896, p 6] ["Tiny Nation to Vote: Smallest Republic in the World to Hold a Presidential Election," "Lowell Daily Sun", Sep 17, 1896] ["Nation of 55 People: Republic of Tavolara in Its Third Presidential Campaign" "Boston Globe", Jan 10, 1897, p 34]
* Texas (1836-1845) ["The Republic of Texas",'Handbook of Texas',http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/RR/mzr2.html]
* Togo Fact|date=September 2007
* Trinidad and Tobago (since 1976)Fact|date=September 2007
* Tunisia (since 1957)Fact|date=September 2007
* Turkey (republic since 1923)Fact|date=September 2007 (Is found in Article 1 of their Constitution)
* Turkmenistan Fact|date=September 2007
* Uganda (since 1963)Fact|date=September 2007
* Ukraine Fact|date=September 2007
* Uruguay is the "Eastern Republic". Fact|date=September 2007
* Uzbekistan Fact|date=September 2007
* Vanuatu Fact|date=September 2007
* Vermont Republic (1777 - 1791) [cite book |last=Van de Water |first=Frederic Franklyn |title=The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791 |year=1974 |publisher=The Countryman Press |isbn=0-914378-02-3 ]
* Vietnam Fact|date=September 2007
* West Florida (1810)
* Yemen Fact|date=September 2007
* Zambia Fact|date=September 2007
* Zimbabwe Fact|date=September 2007

Federal republics

Federal republics are federal states in which the administrative divisions (states or provinces) theoretically retain a degree of autonomy which is constitutionally protected, and cannot be revoked unilaterally by the national government.
* Argentina (since 1852)Fact|date=September 2007
* Austria Fact|date=September 2007
* Brazil (since November 15th, 1889) [___."The Formation of the Brazilian Republic in 1889." (accessed May 19, 2008).]
* Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 1995)Fact|date=September 2007
* Federal Republic of Cameroon (1961-1972)Fact|date=September 2007
* Commonwealth of England (1649-1653)Fact|date=September 2007
* Czechoslovakia (1969-1992)Fact|date=September 2007
* Ethiopia (unitary republic 1974-1994; federal republic since 1994)Fact|date=September 2007
* Germany (since 1918)Fact|date=September 2007
* Republic of Colombia (1819-1886), known as Great Colombia from 1819 to 1831, when it included present-day Ecuador, Venezuela, and Panama.Fact|date=September 2007
* India (since January 26, 1950)Fact|date=September 2007
* United States of Indonesia (1949-1950)Fact|date=September 2007
* Mexico [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html |title=Mexico |accessdate=2007-12-21 |year=2007 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=CIA] (since 1917)Fact|date=September 2007
* Nepal (since December 28, 2007) [cite web |url=http://www.gorkhapatra.org.np/content.php?nid=33139 |title=Nepal declared republican state - Gorkhapatra Sansthan - State Owned Newspaper]
* Nigeria (1963-66:1st Republic, 1979-83: 2nd Republic, 1993: 3rd Republic, 1999-present: 4th Republic)Fact|date=September 2007
* Pakistan (since March 23, 1956); Declaration of the "Islamic Republic"Fact|date=September 2007
* Russian Federation (1917, as RSFSR-present)Fact|date=September 2007
* Soviet Union (1922-1991))Fact|date=September 2007
* Swiss Confederation (since 1848)Fact|date=September 2007
* Union of Myanmar Fact|date=September 2007
* United Provinces of Central America (1823-1840)Fact|date=September 2007
* United States of America [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html |title=United States |accessdate=2007-12-21 |year=2007 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=CIA] (since 1789)
* Venezuela <
* Yugoslavia (1945-2003)Fact|date=September 2007

Confederal republics

Confederal republics are associations of sovereign states, usually having power over critical common issues such as defence and foreign affairs:
*Confederate States of America (1861 - 1865)Fact|date=September 2007
*Serbia and Montenegro (2003 – 2006)Fact|date=September 2007
*Switzerland (circa 1291 - 1848, except for the Helvetic Republic phase, 1798 - 1803)Fact|date=September 2007
*United States (under the Articles of Confederation, 1776 – 1789)Fact|date=September 2007
*United Pakistan "(Old Pakistan)" (Unofficial) (1962 - 1970)Fact|date=September 2007


=Arab Republics =

*Egypt Fact|date=September 2007
*Syria is the "Arab Republic" reflecting its theoretically pan-Arab Ba'athist government.Fact|date=September 2007
*Yemen Fact|date=September 2007

Islamic Republics

Republics governed in accordance with Islamic law:
* Afghanistan Fact|date=September 2007
* Islamic Republic of Pakistan (since 1970)Fact|date=September 2007
* Islamic Republic of Iran (since Iranian Revolution)Fact|date=September 2007
* Islamic Republic of Mauritania Fact|date=September 2007

Democratic Republics

These are republics that use the word "democratic" in their official name. Their actual political systems can vary considerably.
*People's Democratic Republic of Algeria Fact|date=September 2007
*Democratic Republic of Congo Fact|date=September 2007
*East Timor Fact|date=September 2007
*Ethiopia Fact|date=September 2007
*German Democratic Republic (1949-1990)Fact|date=September 2007
*Laos Fact|date=September 2007
*North Korea Fact|date=September 2007
*São Tomé and Príncipe Fact|date=September 2007
*Sri Lanka Fact|date=September 2007
*India Fact|date=September 2007

Socialist Republics

These are republics that use the word "socialist" in their official name.
*Albania (1976-1990)
*Libya Fact|date=September 2007
*Sri Lanka Fact|date=September 2007
*Vietnam Fact|date=September 2007
*Romania (1965-1989)Fact|date=September 2007
*India Fact|constitution of india
*Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945&ndash;1992)Fact|date=September 2007
*Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922&ndash;1991)Fact|date=September 2007

People's Republics

Meant to be governed by the people, this name is most often (but not always) used by communist states.
*People's Democratic Republic of Algeria [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html |title=Algeria |accessdate=2007-12-21 |year=2007 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=CIA]
*Bangladesh [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html |title=Bangladesh |accessdate=2007-12-21 |year=2007 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=CIA]
*People's Republic of China [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html |title=China |accessdate=2007-12-21 |year=2007 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=CIA]
*Laos [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/la.html |title=Laos |accessdate=2007-12-21 |year=2007 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=CIA]
*North Korea [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html |title=Korea, North |accessdate=2007-12-21 |year=2007 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=CIA]
*Libya Fact|date=September 2007

Former People's Republics:
*Hungary (1949&ndash;1989)Fact|date=September 2007
*Mongolia (1924&ndash;1992)Fact|date=September 2007
*Albania (1946&ndash;1976)Fact|date=September 2007
*Bulgaria (1946&ndash;1990)Fact|date=September 2007
*Romania (1947&ndash;1965)Fact|date=September 2007
*Poland (1952&ndash;1989)Fact|date=September 2007
*South Yemen (1967&ndash;1970)Fact|date=September 2007
*Benin (1975&ndash;1990)Fact|date=September 2007
*Congo (1970&ndash;1992)Fact|date=September 2007
*Mozambique (1975&ndash;1990)Fact|date=September 2007
*Angola (1975&ndash;1992)Fact|date=September 2007
*Ethiopia (1987&ndash;1991)Fact|date=September 2007

References


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