Battle of Tory Island


Battle of Tory Island

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Tory Island
partof=the French Revolutionary Wars and the Irish Rebellion of 1798


caption=Coastline of Tory Island
date=12 October 1798
place=Atlantic Ocean, convert|20|nmi|km north of the Donegal coast near Tory Island.
result= Decisive British victory
combatant1=
combatant2=
commander1=Sir John Borlase Warren
commander2=Jean-Baptiste-François Bompart
strength1=3 ships of the line, 5 frigates
strength2=1 ship of the line, 9 frigates
casualties1=approx. 150 casualties
casualties2=7 ships lost during campaign, approx. 700 casualties
The Battle of Tory Island, (sometimes called the Battle of Donegal, Battle of Lough Swilly or Warren's Action) was a naval action of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought on 12 October 1798 between French and British squadrons off the northwest coast of Donegal in Ireland. The last action of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the Battle of Tory Island ended the final attempt by the French Navy to land substantial numbers of soldiers in Ireland during the war.

In May 1798 the Society of United Irishmen, led by Theobald Wolfe Tone, precipitated an uprising against British rule in Ireland. At the urging of the rebels a small French force under General Humbert was landed at Killala, but by early September both this expedition and the rebellion had been defeated. Unaware of the defeat, on 16 September the French despatched reinforcements. However, having missed one invasion force, the Royal Navy was on alert for another, and when the squadron carrying the reinforcements left Brest they were soon spotted. After a long chase, the French were brought to battle in a bay off Donegal close to Tory Island. During the action the outnumbered French attempted to escape, but were run down and defeated piecemeal, with the British capturing four ships and scattering the survivors. Over the next two weeks, British frigate patrols scoured the passage back to Brest, capturing three more ships. Of the ten ships in the original French squadron, only two frigates and a schooner reached safety. British losses in the campaign were minimal.

The battle marked the last attempt by the French Navy to launch an invasion of any part of the British Isles. It also ended the last hopes the United Irishmen had of receiving outside support in their struggle with the British. After the action, Tone was recognised aboard the captured French flagship and arrested. He was later tried for treason, convicted, and committed suicide hours before he was to be hanged.

Background

Britain's enemies in continental Europe had long recognised Ireland as a weak point in Britain's defences. Landing troops there was a popular strategic goal,Pakenham, p. 25] not only because an invader could expect the support of a large proportion of the native population, but also because at least initially they would face fewer and less reliable troops than elsewhere in the British Isles. Additionally, embroiling the British Army in a protracted Irish campaign would reduce its availability for other theatres of war.Cookson, p. 52]

The rhetoric of the French Revolution inspired many Irishmen to fight for similar principles of liberty, equality, and brotherhood in their own nation; liberty in this context largely meant independence from Great Britain.Pakenham, p. 27] With these goals in mind, in 1791 Dublin lawyer Theobald Wolfe Tone founded the Society of United Irishmen. Allying itself with the French Republic, the society was suppressed by British authorities and forced to go underground when war broke out between France and Great Britain in 1793.Brooks, p. 605] Tone and other members secretly travelled to France to convince the French National Convention to invade Ireland. Such an invasion, they argued, could rely on support from large numbers of Irish irregulars, and if successful would strike a severe blow to the British war effort—perhaps even severe enough to force Britain to seek peace.Pakenham, p. 29]

Invasion attempts

French political divisions made organising an operation against Ireland difficult. The process was further hampered by the French Atlantic Fleet's defeat in 1794 at the Glorious First of June and the disastrous Croisière du Grand Hiver operation in 1795. Having lost many of its best officers during the political purges of The Terror, these defeats bred a negative mentality in the French navy, discouraging adventurous strategic thinking.Regan, p. 88] Eventually, an invasion force was despatched in December 1796 under Admiral Morard de Galles, consisting of 17 ships of the line and 27 smaller vessels, and carrying as many as 25,000 men.James, p. 4] Despite elements of the force spending up to a week in Bantry Bay, not a single French soldier was successfully landed,Pakenham, p. 19] and the expedition was a total disaster, with 13 ships lost and over 2,000 men drowned.

The following year, Tone and his companions tried again, this time persuading the government of the Netherlands, then under French occupation, to prepare their own expedition.Ireland, p. 146] During 1797 the Dutch fleet was readied and provisioned, and in October sailed for Brest, intending to combine with the French fleet and launch a second invasion attempt. The Dutch fleet had only been at sea a few hours when they were confronted by the Royal Navy's North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan. Duncan immediately attacked, and in the ensuing Battle of Camperdown captured or destroyed ten ships and scattered the rest.Ireland, p. 147] The French fleet never left port.

Rebellion of 1798

Hoping to capitalise on the spontaneous uprising that spread across Ireland in May 1798, Commodore Daniel Savary led a third, and more successful, effort. He took a frigate squadron flying false British colours to Killala, and in August landed 1,150 French troops under General Humbert. A larger force would have been despatched, but the French had been caught unprepared—the Irish rebellion had originally been planned to coincide with a later French landing, but British intelligence operations had infiltrated the United Irishmen and arrested much of its leadership, prompting a precipitate revolt. Although the uprising achieved some early successes, by the time Humbert arrived its outcome had already been decided with the defeat of successive rebel armies by British troops. Humbert's force gained some minor victories over local militias, but was unable to face superior British numbers at the Battle of Ballinamuck, and surrendered on the 8 September.Smith, p. 141]

Bompart's mission

Unaware that Humbert had surrendered and the rebellion defeated, the French prepared a follow-up expedition under the command of Commodore Jean-Baptiste-François Bompart.Henderson, p. 76] Three thousand men aboard the ship of the line "Hoche", and eight frigates, departed Brest on 16 September. However, having missed Savary's frigate squadron, the Royal Navy were more watchful; roving frigate patrols cruised off the principle French ports and in the approaches to Ireland, while squadrons of battleships from the Channel Fleet sailed nearby, ready to move against any new invasion force. In command of the squadron on the Irish station was Sir John Borlase Warren, a highly experienced officer who had made a name for himself raiding the French coast early in the war. [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/28779?docPos=6 Warren, Sir John Borlase] , "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Malcolm Lester, (subscription required), Retrieved on 21 February 2008]

Bompart's squadron departed Brest late in the evening, hoping to slip past the inshore British blockade in the dark. However, they took too long to navigate the Raz passage, and were spotted at dawn on 17 September by a frigate squadron under Richard Goodwin Keats in HMS "Boadicea". Keats immediately divided his forces, ordering HMS "Ethalion" under Captain George Countess, and the brig HMS "Sylph", to follow the French force, while Keats brought news of the French movements to Lord Bridport, admiral of the Channel Fleet.Tracy, p. 288, "Captain George Countess, Commander of this Majesty's ship Ethalion, to Evan Nepean, Esq"]

Countess's pursuit

Aware of the British pursuit, Bompart nevertheless continued to the north. Countess followed closely, and was joined on 18 September by HMS "Amelia" under Captain The Hon. Charles Herbert. Initially north of the French, "Amelia" had spotted the chase the previous day and caught up during the night by passing silently through Bompart's squadron.James, p. 125] The next day, Bompart attempted to throw off his pursuers by feinting towards Lorient, and again the following day by feinting south towards the Antilles. However, the British captains remained on track, and by 20 September were only nine miles from Bompart's force, which was continuing south-west as though sailing for the Americas. HMS "Anson", a large razee frigate under Philip Charles Durham, had also joined the British force.Gardiner, p. 112]

Despite Bompart's attempts to disguise his destination, by the evening of 23 September Countess had correctly deduced the French were heading for Ireland, and despatched the brig "Sylph" to warn Warren and any other British ships she came across. Two days later, on 25 September, Bompart was forced to haul to the east and lose ground to his pursuers when a 100-ship British convoy passed to the north. This convoy consisted of many well-armed East Indiamen, protected by several frigates, and posed a serious threat to Bompart's overloaded ships. He then tried to drive off pursuit by feinting towards Countess's squadron, but the faster British ships simply withdrew to a safe distance, resuming their chase once the French had returned to their original course. On 29 September Bompart made a final bid to shake his pursuers; he attempted to engage the British frigates with three of his own—"Immortalité", "Loire" and another. This plan failed after his flagship "Hoche" lost a topmast in heavy weather and fell behind the rest of the squadron, forcing the frigates to return to her protection.

Unable to escape, Bompart finally abandoned his pretence of sailing for the Americas and instead turned north-west. During the next day high winds cost both "Hoche" and "Anson" a topmast, slowing both squadrons, but the repairs to "Hoche" were conducted faster and the French were able to pull ahead. For four more days pursuit continued directly north, until 4 October, when a storm descended and Bompart successfully outran Countess in the increasing darkness. In the high winds, "Amelia" was driven off course and away from her compatriots while "Anson" again suffered damage, this time losing two topmasts.James, p. 126]

On 11 October the weather cleared, and spotting two sails to the south, Countess took "Ethalion" to investigate. The ships were "Amelia" and a ship of the line of Warren's squadron, who having received "Sylph"'s warning, was sailing north in an attempt to intercept the French. [LondonGazette|issue=15078|supp=|startpage=1060|date=6 November 1798|accessmonthday=7 February|accessyear=2008] Warren's squadron of three ships of the line and the razee frigate HMS "Magnanime" had been joined the day before by two additional frigates; HMS "Melampus" under Captain Graham Moore and HMS "Doris" under Lord Ranelagh. Warren attached "Melampus" to his squadron and detached "Doris" to scout along the Irish coast, especially in the Donegal region where the previous French landing had been effected.

Warren's pursuit

Having finally eluded his pursuers, Bompart made directly for Lough Swilly where the landing was scheduled to take place. Unaware of the rebellion's defeat, he hoped that Humbert's army would be operating in the Lough Swilly area, as intended in the campaign planned before Humbert left France.James, p. 127] Arriving off the coast, Bompart searched for a suitable landing site but was unable to find one before dark on 10 October. He waited out the night close to Tory Island, but was surprised the next day by sails on the horizon; Warren's squadron had been joined by Countess's ships, and an overwhelming force was bearing down on the French. Abandoning all notions of landing the troops, Bompart hauled his ships close to the wind to give them room to manoeuvre and allow their captains as much opportunity as possible to escape the approaching British.Ireland, p. 153]

Throughout the day, Warren's squadron closed from the north-east while Bompart made frantic efforts to reach open water. Both fleets were hindered by a gale which swept the sea shortly before 20:00. All three of "Hoche"'s topmasts were blown down and her mizensail shredded, leaving her substantially slower than her compatriots and forcing them to hold back in her defence.Brooks, p. 625] Other ships suffered too, as the French "Résolue" sprang a severe leak and HMS "Anson" lost her mizzenmast and several topmasts.Gardiner, p. 113]

Battle of Tory Island

During the night, Bompart attempted to decoy the British by ordering the frigate "Résolue" to beach herself and fire flares in the hope of distracting Warren from his pursuit. For unknown reasons this order was never carried out, and in the morning Warren was still hard behind Bompart, whose ships were now sailing in two uneven lines.James, p. 128] Warren's force was even more dispersed, with HMS "Robust" and HMS "Magnanime" convert|4|nmi|km astern of the French and gaining fast, "Amelia" and "Melampus" shortly behind them and flagship HMS "Canada" with HMS "Foudroyant" convert|8|nmi|km from the enemy. The other British ships were scattered throughout this formation except "Anson", which was wallowing to the rear, far out of sight.Ref_label|A|I|none

Realising that he could not escape and would have to fight his way past the British, Bompart formed his squadron into a battleline and turned westwards, waiting for Warren's signal for the attack.Brooks, p. 626] Due to the dispersed nature of his squadron, Warren did not issue this signal until 07:00, when he ordered "Robust" to steer for the French line and attack "Hoche" directly.James, p. 129] Captain Edward Thornbrough of "Robust" obeyed immediately and closed with the French, firing into the frigates "Embuscade" and "Coquille" as he passed, before closing with "Hoche" and, at 08:50, beginning a bitter close-range artillery duel. Minutes later "Magnanime" joined the action, firing on the rear frigates and engaging the French van of "Immortalité", "Loire" and "Bellone", which had worn out of the line in an attempt to rake her. The next three British ships into action, "Ethalion", "Melampus" and "Amelia", all raked the isolated "Hoche" as they passed, before pressing on sail to pursue the French frigates, now making distance to the south-west.Tracy, p. 286, "The Biographical Memoir of Sir John Borlase Warren, Bart, K.B."] "Canada" and the subsequent British ships all ignored "Hoche" except to fire a few distant shots. By the time they passed, she was clearly a wreck, having been pounded repeatedly by "Robust" and "Magnanime". Bompart finally surrendered at 10:50 with 270 of his crew and passengers killed or wounded.

"Embuscade" was the next to surrender, having been battered in the opening exchanges and further damaged by long-range fire from "Foudroyant" during the pursuit. Overhauled by several larger British ships, rather than allow his ship to be destroyed Captain de la Ronciére surrendered at 11:30.James, p. 130] "Magnanime", suffering the effects of her engagement with "Hoche", took possession of "Embuscade" and continued to follow slowly behind the rest of the fleet, while "Robust", which had suffered severely in her duel with "Hoche", remained alongside her erstwhile opponent to take possession. The direction of the French squadron's flight, following the direction of the wind, took them across the path of the straggling British ships, beginning with the "Foudroyant". Most of the frigates were able outrun this ponderous enemy, but "Bellone" was less fortunate and a speculative shot from the battleship detonated a case of grenades in one of her topmasts. This began a disastrous fire which was eventually brought under control, but at a significant cost in speed. She was soon closely attacked by "Melampus" and suffered further damage. Nearby, the struggling "Coquille" surrendered after being outrun by the approaching "Canada"; Warren ordered the slowly following "Magnanime" to take possession.

"Ethalion" took over pursuit of "Bellone" from "Melampus", and for two hours maintained continuous fire with her bow-chasers on the French ship. "Ethalion" was faster than her quarry, and she slowly pulled parallel with "Bellone" during the afternoon, but could not get close enough for a decisive blow. It took another two hours of pursuit before the battered "Bellone" eventually surrendered.James, p. 131] "Hoche" apart, "Bellone" had suffered more casualties than any other ship present. To the south of this conflict, the struggling "Anson" discovered herself in danger when the surviving frigates of the French vanguard swept towards her en masse. Captain Durham was initially confused by their approach as he had been too distant to witness the action and the French ships flew false British ensigns, but he rapidly realised their true identity and at 16:00 opened fire on "Loire". The damaged "Anson" was severely hampered by her inability to manoeuvre, and so could do nothing when the French ships pulled back and sailed away, except to continue to fire until they were out of range. During the evening, the surviving French frigates gradually pulled away from their pursuers and disappeared into the gathering night, leaving behind four of their squadron, including their flagship, as captives.Gardiner, p. 114]

The chase

By nightfall some of the remaining French ships had entered Donegal Bay with "Canada", "Melampus" and "Foudroyant" still in pursuit. The two forces repeatedly passed one another in the dark, and "Canada" almost drove ashore. Back at the battlesite, Warren had ordered "Robust" to tow "Hoche" into Lough Swilly—an unusual order, as "Robust" was in a battered state herself and the storms of the previous week had not abated. When a gale struck the pair on 13 October, "Hoche" lost several masts and broke her tow, only being prevented from foundering by the combined efforts of the British prize crew and their French prisoners.James, p. 134] Eventually, on 15 October, the "Doris" appeared and took "Hoche" in tow, arriving in Lough Swilly without further incident a few days later. Meanwhile, "Ethalion" saw "Bellone" safely into port, and "Magnanime" and "Amelia" brought in "Coquille" and "Embuscade" respectively.

"Melampus" and "Résolue"

On the morning of 13 October, Warren sighted two of the French frigates standing out of Donegal Bay and went after them, directing Moore in "Melampus" to stay behind to search for stragglers. Hindered by contrary winds, "Melampus" scoured the bay until well after nightfall, and at 23:30 was surprised by the sudden appearance directly in front of her of "Immortalité" and "Résolue" near St. John's Point. "Immortalité" soon spotted "Melampus" and made sail, but Captain Bargeau of "Résolue" had not seen the British ship, and was hesitant about following his compatriot in the dark.James, p. 135] In the gloom and confusion, he mistook "Melampus" for "Immortalité" and came alongside, only realising his mistake when "Melampus" opened fire. Due to the heavy seas, "Résolue"'s guns had been tied down below decks, so the only return fire she could offer was from her handful of quarterdeck guns. Bargeau, recognising that further resistance was futile, surrendered in minutes, having lost ten men and much of his rigging. "Melampus" put aboard a prize crew and then departed in pursuit of "Immortalité".

Flight of "Loire"

"Loire" and "Sémillante" had escaped from the battle into Black Sod Bay, where they hoped to hide until they had a clear passage back to France. However, late on 15 October, a British frigate squadron under James Newman Newman rounded the southern headland of the bay, forcing the French ships to flee to the north.James, p. 137] Pressing on sail in pursuit, Newman ordered HMS "Révolutionaire" to focus on "Sémillante" whilst he pursued "Loire" in HMS "Mermaid", accompanied by the brig HMS "Kangaroo". "Loire" and "Sémillante" separated to divide their pursuers; "Mermaid" and "Kangaroo" lost track of "Loire" in the early evening, and "Sémillante" evaded "Révolutionaire" after dark.Gardiner, p. 115]

However, on the morning of 16 October Newman spotted "Loire" on the horizon and immediately ordered his ships in pursuit. "Loire" was faster than "Mermaid" in the high winds but was unable to outrun "Kangaroo", which directly engaged the far larger frigate in a distant artillery duel. The difference in weight of shot between the combatants was greatly unbalanced, and "Kangaroo" eventually fell behind after suffering damage to her rigging. "Loire" too had been damaged, and by 06:45 the following morning Captain Segond realised he could not escape his pursuers and instead shortened sail, intending to engage "Mermaid"—by then the only pursuer still within reach.

"Mermaid" and "Loire" joined battle at 07:00, and the artillery exchange became close and furious after a boarding attempt by "Loire" was foiled by the helmsman of the British ship. Both ships took severe damage, "Mermaid" knocking away several of her opponent's spars, but suffering in turn from the musketry of the soldiers still aboard the "Loire". At 09:15, the French vessel lost another spar, and Newman determined to rake his opponent. As he attempted to complete this manoeuvre, a shot from "Loire" brought down "Mermaid's" mizenmast, making her unmanageable.James, p. 138] Seeing an opportunity to escape, the battered "Loire" disengaged, making significant distance before Newman's crew could clear the wreckage of the mast. High winds further hampered "Mermaid's" repair efforts by tearing away several sails and spars and drowning the ship's carpenter when he was blown overboard. By the time "Mermaid" was ready for action once more, "Loire" had apparently got away.

Unfortunately for Captain Segond, when dawn broke on 18 October, HMS "Anson" was revealed only a short distance off, limping southwards after the damage its rigging and masts had suffered before the battle on 12 October.James, p. 140] Captain Durham was not prepared to lose a second opportunity to engage, and slowly brought his vessel to bear on "Loire", which was in worse shape than "Anson" and unable to escape.James, p. 141] Accompanying "Anson" was "Kangaroo", recovered from the damage of 16 October and ready for further action. At 10:30, "Anson" and "Loire" began firing on one another, neither able to effectively manoeuvre and both relying on firepower to overwhelm their opponent. "Kangaroo" closed on the unprotected stern of "Loire", firing as she did so and repeatedly raking the immobile French ship. By 12:00 "Loire" had lost her mainmast and was leaking badly, forcing Segond to surrender. His ship was towed to port as the sixth prize of the campaign.

"Fisgard" and "Immortalité"

The four remaining survivors of the French fleet had mostly avoided pursuit, and by 19 October were nearing Brest independently, hoping to slip through the tight British blockade around the harbour. Captain Mathieu-Charles Bergevin on "Romaine" had attempted to land the troops aboard his ship in Ireland on 13 October, but was forced to abandon this plan when the soldiers refused to be put ashore. He then sailed southwest and successfully avoided all contact with British forces, joining with the schooner "Biche" and arriving at Brest on 23 October. The same day, after outrunning "Révolutionaire's" pursuit, "Sémillante" arrived in Lorient—the last French ship to return home.James, p. 145]

"Immortalité" almost reached safety. On the morning of 20 October, Captain Jean-François Legrand was approaching Brest when he was spotted by Captain Thomas Byam Martin of HMS "Fisgard". "Fisgard", part of the inshore squadron of the Brest blockade, immediately offered battle. "Immortalité" initially attempted to flee but was forced to engage the faster "Fisgard" at 11:00.Henderson, p. 77] During the bitter, close–range action, "Fisgard" took severe damage and almost lost her opponent. "Immortalité", which had lost a mast and was in a sinking condition, surrendered at 15:00. Among the 115 casualties aboard "Immortalité" were Captain Legrande, his first lieutenant and General Monge (commander of the 250 soldiers on board), all dead. "Fisgard", with the aid of other ships of the blockade squadron, successfully brought her prize into port.

avary's squadron

The French high command had not been idle during the destruction of their invasion force, and had prepared and despatched a second squadron of four frigates under Commodore Daniel Savary. This force was initially ordered to support Bompart, but was later tasked with escorting the squadron's survivors back to France.Ireland, p. 154] On 27 October, Savary learnt of the destruction of both Bompart's squadron and the Irish rebellion from sympathetic locals at Killala, and turned immediately south, hoping to avoid a similar fate. However, on 28 October, he was spotted by a three-ship squadron under James Saumarez, which included two ships of the line.James, p. 146] Saumarez immediately gave chase, and the squadrons exchanged long-distance cannon fire throughout the day. Late in the evening Saumarez's flagship HMS "Caesar" lost its foretopmast in strong winds, and command passed to Sir Richard Bickerton in HMS "Terrible".

After another day's chase, late on 29 October Savary divided his squadron, sending two frigates to the south east and turning north west with two more. In response, Bickerton split his force, sending the frigate HMS "Melpomene" after the southern group and following Savary himself in "Terrible". By 30 October, both British ships were within convert|2|nmi|km of their opponents and were preparing for action, when at 17:00 a severe storm lashed the area. Savary's ships had been extending their pursuit by throwing guns, horses and equipment overboard in an effort to lighten their ships, and were consequently better suited to the high winds.James, p. 147] The heavier British ships were unable to match their opponents' speed, and dropped back. When the weather cleared, the French ships were out of sight, and all four eventually returned independently to Brest, ending the final French attempt to invade Ireland.

An abortive effort to support the French invasion fleet was also made by the Navy of the Batavian Republic (formerly the Republic of the United Netherlands), which despatched the small frigates "Furie" and "Waakzaamheid" to Ireland with military supplies on 24 October. Within hours of leaving port, both these ships were intercepted and captured by the British frigate HMS "Sirius".

Aftermath

Savary's return to port marked the end of the last attempt by a continental nation to land troops in Ireland. French losses in the operation were so severe that a repeat effort was never seriously contemplated. Similarly, the huge Irish losses during the rebellion, combined with British reprisals against the Irish populace, ended any hopes of reigniting the uprising in the near future. Most serious of all for the United Irishmen was the arrest of Wolfe Tone himself, who was discovered among the prisoners taken from "Hoche". Tone was charged with treason and sentenced to death, though he committed suicide before the sentence could be carried out. [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/27532/27533?docPos=1 Tone, (Theobald) Wolfe] , "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Marianne Elliott, (subscription required), Retrieved on 6 March 2008.]

In Britain the engagement was considered a great success, with the thanks of parliament bestowed on the entire force.James, p. 144] Numerous junior officers were promoted and all crew members received financial rewards from the sale of the captured vessels. Of these prizes, "Immortalité" and "Loire" were purchased and served in the Royal Navy under their own names for many years, while "Hoche" and "Embuscade" were renamed HMS "Donegal" and HMS "Ambuscade" respectively. "Coquille" was intended for purchase but suffered a catastrophic ammunition explosion in December 1798, which killed 13 people and totally destroyed the vessel. The last two prizes, "Résolue" and "Bellone", were deemed too old and damaged to be worthy of active service. They were, however, purchased by the Royal Navy to provide their captors with prize money, "Bellone" becoming HMS "Proserpine" and "Résolue" becoming HMS "Resolue". Both ships served as harbour vessels for some years until they were broken up.Manning & Walker, p. 356]

Notes

Footnote

I. Note_label|A|I|none The actual line and direction of the British approach has not been conclusively established due to the vagueness of Warren's post-battle report. Richard Brooks discusses these discrepancies and concludes that Warren's squadron, although widely dispersed, was probably approaching from approximately the north-west, from the North Atlantic towards Ireland. (Brooks, p. 626)

References

*cite book |last= Brooks |first= Richard |year= 2005 |title= Cassell's Battlefields of Britain & Ireland |publisher= Weidenfeld & Nicolson |location= London |isbn= 978-0304363339
*cite book |last= Cookson |first= J. E. |authorlink= |year= 1997 |title= The British Armed Nation, 1793-1815 |url= http://books.google.ie/books?id=xiV5Q7uupVUC |publisher= Clarendon |location= Oxford |isbn= 978-0198206583
*cite book |last= Gardiner |first = Robert, ed. |authorlink= |year= 1997 |title= Nelson Against Napoleon: Trom the Nile to Copenhagen, 1798-1801 |publisher= Chatham |location= London |isbn= 978-1557506429
*cite book |last= Henderson |first= James |authorlink= |year= 1994 |origyear= 1970 |title= The Frigates: An Account of the Lighter Warships of the Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1815 |publisher= Leo Cooper |location= London |isbn= 978-0850524321
*cite book |last= Ireland |first= Bernard |authorlink = |year = 2000 |title= Naval Warfare in the Age of Sail: War at Sea, 1756-1815 |publisher= Harper Collins |location= London |isbn= 978-0004145228
*cite book|last= James |first= William |authorlink= William James (naval historian) |year= 2002 |origyear= 1827 |title= The Naval History of Great Britain during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Vol. 2, 1797-1799 |publisher= Conway Maritime Press |location= London |isbn= 978-0851779065
*cite book|last= Manning |first= Thomas Davies |coauthors= Charles Frederick Walker |year = 1959 |title= British Warship Names |publisher= Putnam |location= London |oclc= 185426987
*cite book|last= Pakenham |first= Thomas |authorlink= Thomas Pakenham |year= 2000 |origyear= 1997 |title= The Year of Liberty: The Story of the Great Irish Rebellion of 1798 |publisher= Abacus |location= London |isbn= 978-0349112527 Rev. ed.
*cite book|last= Regan |first= Geoffrey |year= 2001 |title= Geoffrey Regan's Book of Naval Blunders |publisher= Andre Deutsch |location= London |isbn= 978-0233999784
*cite book |last= Smith |first= Digby |year= 1998 |title= The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book |publisher= Greenhill |location= London |isbn= 978-1853672767
*cite book|last= Tracy |first= Nicholas, ed. |authorlink= |year= 1998 |title= The Naval Chronicle: Contemporary Reports of the War at Sea. Vol. 1, 1793-1798, From the Occupation of Toulon to the Battle of the Nile |publisher= Chatham |location= London |isbn= 978-1861760913

External links

*LondonGazette|issue=15072|startpage=987|endpage=990|date=21 October 1798 Contemporary publication of Sir John Borlase Warren's despatch reporting the victory.


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