- José Joaquín de Herrera
name=José Joaquín de Herrera
President of Mexico
12 September 1844
21 September 1844
Antonio López de Santa Anna
07 December 1844
30 December 1845
03 June 1848
15 January 1851
Manuel de la Peña y Peña
birth_date = birth date|1792|02|23|df=y
death_date = death date and age|1854|02|10|1792|02|23|df=y
death_place = Tacubaya,
spouse = Josefa Cortes
José Joaquín de Herrera (
Xalapa, Veracruz, February 23, 1792– February 10, 1854in Tacubaya, Distrito Federal) was a moderate Mexican politician and president of the Republic three times (1844, 1844-45 and 1848-51), as well as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican-American War.
Herrera was born in Jalapa, Veracruz, but grew up in
Perote, where his father was a postal administrator. He entered the royalist army in 1809, as a cadet in the Regiment of La Corona. By 1811 he was a captain. He fought the insurgents in Aculco, Guanajuato, Calderón, Acatlán, Velederoand other places. Later he was part of the Spanish expedition to retake Acapulcofrom the rebels, and he was given the military and civil command of the region.
He retired from the army in 1820 as a lieutenant colonel and moved back to
Perote. There he opened a shop. In retirement, he established contacts with some of the insurgent leaders, among them Guadalupe Victoria. Shortly after the Plan de Igualawas proclaimed, a contingent of infantry moving from Veracruz to Puebla declared in favor of Agustín de Iturbide. The officers offered command to Lieutenant Colonel Herrera. He accepted and added the garrison of the Fort of San Carlos. This force marched to Orizaba, then in command of the royalists under Lieutenant Colonel Antonio López de Santa Anna. These forces also joined the Plan de Iguala.
At the time of the entrance of the Ejército Trigarante into
Mexico Cityin 1821, Herrera was a brigadier general. However, he distanced himself from Iturbide when the latter declared himself emperor, and was arrested for conspiracy. He was freed and took part in the revolution that led to Iturbide's fall in 1823. In the new government he received the portfolio of war (1823-24). He improved the arms of the infantry and ordered a new model saddle for the cavalry. He again held the post of minister of war in 1833 (under Santa Anna).
He held many other military positions. He was consistently loyal to the legally constituted authorities and opposed to the absolutism and arbitrariness of Santa Anna's administrations. He was never an ally of Santa Anna.
First and second terms as president
..In 1844 he was president of the Council of State when General
Valentín Canalizowas named interim president to replace Santa Anna. Canalizo, however, was not in the capital (he was in San Luis Potosí), and Herrera was named as a substitute for the substitute, pending Canalizo's arrival in Mexico City. He served from September 12, 1844to September 21, 1844, but he was president in name only. He officiated at the Independence Day celebrations.
He turned over the office to Canalizo and retired, but on the fall of Santa Anna, he was elected by the Senate to be interim president. He held the presidency from
December 7, 1844to December 30, 1845. He named both federalists and centralists to important positions.
During this term, the
Republic of Texaswas annexed by the United States. The Mexican Senate broke relations with the United States on March 28, 1845and gave Herrera authority to raise troops and prepare for war. Herrera preferred peaceful negotiations. When he did not go to war, followers of Santa Anna rioted on July 7, 1845. Herrera and three members of his cabinet were seized by rebellious soldiers. Nevertheless, Herrera was able to impose his authority, and was freed. He won the subsequent elections, becoming constitutional president on September 15, 1845.
The United States, on the basis of the Republic of Texas's prior claims, now claimed parts of Mexico that were not in the Mexican entity of Texas, i.e. parts of
Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Chihuahuaand Nuevo Méxicoacross the Rio Grande. When the United States sent troops to this disputed territory, a detachment was captured by the Mexican army ( March 29, 1846). On May 13, 1846the U.S. Congress declared that a state of war existed with Mexico.
Herrera, with much difficulty, was able to assemble a force of 6,000 men. This was put under the command of General
Mariano Paredes y Arrillagaand sent to the north to fight the Americans. Paredes got as far as San Luis Potosí, but instead of marching north against the invaders, in December he turned back to the capital and overthrew President Herrera.
In the Mexican-American War Herrera replaced
Antonio López de Santa Annaas commander of the army, following the Battle of Huamantla( October 9, 1847). Three days after Huamantla, U.S. General Joseph Lanefought his way through Herrera's troops into Pueblaand raised the Mexican siege of the city.
Third term as president
May 30, 1848, after the end of the Mexican-American War, Herrera was again elected to the presidency, but he declined the office. A commission from Congress visited him, begging him to accept the presidency, arguing that civil war would result if he declined. He did accept, and since Mexico City was still in the hands of the United States, he established his government in Mixcoacon June 3, 1848. He served until January 15, 1851.
He faced many problems during this term. The country was in a miserable condition, with bandits controlling the highways. There was a
choleraepidemic and there were Indigenous uprisings in Misantlaand Yucatán(the Caste War). Mariano Paredes led an armed uprising against the peace treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1849 Leonardo Márquezrevolted in favor of Santa Anna, claiming that the latter's resignation was invalid because Congress had not been in session. Juan de Dios Cañedowas murdered, and the followers of Santa Anna blamed Herrera, claiming that Dios Cañedo had been in possession of secret documents showing that he had been sent to the United States in 1844 to negotiate a cash settlement for the loss of Texas. The Texas charge was not denied, and may have been true.
President Herrera gave a concession for construction of the Mexico City-Veracruz railway, the first in Mexico, and another for a telegraph line between Mexico City and Puebla.
Herrera turned over the office to General
Mariano Aristaon January 15, 1851and retired to private life. Evidence of his honorable character is provided by the following account: the day he resigned the presidency, he was forced to pawn a jewel to alleviate his economic situation. President Arista named him director of the Monte de Piedad (national pawnshop), a position which he held until 1853. He died on February 10, 1854in his modest house in Tacubaya. He was buried without pomp in the cemetery of San Fernando.
*"Diccionario Porrúa de Historia, Biografía y Geografía de México". Mexico City, Joaquín Porrúa, 1986. es icon
*Cotner, Thomas Ewing, "The Military and Political Career of Jose Joaquin de Herrera, 1792-1854". Austin: University of Texas Press, 1949, reprinted 1969.
*García Puron, Manuel, "México y sus gobernantes", v. 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984. es icon
*Orozco Linares, Fernando, "Gobernantes de México". Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5. es icon
* [http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/biographies/joaquin_de_herrera.html Brief biography]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
José Joaquín de Herrera — Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos … Wikipedia Español
José Joaquín de Herrera — Mandats Président du Mexique … Wikipédia en Français
José Joaquín de Herrera — (* 23. Februar 1792 in Xalapa, Mexiko; † 10. Februar 1854 in Tacubaya, Mexiko) war ein mexikanischer Militär und dreimaliger Präsident von Mexiko. Herrera wurde am 23. Februar 1 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Jose Joaquin de Herrera — Admin ASC 2 Code Orig. name José Joaquín de Herrera Country and Admin Code MX.12.079 MX … World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II
José Manuel de Herrera — Mandats 1er Premier ministre du Mexique Président du Conseil des Ministres 1822 – … Wikipédia en Français
José Manuel de Herrera — (Huamantla, Tlaxcala, circa 1765 México, posterior a 1830) fue un sacerdote católico, escritor, político y catedrático novohispano. Se unió a los insurgentes durante la guerra de la Independencia de México. Dirigió el periódico Correo Americano… … Wikipedia Español
José Joaquín de Olmedo y Maruri — José Joaquín de Olmedo José Joaquín de Olmedo (ecuadorianische Briefmarke) José Joaquín de Olmedo (* 20. März 1780 in Guayaquil … Deutsch Wikipedia
José Joaquín de Olmedo — (ecuadorianische Briefmarke) José Joaquín de Olmedo (* 20. März 1780 in Guayaquil; † 19. Februar 1847 ebenda) war ein ecuadorianischer Rechtsanwalt, Schriftsteller und Politiker. Olmedo war der Sohn eines Spaniers und eine gebürtigen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
José Joaquín Trejos Fernández — (né le 18 avril 1916 mort le 10 février 2010) est un homme politique qui fut le président du Costa Rica du 8 mai 1966 au 8 mai 1970. Source (es) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de… … Wikipédia en Français
Herrera, José Joaquín — ► (1792 1854) Militar y político mexicano. Fue presidente interino de la República en 1844 45 y 1848 … Enciclopedia Universal