Vehicular cycling


Vehicular cycling

Vehicular cycling (also known as integrated cycling, integrated traffic cycling, cooperative cycling, and bicycle driving) is the practice of riding bicycles on roads in a manner that is visible, predictable, and in accordance with the principles for driving in traffic.

The phrase vehicular cycling was coined by John Forester in the 1970s to characterize the bicycle driver style utilized in his native U.K. in contrast to the deferential stay-out-of-the-way-of-cars style of cycling and practices that he found to be typical in the United States.

In his book Effective Cycling, Forester contends that "Cyclists fare best when they act and are treated as drivers of vehicles".[1] Forester's book is generally considered the primary modern reference work about vehicular cycling, along with Cyclecraft by John Franklin, which is part of Bikeability, the UK's national standard for cycle training, and Bicycling Streetsmarts by John S. Allen, a compact tutorial also published in custom formats including as bicycle driving manuals for some states.

Contents

Basic principles of traffic cycling

In Effective Cycling, Forester introduces what he calls "the five basic principles of cycling in traffic" (note that he writes in a country which drives on the right):

  • Drive on the right side of the roadway, never on the left and never on the sidewalk.
  • When you reach a more important or larger road than the one you are on, yield to crossing traffic. Here, yielding means looking to each side and waiting until no traffic is coming.
  • When you intend to change lanes or move laterally on the roadway, yield to traffic in the new lane or line of travel. Here, yielding means looking forward and backward until you see that no traffic is coming.
  • When approaching an intersection, position yourself with respect to your destination direction—on the right near the curb if you want to turn right, on the left near the center line if you want to turn left, and between those positions if you want to go straight.
  • Between intersections, position yourself according to your speed relative to other traffic; slower traffic is nearer the curb and faster traffic is nearer the centerline.[2]

About these principles Forester writes: "If you obey these five principles, you can cycle in many places you want to go with a low probability of creating traffic conflicts. You won't do everything in the best possible way, and you won't yet know how to get yourself out of troubles that other drivers may cause, but you will still do much better than the average American bicyclist.[2]

In a paper generally critical of many of Forester's views, Jeffrey Hiles writes this about these principles: "As you can see, these are not just principles for cyclists, they are the basis for the rules of the road that apply to all vehicles. This does not mean, though, that bicyclists should drive exactly like motorists. Both cars and bikes are subclasses of the broader category “vehicle” and, because they are different in speed and width, cars and bikes often use different parts of the roadway. In doing so, both modes are still adhering to the basic traffic principles."[3]

In Bicycle Transportation, Forester explains that vehicular cycling goes beyond following traffic laws and these principles: "There is much more to the vehicular-cycling principle than only obeying the traffic laws for drivers. The vehicular-style cyclist not only acts outwardly like a driver, he knows inwardly that he is one. Instead of feeling like a trespasser on roads owned by cars he feels like just another driver with a slightly different vehicle, one who is participating and cooperation in the organized mutual effort to get to desired destinations with the least trouble".[4]

Practices, techniques and skills

A vehicular cyclist is a cyclist who generally travels within the roadway in accordance with the basic vehicular rules of the road that are shared by all drivers, and the most effective cycling practices. Primarily, this means:

  • Travel on the same side of the road as other traffic traveling in the same direction.[2] An appreciable percentage of cyclists believe that cycling facing oncoming traffic is a better survival strategy as it enables them to see dangerous situations developing and to take evasive action.[5][6][7] Wrong-way cycling is illegal in most states and countries because cyclists are traditionally required to follow the same rules as motorists.[8] For cycling in particular, collisions at intersections (defined broadly as "not only the junction of two roadways, but also points where driveways, sidewalks, or paths meet a roadway, or where sidewalks or paths meet a driveway") while traveling in the wrong direction against traffic has been determined to be over three times more likely for wrong-way cyclists.[9] Wrong-way cycling increases closing speeds and wrong-way cyclists are easily overlooked by motorists at intersections.[9][10][11][12] Wrong-way cycling also makes bike-bike collisions more likely.[13][14] In contrast to the driver rules which apply to cyclists, the rules for pedestrians and joggers, who generally travel much slower than cyclists, and, unlike cyclists, can stop and evasively move laterally practically instantaneously, often require pedestrians to face oncoming traffic when traveling on roadways. Horse riders on the roadway, like cyclists, are also generally required to follow the rules for drivers of vehicles, not the rules for pedestrians, for the same reasons.
  • Respect traffic controls, such as yield (give way) signs, stop signs and traffic lights.[15]
  • Between intersections and other junctions, choose the appropriate lane or lateral position according to those rules of the road that are shared by all drivers.[2]
  • At intersection approaches, choose the appropriate lane or lateral position according to destination positioning.[2]
  • Ignore designated bicycle lane stripes when choosing where to travel on the street (this does not mean to avoid riding in bicycle lanes; it means deciding whether to ride in the space demarcated as a bike lane just as one would if the stripe were not there).[16]
  • Change lanes or lateral (left/right) position in response to, and in anticipation of, factors such as changing traffic conditions.[2]
  • Control the traffic lane unless overtaking traffic is being delayed and the marked traffic lane is wide enough to safely share.[17]
  • Always stay outside of the door zone; when passing motor vehicles that are parked parallel to the road, no closer than the largest estimated width of an open door, plus some margin for error.[18]
  • When making a turn toward the nearside of a road (left in the U.S.) when multiple traffic lanes are marked, merge into each lane one at a time while using negotiation with other drivers as required.[19]
  • Feel and act like a vehicle driver, albeit the driver of a narrow and relatively low-powered vehicle.[4]

Lane control

A cyclist is controlling a lane (also known as "taking control of the lane", "taking the lane" or "claiming the lane") when traveling near the center of a marked travel lane. Controlling the lane normally precludes passing within the same lane by drivers of wide motor vehicles, while being positioned near a lane edge usually encourages such passing—even when it is hazardous to bicyclists.

Vehicular cyclists commonly control lanes under the following circumstances:

  • when approaching a junction at which approaching or waiting traffic may turn or cross directly in front of the cyclist [20]
  • when there is more than one lane of traffic in the same direction
  • when there is only one lane of traffic in the relevant direction, but the cyclist is traveling at the normal speed of traffic at that time and place or the marked lane is too narrow to safely share with overtaking traffic
  • when the lane is too narrow for cyclists to share the lane safely side-by-side with a motor vehicle
  • when there is a gap in faster same direction traffic (to improve vantage and maneuvering space with respect to noticing and avoiding hazards up ahead, and to increase conspicuousness to traffic approaching from the rear as well as to traffic with potential crossing conflicts up ahead)
  • when the cyclist is the only traffic moving in that direction at that time and place, regardless of the cyclist's speed
  • when approaching a place where the lane narrows (such as a construction zone) so as not to be "squeezed out" when that happens
  • when merging across a roadway in preparation for a turn across the opposing lanes
  • when overtaking and passing another vehicle, bicyclist moving more slowly
  • when avoiding hazards
  • when approaching an intersection or junction at which the cyclist's destination is straight ahead
  • when approaching or traveling in a roundabout or traffic circle

John Franklin advocates operating bicycles in accordance with the basic rules of the road for vehicle operation. Using the terms "primary riding position" — meaning in the center of the traffic lane — and "secondary riding position" — meaning about 1 meter (3.2 feet) to the side of moving traffic, but not closer than .5 meters (1.6 feet) from the edge of the road — Franklin advocates the primary riding position as the normal position and the secondary riding position only when it is safe, reasonable and necessary to allow faster traffic to pass.[17]

Vehicular cycling, including controlling lanes when appropriate, is supported by traffic laws in most countries (California's Vehicle Code section 21202 is an example of this).

Lane sharing

All forms of lane sharing are aspects of vehicular cycling. Sharing lanes with normal width vehicles is rare because lanes are rarely wide enough. However, bicyclists can sometimes share lanes safely due to their narrow width. In lanes wide enough for a bicycle and a vehicle to travel safely side by side within the lane, and when faster same-direction traffic is present or approaching, vehicular cycling suggests riding about 1 metre (3.3 ft) to the outside of overtaking traffic and about the same distance from roadside hazards, as well as staying outside of the door zone.

As long as it is safe and not explicitly prohibited, lane sharing does not contradict the vehicular rules of the road. Due to the relatively narrow and slow nature of bicycles, the opportunities for lane sharing are generally more frequent for bicyclists than for other drivers. It is also possible for cyclists to filter forward past slow or stopped motor traffic. Where they exist, wide outside lanes may also be shared in order to facilitate being overtaken by faster traffic.

When riding in a lane sharing position, a cyclist must yield to overtaking traffic using the other part of the lane, or obtain right-of-way to move over through negotiation, before moving laterally into that space.

Speed and destination positioning

Vehicular cyclists use "speed positioning" between intersections. The basic principle is "slower traffic keeps to the outside; faster traffic to the inside". When lanes are marked, vehicular cyclists generally operate in the outermost travel lane. When lanes are not marked, vehicular cyclists generally operate as far to the outside of the traveled way as is reasonably efficient and safe.

As vehicular cyclists approach a junction of ways, the principle of "destination positioning" comes into play, and they should position themselves laterally according to their destination (left, straight or right):

  • Where lanes are marked, vehicular cyclists approaching a junction should choose the outermost lane that serves their destination.
  • When lanes are not marked, vehicular cyclists approaching a junction will travel along the inside of their side of the road if turning toward the inside, along the outer side if turning to the outside, and in between if going straight.

Vehicular cycling theory suggests establishing the center of the outermost marked lane as the cyclist's default or primary position, where the cyclist will be more visible and predictable to motor vehicle traffic. The secondary position is nearer to the outer edge of the lane, and is used when traffic is overtaking and likely to be delayed while waiting to pass outside the lane, and when the lane can be efficiently and safely shared with motor vehicles.

On multi-lane roadways, some vehicular cyclists ride on the inside of the outermost lane (on the side furthest from the road edge in the lane nearest the road edge), for enhanced visibility to motor vehicle traffic. In Salt Lake City, this left-of-center position is painted by the City in green along with shared lane markings on several downtown roadways[citation needed].

Looking back

Vehicular cycling advocates looking back over one's shoulder as a key skill, in order to

  1. check that moving laterally or turning will not violate the right-of-way of someone who is overtaking
  2. broadcast the cyclist's desire (to move laterally or turn) to other road users so that they can better predict the cyclist's path
  3. see if someone who's overtaking is about to make a mistake and violate their right-of-way

Particularly in slow traffic, a cyclist's look to the rear may serve as a signal, allowing the cyclist to keep both hands on the handlebar. However, a cyclist may also use a hand signal (arm extended to the side) to request that an overtaking driver make room. The cyclist then follows up with a second look to the rear to assure that the driver has made room.

Negotiation

The concept of negotiation is an important part of traversing across one or more lanes of traffic. The basic idea is to negotiate for the right-of-way in the adjacent lane, move into that lane, and then repeat the process for any additional lanes. This is an important vehicular cycling skill, because it allows the cyclist to merge in with the flow of other traffic instead of cutting across at a right-angle (as a pedestrian would).

The first step in traversing across a lane is looking back for traffic that may be overtaking in that lane. When there is overtaking traffic which will arrive too soon for the cyclist to merge out into the lane (i.e., there is an insufficient gap), the cyclist needs to either wait until traffic has passed and a sufficient gap becomes available, or request that someone in that traffic explicitly yield the right-of-way by slowing down to let the cyclist in. Simply looking back is often all that is required to signal the cyclist's intent, but sometimes a hand signal is helpful in getting a driver in overtaking traffic to yield right-of-way by slowing down to the cyclist's speed in order to allow the cyclist to move in front of the driver. Once right-of-way has been acquired in the adjacent lane, the second step is for the cyclist to move into that lane.

If there is another lane to traverse, the cyclist repeats the steps until there are no more lanes to traverse. The key to the process is that the cyclist merges into traffic lanes as per the rules of the road, one lane at a time, either when there is a natural gap to move into, or after someone slows down explicitly to allow the cyclist to move over.

The higher the relative speed of the overtaking vehicles, the more time and space a willing motorist needs to notice the cyclist's request and to safely slow down enough to allow the cyclist in. An assertive arm signal coupled with a timely look back is usually sufficient to accomplish this, even in very dense and fast traffic. When the relative speed is large and the gaps are too small for merging, the cyclist who is unwilling to use negotiation either has to wait for traffic conditions to improve or find another route.

Alternatives to vehicular cycling

Segregated cycling

Segregated cycle facilities exist in some areas as an alternative to vehicular cycling, allowing cycling without sharing roads with motorized traffic. Cities that provide such facilities report a high degree of usage, such as in several cities in the Netherlands. Research indicates that cyclists are willing to pay a higher price in longer travel time for designated facilities such as an on-street bike lane.[21][22]

Pedestrian cycling

Pedestrian cycling is cycling according to the pedestrian rules of the road. Pedestrian bicycling often means riding on sidewalks, pedestrian crossings, and other pedestrian facilities, which is illegal in many jurisdictions; however, in some places, such as the United Kingdom, shared-use footways may exist for the use of both pedestrians and cyclists.

This approach has the drawback that extra care must be taken when changing from one mode to the other, since the transition can leads to actions not expected by others, such as pedestrians who may not expect cyclists to be so close, and other vehicles at intersections.

Criticism

As a practice

In The Art of Urban Cycling, Robert Hurst contrasts his approach to traffic cycling from vehicular cycling. He writes that his approach is "to anticipate the mistakes of others", contrasting that to his view of vehicular cycling which he claims "leaves responsibility in the hands of motorists, and trusts that they will act properly".[23] However, much of vehicular cycling is about recognizing, anticipating and avoiding crashes due to motorist errors. Forester devotes nine pages of Effective Cycling to a section entitled "Avoiding Motorists' Intersection Errors" which clearly acknowledges that motorists make errors (and thus cannot be trusted to always act properly).[24] Further, in the introductory paragraph of the "Riding the Intersections" chapter, Forester refers to "errors other drivers are likely to make" as being something the cyclist has to be able to anticipate.[25] In the summary of that chapter, Forester allows for the possibility of driver error when he goes on to advise, "don't be diverted or stopped while you have the right-of-way unless the other driver is clearly doing the wrong thing".[26] Also, in the Effective Cycling Instructor's Manual, Forester refers to the importance of understanding how the traffic system works in order to recognize when motorists are making mistakes in order to avoid crashes with them.[27]

As opposition to segregated cycle facilities

Vehicular cycling advocates like John Forester and John S. Allen have written and spoken out about the drawbacks of segregated cycle facilities,[28][29] and these views have drawn criticism.

Urban planning professor John Pucher writes that "although Forester makes a number of theoretical arguments why bikeways are unsafe, his empirical test of the superiority of vehicular cycling is based on a sample of one—a single bike ride he took on a new bike path in Palo Alto, California."[30] However, Forester has never argued that it is impossible to ride on bikeways safely; he has even noted that it is possible to ride safely on what he considers to be the most dangerous type of bikeway, the sidepath.[31] The test to which Pucher refers is one in which Forester rode his bicycle on a sidepath "system using the same speeds and right-of-way that [Forester] had enjoyed on the roadway", a test he had to terminate "because of its excessive dangers". Forester also objects to rejection of his test results as being non-scientific due to the test not having been repeated by anyone else, since it should be easy for any skeptic to repeat the test.[32]

Pucher's various transnational studies of bicycle transportation lead him to conclude: "the overwhelming evidence is that cycling is much safer and more popular precisely in those countries where bikeways, bike lanes, special intersection modifications, and priority traffic signals are the key to their bicycling policies. ... "[30] In his reviews of Pucher's work, Forester objects to Pucher's conclusions, primarily on the grounds that Pucher is conflating correlation with causation. That is, Pucher ascribes the increase in use of bikes and bike safety observed to the bikeways, without showing that the bikeways are the actual cause of the increased use or safety.[33]

The authors of a 2009 meta-study on cycle infrastructure safety research at the University of British Columbia similarly conclude that "in comparison to cycling on bicycle-specific infrastructure (paths, lanes, routes), on-road cycling appears to be less safe."[34] In direct contrast to the claims of vehicular cycling proponents[examples needed], Jennifer Dill and Theresa Carr's research on bicycle transportation in 35 U.S. cities also suggests that "higher levels of bicycle infrastructure are positively and significantly correlated with higher rates of bicycle commuting."[35]

A recent study comparing streets in Copenhagen that had had cycle tracks and bicycle lanes added to them found that cycling volume increased 20% on the cycle track streets but bicycle accidents increased 10% more than would be expected from the changed bicycle and automobile traffic volumes, making the cycle tracks less safe for bicyclists than the unmodified roads. Streets with bicycle lanes added saw a 5% increase in bicycle traffic but a 49% increase in bicycle accidents. However, the study noted that "the gains in health from increased physical activity [from increased numbers cycling are] much, much greater than the losses in health resulting from a slight decline in road safety." It is not known, from the study, how much of the increase in cycling on the modified streets was just a displacement of existing bicycle traffic from nearby streets to the modified streets, or a true increase, if any, of bicycling.[36] [37]

As a movement

The movement surrounding vehicular cycling has also drawn criticism for its effect on bicycle advocacy in general.

In Pedaling Revolution, Jeff Mapes states that Forester "fought bike lanes, European-style cycletracks, and just about any form of traffic calming", and "saw nothing wrong with sprawl and an auto-dependent lifestyle."[38] Zack Furness is highly critical of vehicular cyclists in One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility, arguing that their criticism of 'political' cyclists "totally ignores all the relevant socioeconomic, physical, material, and cultural factors that influence—and in most cases dictate—everyday transportation choices."[39] Critical Mass co-founder Chris Carlsson describes vehicular cycling as a naive, polarizing "ideology" that "essentially advocates bicyclists should strive to behave like cars on the streets of America."[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ Forester, John (1977). "Effective Cycling Instructor's Manual" (PDF). John Forester. http://www.johnforester.com/BTEO/ECIM6.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Forester, John (1993). Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. p. 246. ISBN 0262061597. ""Don't wander around, and don't be diverted or stopped while you have the right-of-way unless the other driver is clearly doing the wrong thing"." 
  3. ^ Hiles, Jeffrey (September 1996). "Chapter 4 Bicyclist Behavior 1 The Ideal: Vehicular Cycling". Listening to Bike Lanes. Jeffrey Hiles. http://www.wright.edu/~jeffrey.hiles/essays/listening/ch4.html. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Forester, John (1994). Bicycle Transportation (2 ed.). MIT Press. p. 3. ISBN 026206085X. 
  5. ^ Keri Caffrey (April 18, 2010). "Why do they do this?". Commute Orlando. http://commuteorlando.com/wordpress/2010/04/18/why-do-they-do-this/. Retrieved March 11, 2011. 
  6. ^ http://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/archive/index.php/t-120917.html
  7. ^ http://www.timeslive.co.za/iLIVE/article868020.ece/Cyclists-must-face-reality-to-survive
  8. ^ http://www.ecohustler.co.uk/2011/05/11/why-bikes-shouldn%E2%80%99t-have-to-follow-the-rules-of-the-road/
  9. ^ a b Wachtel, Alan; Lewiston, Diana. ["http://sustainablestreetsla.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Wachtel-Lewiston-Risk-Factors-for-Bicycle-Motor-Vehicle-Collisions-at-Intersections.pdf" Risk Factors for Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions at Intersections]. Institute of Transportation Engineers. p. 5. doi:September+1994. "http://sustainablestreetsla.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Wachtel-Lewiston-Risk-Factors-for-Bicycle-Motor-Vehicle-Collisions-at-Intersections.pdf". ""all categories of bicyclists traveling against the direction of traffic flow are at greatly increased risk for accidents - on average 3.6 times the risk of those traveling with traffic. This result is readily explained: because motorists normally scan for traffic traveling in the lawful direction, wrong-way traffic is easily overlooked. To give only a single example, a motorist turning right at an intersection scans to the left for approaching traffic on the new road, and cannot see or anticipate a fast-moving wrong-way bicyclist approaching from the right."" 
  10. ^ Association, International Police Mountain Bike (2007-08-19). " The Complete Guide to Public Safety Cycling. "International Police Mountain Bike Assocation". p. 77. ISBN 9780763744335. http://books.google.com/?id=OWeDspfAdKcC&pg=PA77&dq=cycling+the+wrong+way#v=onepage&q=cycling%20the%20wrong%20way&f=false". ""Riding against traffic is not only illegal; it is extremely dangerous. ... Wrong-way cyclists are about three times more likely to be involved in a crash and are involved in nearly one third of all bicycle-motor vehicles crashes."" 
  11. ^ Armijo, Vic (1999-07-01). The complete idiot's guide to cycling. ISBN 9780028629292. http://books.google.com/?id=w4cYE5flGIMC&pg=PT261&dq=cycling+the+wrong+way#v=onepage&q&f=false. ""Although some riders may feel safer being able to see approaching motorists by riding against traffic, in reality this is one of the most dangerous things a cyclist can do."" 
  12. ^ http://www.kenkifer.com/bikepages/traffic/wrong.htm
  13. ^ Association, International Police Mountain Bike (2007-08-19). The Complete Guide to Public Safety Cycling. "International Police Mountain Bike Assocation". p. 77. ISBN 9780763744335. http://books.google.com/?id=OWeDspfAdKcC&pg=PA77&dq=cycling+the+wrong+way#v=onepage&q=cycling%20the%20wrong%20way&f=false. ""Wrong-way cyclists also pose a threat to cyclists who are riding legally."" 
  14. ^ Forester, John (1993). " Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. pp. 272–273. ISBN 0262061597. http://books.google.com/?id=0n2t7P1v2M8C&pg=PA273&dq=cycling+the+wrong+way#v=onepage&q=cycling%20the%20wrong%20way&f=false". ""When an incompetent cyclist hits a car, the cyclist rarely does more than hurt the motorist's feelings. But if an incompetent rider hits a cyclist, that cyclist may be seriously injured or killed."" 
  15. ^ Forester, John (1993). Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. p. 285. ISBN 0262061597. ""Cyclists should obey the normal vehicular rules of the road, ..."." 
  16. ^ Forester, John (1993). Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 0262061597. ""All the evidence available -- which admittedly isn't much -- says that bike-lane cycling is more dangerous than roadway cycling, and the available evidence is certainly conclusive that the number of accidents that bike lanes could prevent is much less than the number they create. ... Therefore, on bike-laned streets the motor traffic sweeps all the trash that accumulates upon the roadway into the bike lane, but does not sweep it further toward the curb. ... The public demand for bike lanes is one more example of the effect of not understanding what the real hazards of cycling are, and of the expectation that because cyclists are too immature to obey the normal rules of the road they don't deserve to have the normal rights of drivers of vehicles. So the Effective Cycling training regarding bike lanes is to pretend that the bike-lane stripe does not exist. Cyclists should obey the normal vehicular rules of the road, but with the extra watchfulness required to avoid the road trash, and to avoid the motorists who swing sharply right across the lane and who come out into it from side streets"." 
  17. ^ a b Franklin, John (1997). Cyclecraft. TSO. pp. 58–59. ISBN 0117020516. "Here you will be well within the zone of maximum surveillance of both following drivers and those who might cross your path, and you will have the best two-way visibility of side roads and other features along the road." 
  18. ^ Forester, John (1993). Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. p. 297. ISBN 0262061597. ""If someone opens a door in front of you, you have only one choic: dodge out into the traffic lane. It is much safer to ride in the traffic lane consistently..."" 
  19. ^ Forester, John (1993). Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. p. 309. ISBN 0262061597. ""As a competent cyclist, you persuade motorists by negotiation; you ask, and you watch for the answer, be it yes or no. Generally it is yes, because motorists often find themselves in exactly your position, wanting to change lanes through crowded traffic. They agree because they know that if nobody allowed anyone else to change lanes, traffic would stop and nobody would get home."" 
  20. ^ "when approaching an intersection where a dashed dividing line appears, riders should move to the left so that motorists can move in behind and make right turns unobstructed" Tanner, Michael (June 4, 2009). "Safe streets:Workshops help cyclists trim risk". San Francisco Chronicle: pp. F–32. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/06/04/NSJ517S534.DTL. Retrieved June 9, 2009. 
  21. ^ NCHRP Report 552 "Guidelines for Analysis of Investments in Bicycle Facilities, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington D.C., 2006, pages D-1 to D-9
  22. ^ "Influences on Bicycle Use, by J.D. Hunt and JE Abraham, Transportation, Vol 34 (2007), issue 4 (July), pages 453-470)
  23. ^ Hurst, Robert (2004). The Art of Urban Cycling (1 ed.). pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-7627-2783-7. http://books.google.com/?id=s2K1bT5rmMMC&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=%22Where+the+vehicular-cycling+principle+leaves+responsibility+in+the+hands+of+motorists%22,+and+trusts+that+they+will+act+properly,+we+will+not+seek+to+dole+out+blame+to+anyone+but+ourselves.#v=onepage&q=%22Where%20the%20vehicular-cycling%20principle%20leaves%20responsibility%20in%20the%20hands%20of%20motorists%22&f=false. "We will recognize the basic human mistake as the salient feature of urban traffic, we will seek to anticipate the mistakes of others. Where the vehicular-cycling principle leaves responsibility in the hands of motorists, and trusts that they will act properly, we will not seek to dole out blame to anyone but ourselves." 
  24. ^ Forester, John. Effective Cycling (6 ed.). pp. 320–328. ISBN 0262061597. 
  25. ^ Forester, John (1993). Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. p. 313. ISBN 0262061597. "You have to know how to make your maneuvers through traffic, to anticipate what errors other drivers are likely to make, and to see and avoid them." 
  26. ^ Forester, John (1993). Effective Cycling (6 ed.). MIT Press. p. 331. ISBN 0262061597. ""Don't wander around, and don't be diverted or stopped while you have the right-of-way unless the other driver is clearly doing the wrong thing"." 
  27. ^ [|Forester, John] (2008). "EFFECTIVE CYCLING INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL". John Forester. p. 13. http://johnforester.com/BTEO/ECIM6.pdf. Retrieved 10 August 2010. "Since the cyclist so trained does not know how the traffic system is supposed to work, he has little ability to recognize when someone is making a mistake." .
  28. ^ Forester, John (2001). "The Bicycle Transportation Controversy". Transportation Quarterly (Eno Transportation Foundation) 55 (2). http://johnforester.com/Articles/Facilities/TransQuart01.htm. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  29. ^ John S. Allen (24 June 2006). "Technical issues with sidewalks and sidepaths". John S. Allen. http://www.bikexprt.com/bikepol/facil/sidepath/issues.htm. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  30. ^ a b Pucher, John (2001). "Cycling Safety on Bikeways vs Roads". Transportation Quarterly 55 (4). http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/CyclingSafetyOnBikewaysVsRoads_TQ2000.pdf. 
  31. ^ [|Forester, John]. "Review of the Cycling Aspects of: Making Walking & Cycling Safer: Lessons from Europe". http://www.johnforester.com/Articles/Facilities/Pucher%20Revs.htm. Retrieved 10 August 2010. "It is possible to use sidepaths safely, and in Europe they may do so. However, the cost of doing so is for the cyclist to ride very slowly and to incur delays at intersections by giving up the right of way to motorists." 
  32. ^ Forester, John (2001). "The Bicycle Transportation Controversy". Transportation Quarterly (Eno Transportation Foundation) 55 (2). http://johnforester.com/Articles/Facilities/TransQuart01.htm. Retrieved 10 August 2010. "I was hounded by bikeway advocates saying that this system had been instituted for the safety of cyclists and that my ill opinion of it was unfounded. Therefore, I decided to ride that system using the same speeds and right-of-way that I had enjoyed on the roadway. After all, if the system was safer, then it would be safer at the same speeds as before. Seven times in five miles I faced incipient car-bike collisions that I was able to avoid only by the combination of expert understanding of traffic with expert bicycle handling skill. Few other cyclists would have avoided any one of these. The cyclist who had observed part of the test was white-faced and incapable of speech when she met me at the end. I tried once more, and in my atttempt to make a left turn the only course I could take that would not certainly involve me in a car-bike collision was to ride head-on in the reverse direction into an oncoming two-lane platoon of cars, riding the lane line and hoping that no motorists was in the process of changing lanes. I terminated the test because of its excessive dangers. ... One test, properly done, is valid scientific evidence, but repeated tests are better. In this case, there has been only one test. You cannot arbitrarily throw out the data from the only test that exists because you don't like the results. The logical people to repeat this test are not people like me who won't repeat it because we won't risk our lives in what we believe to be an extremely dangerous test, but those who believe that urban sidepaths make cycling safe for beginners. They are the ones objecting to the results of the test, and none of them has tried repeating that test." 
  33. ^ [|Forester, John]. "Review of the Cycling Aspects of: Making Walking & Cycling Safer: Lessons from Europe". http://www.johnforester.com/Articles/Facilities/Pucher%20Revs.htm. Retrieved 10 August 2010. "Pucher states three facts. Dutch urban cycling is based on bikeways. Dutch cycling has a low death rate. The Dutch use more cycling transportation than do Americans. He claims that the first two conditions have caused the third, without advancing any reason to suppose that this is true. ... It is a truism that mere correlation does not demonstrate causation. Without other reasoning, there is no reason to believe that the high volume of Dutch urban cycling is caused by either the low death rate or the bikeway system. Pucher then claims that creating the first two conditions in America will produce the third. Since no causation has been demonstrated for the Dutch case, the claim is empty." 
  34. ^ Reynolds, Conor CO; M Anne Harris, Kay Teschke, Peter A Cripton, Meghan Winters (October 2009). "The Impact of Transportation Infrastructure on Bicycling Injuries and Crashes: A Review of the Literature". Environmental Health 8 (47): 47. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-47. PMC 2776010. PMID 19845962. http://www.ehjournal.net/content/8/1/47. Retrieved 2010-07-02. 
  35. ^ Dill, Jennifer; Theresa Carr (2003). "Bicycle Commuting and Facilities in Major U.S. Cities: If You Build Them, Commuters Will Use Them – Another Look". Transportation Research Record (1828): 116–123. http://nexus.umn.edu/Courses/pa8202/Dill.pdf. 
  36. ^ Søren Underlien Jensen; Klaus Rosenkilde, Niels Jensen. "Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen". Trafitek. http://www.trafitec.dk/pub/Road%20safety%20and%20percieved%20risk%20of%20cycle%20tracks%20and%20lanes%20in%20Copenhagen.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  37. ^ Søren Underlien Jensen. "Bicycle Tracks and Lanes: A Before-After Study". Trafitek. http://www.trafitec.dk/pub/bicycle%20tracks%20and%20lanes.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  38. ^ Mapes, Jeff (2009). Pedaling Revolution: How Cyclists are Changing American Cities. Oregon State University. ISBN 978-0870714191. http://www.powells.com/biblio?isbn=0870714198&PID=33501. 
  39. ^ Furness, Zack (2010). One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility. Temple University Press. pp. 72;73. ISBN 978-1592136131. http://www.temple.edu/tempress/titles/1899_reg.html. 
  40. ^ Carlsson, Chris (2007). ""Outlaw" Bicycling"]. Affinities: A Journal of Radical Theory, Culture and Action 1 (1): 87. http://journals.sfu.ca/affinities/index.php/affinities/article/view/9/37. 

Further reading

  • Effective Cycling by John Forester (First edition, 1976; Sixth edition, The MIT Press, 1993) ISBN 0-262-56070-4
  • Cyclecraft by John Franklin (First edition, Unwin Books, 1988; Fourth edition, The Stationery Office, 2007) ISBN 978-0-11-703740-3
  • Cyclecraft by John Franklin (First North American edition, The Stationery Office, 2009) ISBN 978-0-11-706476-8
  • Bicycling Street Smarts by John S. Allen (Second edition, Rubel Publications, 2002) ISBN 1-881559-75-0

External links


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