Global Standard Stratigraphic Age


Global Standard Stratigraphic Age

In the Stratigraphy sub-discipline of Geology, a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age, officially abbreviated GSSA, is a chronological reference point and criteria in the world's rock records used to define the boundaries (a internationally sanctioned benchmark point) between different geological periods, epochs or ages on the overall geologic time scale in a chronostratigraphically useful rock layer. A world wide multidisciplinary effort has been ongoing since 1974 to define such important metrics. But such work goes slowly despite a lot of effort, as one criteria is such points and strata need be widespread and contain a identifiable sequence of layers or other unambiguous marker (identifiable or quantifiable) attributes.

GSSAs, and the generally more recent and preferred benchmark GSSPs (below) are defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) under the auspices of their parent organization, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), and are used primarily for time dating rock layers older than 630 million years ago (MA|1), before a good fossil record exists. The ICS first expends large effort to meet the standards of the GSSPs (see below) and if those fail, usually have enough information to make a preliminary selection of several competing GSSA prospects or proposals.

The geologic record becomes spotty at about 542 MA, and the ICS may well have resort to defining additional supplementary GSSA's between the two dates. This issue is bound up in the fact that the Earth's crust in geological time scales is constantly being recycled by tectonic and weathering forces, and older rocks and especially readily accessible exposed strata (See the section about selecting the Ideal GSSP, in the next link) that can act as a time calibration

For more recent periods, a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), largely based on research progress in geobiology and improved methods of fossil dating is used to define such boundaries. In contrast to GSSAs, GSSPs are based on important events and transitions within a particular stratigraphic section. In older sections, there is insufficient fossil record or well preserved sections to identify the key events necessary for a GSSP so GSSAs are defined based on fixed dates and selected criteria.

ee also

*Body form
*European Mammal Neogene
*Geologic time scale
**New Zealand geologic time scale
*North American Land Mammal Age
*Fauna (animals)
*Type locality
*List of GSSPs
*List of GSSAs

Notes

References

*Cite journal
last = Gehling
first = James
last2 = Jensen
first2 = Sören
last3 = Droser
first3 = Mary
last4 = Myrow
first4 = Paul
last5 = Narbonne
first5 = Guy
title = Burrowing below the basal Cambrian GSSP, Fortune Head, Newfoundland
journal = Geological Magazine
volume = 138
issue = 2
pages = 213–218
date = March 2001
year = 2001
url = http://www.journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=74669
doi = 10.1017/S001675680100509X
id = 1

* Hedberg, H.D., (editor), "International stratigraphic guide: A guide to stratigraphic classification, terminology, and procedure", New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1976
* [http://www.stratigraphy.org/cheu.pdf International Stratigraphic Chart] from the International Commission on Stratigraphy
* [http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/gtime/gtime1.html USA National Park Service]
* [http://astro.wsu.edu/worthey/earth/html/md08.html Washington State University]
* [http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.html Web Geological Time Machine]
* [http://www.pballew.net/arithm16.html#aeon Eon or Aeon] , [http://www.pballew.net/etyindex.html Math Words - An alphabetical index]

External links

* [http://www.stratigraphy.org/over.htm The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)] : overview

* [http://www.stratigraphy.org/gssp.htm Chart of The Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP)] : chart

*plainlinks| http://www.rocksandminerals.com/geotime/geotime.htm Geotime chart displaying geologic time periods compared to the fossil record. - Deals with chronology and classifications for laymen (not GSSA/GSSPs)


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